Terni is a city in southern Umbria
Umbria is a region of modern central Italy. It is one of the smallest Italian regions and the only peninsular region that is landlocked.Its capital is Perugia.Assisi and Norcia are historical towns associated with St. Francis of Assisi, and St...

, central Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, capital of the province of Terni
Province of Terni
The Province of Terni is the smaller of the two provinces in the Umbria region of Italy, comprising one-third of both the area and population of the region. Its capital is the city of Terni...

, located in the plain of the Nera river
Nera River (Italy)
The Nera is a 116 km long river which flows almost entirely in Umbria, Italy. A tributary to the Tiber, its sources are in the Monti Sibillini, east of Foligno. It flows southward past Terni and Narni. It joins the Tiber near Orte.-See also:...

. It is 104 km (65 mi) N of Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

, 36 km (23 mi) NW of Rieti
Rieti is a city and comune in Lazio, central Italy, with a population of c. 47,700. It is the capital of province of Rieti.The town centre rests on a small hilltop, commanding a wide plain at the southern edge of an ancient lake. The area is now the fertile basin of the Velino River...

, and 29 km (18 mi) S of Spoleto
Spoleto is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines. It is S. of Trevi, N. of Terni, SE of Perugia; SE of Florence; and N of Rome.-History:...



The city was founded around the 7th century BC by the Umbrians, in a territory inhabited (as testified by archaeological excavations of several necropolises) as early as the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

. In the 3rd century BC it was conquered by the Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 and soon become an important municipium lying on the Via Flaminia
Via Flaminia
The Via Flaminia was an ancient Roman road leading from Rome over the Apennine Mountains to Ariminum on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and due to the ruggedness of the mountains was the major option the Romans had for travel between Etruria, Latium and Campania and the Po Valley...

. The Roman name was Interamna, meaning "in between two rivers". During the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 the city was enriched with several buildings, including aqueduct
An aqueduct is a water supply or navigable channel constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose....

s, wall
A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. Most commonly, a wall delineates a building and supports its superstructure, separates space in buildings into rooms, or protects or delineates a space in the open air...

s, amphitheaters, temple
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, or analogous rites. A templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur. It has the same root as the word "template," a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out...

s and bridge
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle...


After the Lombard
The Lombards , also referred to as Longobards, were a Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin, who from 568 to 774 ruled a Kingdom in Italy...

 conquest (755) Terni lost any role of prominence, reducing to a secondary town in the Duchy of Spoleto
Duchy of Spoleto
The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in central Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald.- Lombards :The Lombards, a Germanic people, had invaded Italy in 568 and conquered much of it, establishing a Kingdom divided between several dukes dependent on the King, who had...

. In 1174 it was sacked by Frederick Barbarossa's general, Archbishop Christian of Mainz. In the following century Terni was one of the favourite seat of St. Francis
Francis of Assisi
Saint Francis of Assisi was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Franciscan Order, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the lay Third Order of Saint Francis. St...

' prayings.

In the 14th century Terni issued a constitution of its own and from 1353 the walls were enlarged, and new channels were opened. As well as much of the Italian communes of the Late Middle Ages, it was slain by inner disputes between Guelphs and Ghibellines
Guelphs and Ghibellines
The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the split between these two parties was a particularly important aspect of the internal policy of the Italian city-states...

, and later between the two parties of Nobili and Banderari. Later it become part of the Papal States
Papal States
The Papal State, State of the Church, or Pontifical States were among the major historical states of Italy from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia .The Papal States comprised territories under...

. In 1580 an ironwork
Ironwork is any weapon, artwork, utensil or architectural feature made of iron especially used for decoration. There are two main types of ironwork wrought iron and cast iron. While the use of iron dates as far back as 4000BC, it was the Hittites who first knew how to extract it and develop weapons...

, the Ferriera, was introduced to work the iron ore mined in Monteleone di Spoleto
Monteleone di Spoleto
Monteleone di Spoleto , is a town and comune of Italy, in the province of Perugia in southeast Umbria at 978 meters above sea-level overhanging the upper valley of the Corno River...

, starting the traditional industrial connotation of the city. In the 17th century, however, Terni declined further due to plagues and famines.

In the 19th century Terni took advantage of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

 and of plentiful water sources in the area. New industries included a steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

work, a foundry, as well as weapons, jute
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, which has been classified in the family Tiliaceae, or more recently in Malvaceae....

 and wool factories
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial building where laborers manufacture goods or supervise machines processing one product into another. Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production...

. In 1927 Terni became capital of the province. The presence of important industries made it a favourite target for the Allied bombardments in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, totalling 108 raids. Despite this, industrial environment increased quicky, in fact the city is called "the italian Manchester".


