Swabian Alb
The Swabian Alps or Swabian Jura is a low mountain range in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

, Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, extending 220 km from southwest to northeast and 40 to 70 km in width. It is named after the region of Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...


The Swabian Alps occupy the region bounded by the Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 in the southeast and the upper Neckar
The Neckar is a long river, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, but also a short section through Hesse, in Germany. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the River Rhine...

 in the northwest. In the southwest it rises to the higher mountains of the Black Forest
Black Forest
The Black Forest is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. The highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres ....

. The highest mountain of the region is the Lemberg
Lemberg (Swabian Alb)
The Lemberg is a mountain located in the Tuttlingen district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.The mountain is the highest point of the Swabian Alps . It is one of the "10 Thousanders"—ten 1,000-metre-high summits of the region...

 (1015 m). The area's profile resembles a high plateau, which slowly falls away to the southeast. The northwestern edge is a steep escarpment (called the Albtrauf or Albanstieg, rising up 400 m, covered with forests), while the top is flat or gently hilled.

In economic and cultural term "Swabian Alps" includes regions just around the mountain range. It is a popular recreation area.


The geology of the Swabian Alps is mostly limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

, which formed the seabed during the Jurassic
The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Mya to  Mya, that is, from the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic era, also known as the age of reptiles. The start of the period is marked by...

 period. The sea receded 50 million years ago. Three layers of different limestones are stacked over each other to form the range: black jura
Jura mountains
The Jura Mountains are a small mountain range located north of the Alps, separating the Rhine and Rhone rivers and forming part of the watershed of each...

, brown jura, and white jura. White jura may be as pure as 99% calcium carbonate
Calcium carbonate
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime,...

. Since limestone is soluble in water, rain seeps through cracks everywhere and forms subterranean rivers which flow through a large system of caves until they emerge. Thus there are hardly any rivers, lakes or other forms of surface water on the plateau.

In some places, former volcanic activity has left traces, such as maar
A maar is a broad, low-relief volcanic crater that is caused by a phreatomagmatic eruption, an explosion caused by groundwater coming into contact with hot lava or magma. A maar characteristically fills with water to form a relatively shallow crater lake. The name comes from the local Moselle...

s and hills. In the west, the Zollerngraben (a geological depression in a tectonically active region) sometimes causes mild earthquakes. The Nördlinger Ries
Nördlinger Ries
The Nördlinger Ries is a large circular depression in western Bavaria, Germany, located north of the Danube in the district of Donau-Ries. The city of Nördlingen is located about southwest of the centre of the depression....

 is a large meteorite crater (15 million years old).

Tertiary relicts can be found at the southern part of Swabian Alps. Famous locations are known of Ulm
Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. The city, whose population is estimated at 120,000 , forms an urban district of its own and is the administrative seat of the Alb-Donau district. Ulm, founded around 850, is rich in history and...

 area (e.g.Turritellenplatte
The Turritellenplatte of Ermingen is a type of very rich fossil-bearing rock which is of particular interest to geologists and paleontologists...

 of Ermingen).

Constant rain and other weather influences are slowly dissolving the entire range. Each year, it loses approximately 5 cm. Some millions of years ago, the mountains reached as far as Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

. In some places, the limestone was more resistant to decay and thus the recession of the main range has left small mountains (called "Zeugenberge" — "witness mountains"; e.g. the Achalm or the Hohenstaufen) which testify to the former territory of the range. The omnipresent caves are great tourist spots, beautiful and not very crowded. Many different types can be found, from dry dripstone
Dripstone may refer to:*Hood mould or dripstone, an architectural feature for handling rain water*Stalactite, a type of a mineral formation that hangs from the ceiling of a limestone cave...

 caves to caves that can only be entered by boat. Sometimes the discharge of the water from subterranean rivers can be spectacular, too, e.g. the Blautopf
The Blautopf is a spring that serves as the source of the river Blau in the karst landscape on the Swabian Alb's southern edge, in Southern Germany. It is located in the city of Blaubeuren, approximately west of Ulm...

, a source for a tributary of the Danube. Also because of the porous limestone, the Danube nearly disappears near Immendingen
Immendingen is a town in the district of Tuttlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany....