The city has three important industrial hubs: the first one is the Stainless
Stainless may refer to:* Stainless steel, a corrosion-resistant metal alloy* Stainless Games, a British video game developer* Stainless Broadcasting Company, a TV broadcaster based in Michigan, US...

 called AST (part of the group ThyssenKrupp
ThyssenKrupp AG is a German multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Duisburg Essen, Germany. The corporation consists of 670 companies worldwide. While ThyssenKrupp is one of the world's largest steel producers, the company also provides components and systems for the automotive...

) is a wide area located in the west part of Terni. In the Eastern is a second industrial hub, known as "area Polymer", with four different chemical multinational industries. The third industrial hub is the "TERNI Research", which produces technologies employed for green energies and constructs green power plants in Italy.


Terni is connected with the A1 motorway
Autostrada A1 (Italy)
The Autostrada A1, or Autostrada del Sole , is an Italian motorway which connects Milan with Naples via Bologna, Florence and Rome. At 754 km, it is the longest Italian autostrada and is considered the “spinal cord” of the country’s road network...

, National Road Tiberina and National Road Flaminia
Via Flaminia
The Via Flaminia was an ancient Roman road leading from Rome over the Apennine Mountains to Ariminum on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, and due to the ruggedness of the mountains was the major option the Romans had for travel between Etruria, Latium and Campania and the Po Valley...

 by the RATO(a motorway junction).

Terni railway station
Terni railway station
Terni railway station serves the town and comune of Terni, in the region of Umbria, central Italy. Opened in 1866, it forms part of the Rome–Ancona railway, and is also a junction station for two secondary lines, the Terni–Sulmona railway and the Terni–Sansepolcro railway.The station is currently...

 forms part of the Rome–Ancona national rail line, and is also a junction station
Junction (rail)
A junction, in the context of rail transport, is a place at which two or more rail routes converge or diverge.This implies a physical connection between the tracks of the two routes , 'points' and signalling.one or two tracks each meet at a junction, a fairly simple layout of tracks suffices to...

 for two secondary lines, the Terni–Sulmona railway (which links Terni with L'Aquila
L'Aquila railway station
L'Aquila railway station serves the city and comune of L'Aquila, in the region of Abruzzo, southern Italy. Opened in 1875, it forms part of the Terni–Sulmona railway....

) and the Terni–Sansepolcro railway (FCU) (which includes Perugia
Perugia railway station
Perugia railway station, also known as Perugia Fontivegge railway station is the main station serving the city and comune of Perugia, in the region of Umbria, central Italy. Opened in 1866, it forms part of the Foligno–Terontola railway, which also links Florence with Rome.The station is...

). One of the most important national freight stations is located nearby.

The local urban and suburban transport service, ATC, runs 90 bus lines. In the north of the city (Colleluna zone), there are works in progress on the line from Perugia to enable it to be used as a Light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...


Main sights

  • The Roman amphitheater, once capable of 10,000 spectators, built in 32 BC.
  • The small Roman gate of Porta Sant'Angelo, one of the four ancient entrances to the city, much restored.
  • The Cathedral (Duomo) of S. Maria Assunta (17th century). Built over one of the most ancient Christian edifices of the city, it has today Baroque
    Baroque architecture
    Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

     lines. In the interior is one organ designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini
    Gian Lorenzo Bernini
    Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian artist who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age and also a prominent architect...

    . the belfry is from the 18th century. The façade has two mediaeval gates: one of them has the profile of a sabot once used to measure the citizen's shoes in order they do not exceed a fixed limit of decency.
  • Church of S. Francesco.
  • The Basilica of S. Valentino.
  • Palazzo Mazzancolli is one of the few remains of the Middle Ages past of the city.
  • Palazzo Gazzoli (18th century), housing the City's Gallery with works by Pierfrancesco d'Amelia, Benozzo Gozzoli
    Benozzo Gozzoli
    Benozzo Gozzoli was an Italian Renaissance painter from Florence. He is best known for a series of murals in the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi depicting festive, vibrant processions with wonderful attention to detail and a pronounced International Gothic influence.-Apprenticeship:He was born Benozzo di...

    , Gerolamo Troppa and Orneore Metelli.
  • Palazzo Spada (16th century), by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger
    Antonio da Sangallo the Younger
    thumb|250px|The church of Santa Maria di Loreto near the [[Trajan's Market]] in [[Rome]], considered Sangallo's masterwork.thumb|250px|View of St. Patrick's Well in [[Orvieto]]....

    . It is the current Town Hall.
  • The Lancia di Luce ("Lance of Light"), by the sculptor
    Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials—typically stone such as marble—or metal, glass, or wood. Softer materials can also be used, such as clay, textiles, plastics, polymers and softer metals...

     Arnaldo Pomodoro
    Arnaldo Pomodoro
    Arnaldo Pomodoro is an Italian sculptor. He was born on 23 June 1926, in Morciano, Romagna, Italy. He currently lives and works in Milan. His brother, Giò Pomodoro was also a sculptor....

  • The Romanesque churches:
    • S. Alò (11th century).
    • S. Martino.
    • S. Salvatore.

Nearby, at the confluence of the Velino and Nera River
Néra River
The Néra River is a river of New Caledonia. It has a catchment area of 546 square kilometres, forming one of the largest river systems on the west coast.[It empties into the eastern side of Gouaro Bay....

s, is the Cascata delle Marmore
Cascata delle Marmore
The Cascata delle Marmore is a man-made waterfall created by the ancient Romans. Its total height is 165 m , making it one of the tallest in Europe and the tallest man-made waterfall in the world...

, a 165 m waterfall.

Notable natives

  • Tacitus, Roman emperor
  • Saint Valentine
    Saint Valentine
    Saint Valentine is the name of several martyred saints of ancient Rome. The name "Valentine", derived from valens , was popular in Late Antiquity...

    , Bishop and martyred saint
  • Francesco Angeloni
    Francesco Angeloni
    Francesco Angeloni was an Italian writer, historian, and collector of classical antiquities.Born in Terni in Umbria — a region of Italy at that time part of the Papal States — he studied in Perugia then moved to Rome where he served as secretary of cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, nephew...

    , Historian and writer
  • Baconin Borzacchini
    Baconin Borzacchini
    Baconin Borzacchini was an Italian Grand Prix motor racing driver often referred to as Mario Umberto Borzacchini.-Biography:...

    , Grand Prix motor racing driver
  • Giulio Briccialdi
    Giulio Briccialdi
    Giulio Briccialdi was an Italian flautist and composer.Briccialdi was born in Terni. His contributions include inventing the B-flat thumb key for the Boehm flute. He died in Florence.- External links :...

    , Composer and flautist
  • Alessandro Casagrande
    Alessandro Casagrande
    -Piano Works:*Fogli d'album op. 1, 1934 *Leggenda op. 3, 1934 *Improvviso op. 4, 1934 *Cavalcata all'alba op. 5, 1934 *Notturno op. 8, 1934 *La Caccia op. 9, 1940 *Danza degli gnomi op. 10, 1940 *Studio op. 11, 1940...

    , Composer and pianist
  • Aurelio De Felice
    Aurelio De Felice
    Aurelio De Felice was an Italian sculptor. He is considered one of the most important examples of the "anti 900" movement. His masterpieces are exhibited all around the world.-Biography:De Felice was born in Torre Orsina, a small town on the hills around Terni...

    , Sculptor
  • Libero Liberati
    Libero Liberati
    Libero Liberati was an Italian motorcycle racer and the 1957 500cc Grand Prix World Champion.Liberati was born in Terni. He became famous in his country, winning the Italian championship in 1948. Two years later Moto Guzzi called him to race in the 500cc World Championship, where he took part in a...

    , Motorcycle racer
  • Paolo Tagliavento, Association football referee

The Roman historian Tacitus is often stated to have been born in Terni, but there is no evidence for the claim, which is circumstantially based on the probable birth there of the emperor of the same name, and on the attested fact that that emperor took care to have his namesake's works widely copied, in the apparent belief that they were related.

The case of St. Valentine is more complex, since there was undoubtedly an early bishop of Terni by that name, who is the city's patron. In late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world. Precise boundaries for the period are a matter of debate, but noted historian of the period Peter Brown proposed...

, however, the name was a common one, and the bishop has become conflated with several other saints, the most important of whom, the soldier saint, was probably not from Terni.

Twin towns — Sister cities

Terni is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

Cartagena, Spain
Cartagena is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain. As of January 2011, it has a population of 218,210 inhabitants being the Region’s second largest municipality and the country’s 6th non-Province capital...

, Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 Saint-Ouen, France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Prague 8
Prague 8
Prague 8 is a municipal district in Prague, Czech Republic.The administrative district of the same name consists of municipal districts Prague 8, Březiněves, Ďáblice and Dolní Chabry.- External links :*...

, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

Dunaújváros is a Hungarian city in Central Transdanubia, along the Danube river. It is in Fejér county.-History:Dunaújváros is one of the newest cities of the country...

, Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.