 (in 1911, 1921, 1928 and 1943 it disappeared completely), only to reappear several kilometers further down. Most of the water lost by the Danube resurfaces in the Aachtopf
The Aachtopf is Germany's biggest natural spring, producing an average of 8,500 litres per second. Production varies seasonally and in response to the weather, but the spring never runs dry...

, a spring for a tributary to the Rhine.

The soil is not very fertile, the humus is often as thin as 10 cm. Many small limestone pebbles are found on the surface.


Mostly gently hilly, in the east often flat. The hills are often covered with small forests. Many small fields (often colza and other frugal plants). Mostly small villages.

The traditional landscape was grass fields with juniper bushes
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa in the Old World, and to the...

. Sheep ate everything else. Today this has become a comparatively rare sight. However, in certain places it is protected by the government of Baden-Württemberg.


Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals , plants, and other organisms from the remote past...

s can be found everywhere. Children find them in their backyards. But large and important fossils were and also are found here. At Holzmaden (outside of Weilheim unter Teck) a small private museum (called Urwelt-Museum Hauff) also provides visitors with the opportunity to "dig" for fossils in their shale deposits. The Urwelt-Museum Hauff houses the world's largest petrified crinoid
Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms . Crinoidea comes from the Greek word krinon, "a lily", and eidos, "form". They live both in shallow water and in depths as great as 6,000 meters. Sea lilies refer to the crinoids which, in their adult form, are...

 (sea-lily) colony with a size of 18 x 6 m and an age of about 180 million years.

Prehistoric Culture

In a number of caves (including Vogelherd, Hohlenstein-Stadel
Hohlenstein-Stadel is a cave located at N 48° 32' 57.57" and E 10° 10' 20.75" in the Hohlenstein cliff at the southern rim of the Lonetal in Swabian Alb, Germany. While first excavations were started after the second half of the 19th century, it was not until 1969 that the significance of some of...

, Geißenklösterle
Geißenklösterle is a cave near Blaubeuren, Swabian Alb, Southern Germany. It is an important site for the European Upper Paleolithic.-Overview:...

 and Hohle Fels
Hohle Fels
The Hohle Fels is a cave in the Swabian Alb of Germany that has yielded a number of important archaeological finds dating to the Upper Paleolithic. Artifacts found in the cave represent some of the earliest examples of prehistoric art and musical instruments ever discovered...

), all just a few kilometers apart, some of the oldest signs of human artifacts were found Best known are: a mammoth, a horse head, a water bird, and two statues of a lion-man (see lion man
Lion man
A lion headed figure, first called the lion man , then the lion lady , is an ivory sculpture that is the oldest known zoomorphic sculpture in the world and one of the oldest known sculptures in general. The sculpture has also been interpreted as anthropomorphic, giving human characteristics to an...

), all of surprising quality and all more than 30,000 years old. The oldest known musical instruments
Prehistoric music
Prehistoric music is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures , beginning somewhere in very late geological history...

 have been found here, too: flutes made from the bones of swans and griffon vultures, some 35,000 years old, and in 2004 a flute carved from the tusk
Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth, usually but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species. They are most commonly canines, as with warthogs, wild boar, and walruses, or, in the case of elephants and narwhals, elongated incisors...

 of a mammoth
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus. These proboscideans are members of Elephantidae, the family of elephants and mammoths, and close relatives of modern elephants. They were often equipped with long curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair...

 dating from the Ice Age, around 37,000 years ago, and the oldest representation of the human body, the Venus of Schelklingen.

The Roman Empire

This region, located south of the limes
A limes was a border defense or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. It marked the boundaries of the Roman Empire.The Latin noun limes had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any...

, was part of the Roman Empire from around the first to third century A.D..
A Roman road ran along the Neckar river and over the plateau. In Hechingen-Stein a Roman outpost along this road was discovered in the 1970s and has been turned into an outdoor museum. The limes
A limes was a border defense or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. It marked the boundaries of the Roman Empire.The Latin noun limes had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any...

 actually cuts across the plateau at Aalen, which gets its name from the original Roman cavalry post, or "Ala", on the outskirts of the modern town. Here too, the Roman ruins are being excavated and a museum has been open to the public since the late 80s.

Traditional Life

Life was extremely hard in the Swabian Alps. The lack of water and the poor quality of the soil made it a backward region. For many villages fetching water required a long journey by horse. Since water often needed to be stored over a long time, it was often stagnant. Thus disinfection via alcohol was very popular: "Most" (apple wine) was mixed with water and even given to babies. A modern water supply system (outstanding for its time) was built in the late 1880s, which eased the situation.


Because of their harsh living conditions, the Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

ns were, and are to this day, notorious for their tight-fistedness, hard work and resourcefulness — all important attributes where there are only very limited resources available.

Especially in the remoter parts of the region, the inhabitants tend to be rather provincial and direct. However, straightforwardness, pragmatism and honesty are often associated with them as well.

They are stereotypically shrewd, especially with their money, and traditionally entrepreneurial, depending on a knack for inventing specialized gadgetry and processes. The Swabian Alps, and Black Forest, are still dotted with small companies turning out high-tech products such as machine tools and medical devices for worldwide consumption in towns of less than 10,000 inhabitants.


Locals speak Swabian
Swabian German
Swabian is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German. It is spoken in Swabia, a region which covers much of Germany's southwestern state Baden-Württemberg, including its capital Stuttgart, the rural area known as the Swabian Alb, and Bavaria...

 (Schwäbisch), in a dialect that is often stronger than even in the rest of Swabia. In this region, many Swabian phrases and grammar are highly localized, even down to the village level.

One simple thing to look for is the addition of a "-le" suffix on many words in the German language. With the addition of this "-le" , the article
Article (grammar)
An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. Articles specify the grammatical definiteness of the noun, in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in the English language are the and a/an, and some...

 of the noun automatically becomes "das" in the German language
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

. The Swabian "-le" is the same as standard German "-lein" or "-chen", which is a diminutive: A small house (German: Haus) is a Häuschen (standard German) or a Häusle (Swabian).
  • Zug (train) becomes Zügle
  • Haus (house) becomes Häusle
  • Kerl (guy) becomes Kerle
  • Mädchen (girl) becomes Mädle
  • Baum (tree) becomes Bäumle

There are also a few sound shifts. In technical terms, the voice onset time is about halfway between where we would expect it for a clear contrast between voiced and unvoiced-aspirated stops. To the layperson, this difference is most noticeable on the unvoiced stops, rendering them extremely similar to or indistinguishable from voiced stops. For example:

"t" to "d"
  • Tasche (bag) becomes Dasch'
  • Tag (day) becomes Dag

"p" to "b"
  • putzen (to clean) becomes butzen

The "ch" is sometimes omitted or replaced.
  • "ich" becomes i
  • "dich" becomes di
  • "mich" becomes mi

Many surnames in Swabia are also made to end in "-le".


The "Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

Alemannic German
Alemannic is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. It is spoken by approximately ten million people in six countries: Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, France and Italy...

" carnival is an important tradition in many of the villages, called variously "Fastnacht
The Swabian–Alemannic Fastnacht is the pre-Lenten carnival in Alemannic folklore in Switzerland, southern Germany, Alsace and western Austria....

", "Fasnacht", "Fasnet", or "Fasching".
Of particular cultural importance is the Fasnet celebration in Rottweil.
Typical of the Allemannic tradition are the witches and forest- or well-spirits, who typically signify Winter or the forces of nature coming to drive Winter out. The various roles are often claimed to have been defined in pre-Christian times and here the exact traditions vary from village to village, creating a fantastic variety of heroes, villains and good and evil creatures.
It is also often the case that, while in one town a strong tradition of celebrating Fasnet has survived, the neighboring town will have almost no tradition. This is in many instances linked to the after-effects of the Protestant Reformation and the later influence of the Calvinistic Pietists, who more or less strictly opposed such frivolous - even heathen - behaviour. Catholic regions to this day tend to have a stronger Fasnet tradition.
A Swabian Fasnet celebration in any case has little or nothing in common with the simultaneous celebrations along the Middle Rhein, which are well known across Germany because they are televised every year. Swabians generally are expected to go to work as normal on Rose Monday and Fat Tuesday, unlike their neighbors to the northwest.


Since raising crops was not easy, raising sheep was popular. This yielded the development of a strong textile industry. In the 1950s, Reutlingen was the German town with the highest number of millionaires, until the decline of the German textile industry hit them as well. Still, many high quality textile companies can be found, such as Hugo Boss
Hugo Boss
Hugo Ferdinand Boss was the founder of clothing company Hugo Boss.-Early life:Boss was born in Metzingen, Germany. After completing his apprenticeship and one year of employment, he founded his own company in Metzingen in 1923.-Support of Nazism:Boss joined the Nazi Party in 1931, two years before...

, Trigema, Reusch, Groz-Beckert and others (the town of Metzingen is widely known as a "luxury outlet town", with people from all over Europe coming to buy expensive clothes cheaper).

From this, machine building and advanced engineering developed. With the invention of cars and the founding of Daimler-Benz
Daimler-Benz AG was a German manufacturer of automobiles, motor vehicles, and internal combustion engines; founded in 1926. An Agreement of Mutual Interest - which was valid until year 2000 - was signed on 1 May 1924 between Karl Benz's Benz & Cie., and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft, which had...

 nearby, the car industry and later also electronics and computer industries developed. The "Neckar-Alb
Neckar-Alb is one of three regions in the Tübingen administrative region in Baden-Württemberg, Germany...

" region is the third largest industrial zone in Germany, and the most stable. The best known company is still Daimler-Benz, today known simply as Daimler AG, followed by Robert Bosch
Robert Bosch
Robert Bosch was a German industrialist, engineer and inventor, founder of Robert Bosch GmbH.-Biography:...


The region has one of the highest patents-to-population ratios in the world. Many products fall into the high-tech category. The small and medium enterprise sector (100-5,000 employees) predominates. Perhaps as a result, the unemployment rate is low. In general, products are expensive but compete through high quality. Several districts are recognised as especially attractive to business, e.g. Reutlingen as the town in Germany where it is simplest to open a new business. Educational resources are at a high level. The schools and universities of the region all enjoy top rankings within Germany. The Swabian Alps and the neighbouring region have developed from one of the poorest regions of Germany to one of its richest within the past 150 years.


Moderate. In winter often snow. Skiing is sometimes possible (though the hills are not steep or high). Often windy and a bit colder than the rest of Germany. Because of a special micro climate, a small weather station near the town of Stetten am kalten Markt
Stetten am kalten Markt
Stetten am kalten Markt is a municipality in the Sigmaringen district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.-Towns:The towns of Nusplingen, Frohnstetten, Storzingen and Glashütte are part of Stetten am kalten Markt.-History:...

 is known as the "coldest spot in Germany".


The Swabian Alps are not densely populated by German standards. Most of the larger towns are outside the region, though they are often counted as part of it. These towns often have some of the highest rents in Germany, while land on the plateau itself is considered cheap (by south German standards). Many town names end in "-ingen". There were several military training grounds, some also used by NATO troops. On the Münsingen training ground which existed for over 100 years, a biosphere reserve is in the making. The region has several larger and many small nature reserves.

Important Towns

On the plateau
  • Albstadt
    Albstadt is a city in the district of Zollernalbkreis in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the Swabian Alb mountains, about halfway between Stuttgart and Lake Constance...

  • Bad Urach
    Bad Urach
    Bad Urach is a town in the district of Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 14 km east of Reutlingen, at the foot of the Swabian Alb, and is known for its spa and therapeutic bath.-History:...

  • Engstingen
    Engstingen is a municipality in the Tübingen administrative region in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It lies in the Swabian Alb , about 15 km south of Reutlingen....

  • Gammertingen
    Gammertingen is a town in the district of Sigmaringen, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 18 km north of Sigmaringen....

  • Münsingen
    Münsingen, Germany
    Münsingen is a town in the district of Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 23 km southeast of Reutlingen, and 37 km west of Ulm.-History:...

  • Heidenheim (north-eastern border)
  • Sigmaringen
    Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Situated on the upper Danube, it is the capital of the Sigmaringen district....

In the foreland
  • Balingen
    Balingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, capital of the district of Zollernalbkreis. It is located nearby the Swabian Alb, approx. 35 km to the south of Tübingen, 35 km northeast of Villingen-Schwenningen, and 60 km southwest of Stuttgart.It is home to the Bizerba and Ideal...

  • Göppingen
    Göppingen is a town in southern Germany, part of the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg. It is the capital of the district Göppingen. It is situated at the bottom of the Hohenstaufen mountain, in the valley of the river Fils....

  • Hechingen
    Hechingen is a town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated about south of the state capital of Stuttgart and north of Lake Constance and the Swiss border.- City districts :...

     (at the north-western escarpment)
  • Reutlingen
    Reutlingen is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is the capital of the eponymous district of Reutlingen. As of April 2008, it has a population of 109,828....

     (called "The gate to the Swabian Jura")
  • Rottweil
    Rottweil is a town in the south west of Germany and is the oldest town in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg.Located between the Black Forest and the Swabian Alb hills, Rottweil has about 25,000 inhabitants...

     (oldest town in Baden-Württemberg)
  • Tübingen
    Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers.-Geography:...

     (University Town)
  • Ulm
    Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. The city, whose population is estimated at 120,000 , forms an urban district of its own and is the administrative seat of the Alb-Donau district. Ulm, founded around 850, is rich in history and...

     (south-eastern border)

The towns in the foreland of the Swabian Alps officially don't belong to it.

Tourist Locations

There are many castles, monasteries, churches, ruins and old towns. Here is a small selection.


  • Burg Hohenzollern
    Burg Hohenzollern
    Hohenzollern Castle is a castle about south of Stuttgart, Germany. It is considered the ancestral seat of the Hohenzollern family, which emerged in the Middle Ages and eventually became German Emperors....

  • Schloss Lichtenstein
  • Schloss Sigmaringen
    Schloss Sigmaringen
    Sigmaringen Castle was the princely castle and seat of government for the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Situated in the Swabian Alb region of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, this castle dominates the skyline of the town of Sigmaringen...

  • Burg Hohenneuffen
  • Hohenstaufen Castle
    Hohenstaufen Castle
    Hohenstaufen Castle is a ruin, lying above the town of Hohenstaufen, in the district of Göppingen in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was the seat of the now-defunct House of Hohenstaufen....

  • Schloss Hellenstein
    Schloss Hellenstein
    Hellenstein Castle is located above the city of Heidenheim an der Brenz in eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was once the home of the Lords of Hellenstein....

  • Burg Teck (ruin)
  • Burg Hohenrechberg (ruin)

Churches and Monasteries

  • Zwiefalten Abbey
    Zwiefalten Abbey
    - References :...

  • Ulm minster church
    Ulm is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. The city, whose population is estimated at 120,000 , forms an urban district of its own and is the administrative seat of the Alb-Donau district. Ulm, founded around 850, is rich in history and...

     (highest church spire in the world)
  • Beuron Abbey


  • Blautopf
    The Blautopf is a spring that serves as the source of the river Blau in the karst landscape on the Swabian Alb's southern edge, in Southern Germany. It is located in the city of Blaubeuren, approximately west of Ulm...

  • Donauversickerung (Danube disappearing)
  • Nusplingen
    Nusplingen is a Swabian town in the Zollernalb district, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.The town is located in the valley of the small river Bära, about 12 miles up-river from where it flows in to the Danube. In the Middle Ages Nusplingen gained the rights of a city...

     (fossil hunting)
  • Schäfbuch forest (48.3°N, 9.35°E)


A good way for tourists to get to know the Swabian Alps is to travel on the Schwäbische Albstaße, a "National Scenic Byway", leading from Tuttlingen
Tuttlingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, capital of the district Tuttlingen. Nendingen, Möhringen and Eßlingen are three former municipalities that belong to Tuttlingen...

 or Trossingen
Trossingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated in a region called Baar, between the Swabian Alb and the Black Forest. Stuttgart is about an hour away, Lake Constance about half an hour, and the source of the river Danube can be reached in about twenty minutes by car.Trossingen...

 to Nördlingen
Nördlingen is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Bavaria, Germany, with a population of 20,000. It is located in the middle of a complex meteorite crater, called the Nördlinger Ries. The town was also the place of two battles during the Thirty Years' War...

 or Aalen
Aalen is a city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, about east of Stuttgart and north of Ulm. It is the seat of the Ostalbkreis district, and its largest city, as well as the largest city within the Ostwürttemberg region. In spatial planning, Aalen is designated a Mittelzentrum...


External links

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