Juniper
Overview
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus (icon) of the cypress family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
The Cupressaceae or cypress family is a conifer family with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27 to 30 genera , which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130-140 species in total. They are monoecious, subdioecious or dioecious trees and shrubs from 1-116 m tall...

. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic
Arctic
The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

, south to tropical Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 in the Old World
Old World
The Old World consists of those parts of the world known to classical antiquity and the European Middle Ages. It is used in the context of, and contrast with, the "New World" ....

, and to the mountains of Central America
Central America
Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. It is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. When considered part of the unified continental model, it is considered a subcontinent...

.
Junipers vary in size and shape from tall tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low spreading shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s with long trailing branches.
Encyclopedia
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus (icon) of the cypress family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
The Cupressaceae or cypress family is a conifer family with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27 to 30 genera , which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130-140 species in total. They are monoecious, subdioecious or dioecious trees and shrubs from 1-116 m tall...

. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, there are between 50-67 species of juniper, widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic
Arctic
The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

, south to tropical Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 in the Old World
Old World
The Old World consists of those parts of the world known to classical antiquity and the European Middle Ages. It is used in the context of, and contrast with, the "New World" ....

, and to the mountains of Central America
Central America
Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. It is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. When considered part of the unified continental model, it is considered a subcontinent...

.

Description

Junipers vary in size and shape from tall tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low spreading shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s with long trailing branches. They are evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

 with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

. They can be either monoecious
Plant sexuality
Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. This article describes morphological aspects of sexual reproduction of plants....

 or dioecious
Plant sexuality
Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. This article describes morphological aspects of sexual reproduction of plants....

. The female seed cones
Conifer cone
A cone is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones, which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous even at full maturity...

 are very distinctive, with fleshy, fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4–27 mm long, with 1-12 unwinged, hard-shelled seed
Seed
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

s. In some species these "berries" are red-brown or orange but in most they are blue; they are often aromatic and can be used as a spice
Spice
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for flavor, color, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth. It may be used to flavour a dish or to hide other flavours...

. The seed maturation time varies between species from 6–18 months after pollination. The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with 6-20 scales; most shed their pollen in early spring, but some species pollinate in the autumn.


Many junipers (e.g. J. chinensis, J. virginiana) have two types of leaves: seedlings and some twigs of older trees have needle-like leaves 5–25 mm long; and the leaves on mature plants are (mostly) tiny (2–4 mm long), overlapping and scale-like. When juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most often found on shaded shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. Leaves on fast-growing 'whip' shoots are often intermediate between juvenile and adult.

In some species (e. g. J. communis, J. squamata), all the foliage is of the juvenile needle-like type, with no scale leaves. In some of these (e.g. J. communis), the needles are jointed at the base, in others (e.g. J. squamata), the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed.

The needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage very prickly to handle. This can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise very similar juvenile foliage of cypresses (Cupressus
Cupressus
The genus Cupressus is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that have the common name cypress; for the others, see cypress. It is considered a polyphyletic group...

, Chamaecyparis
Chamaecyparis
Chamaecyparis is a genus of conifers in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to eastern Asia and western and eastern North America. In the nursery trade it is often incorrectly known as "false cypress" for lack of other common name, so as to distinguish it from other similar genera bearing...

) and other related genera is soft and not prickly.

Juniper is the exclusive food plant of the larva
Larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

e of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies . It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies...

 species including Bucculatrix inusitata and Juniper Carpet
Juniper Carpet
The Juniper Carpet is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found throughout Europe and the Near East, but is rather uncommon and locally distributed, mainly due to its very specific larval food plant....

, and is also eaten by the larvae of other Lepidoptera species such as Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, Juniper Pug
Juniper Pug
The Juniper Pug or Juniper Looper is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found throughout the Palearctic and Nearctic regions and the Near East....

 and Pine Beauty
Pine Beauty
The Pine Beauty is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is a common species of pine woods in Europe.The forewings are typically rich orange brown, but sometimes are dark grey, with two large pale stigmata and fine streaks along the termen. The hindwings are brown or blackish. The wingspan is 32-40 mm...

; those of the tortrix moth C. duplicana
Cydia duplicana
Cydia duplicana is a small moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in all across Europe, extending barely into Asia in the Transcaucasus, Turkestan and Kazakhstan.The wingspan is 13–19 mm. Adults are on wing from May or June to the end of July...

 feed on the bark around injuries or canker
Canker
Canker and anthracnose are general terms for a large number of different plant diseases, characterised by broadly similar symptoms including the appearance of small areas of dead tissue, which grow slowly, often over a period of years. Some are of only minor consequence, but others are ultimately...

.

Classification

The number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving very different totals, Farjon (2001) accepting 52 species, and Adams (2004) accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though (particularly among the scale-leaved species) which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still on-going. The section Juniperus is an obvious monophyletic group though.
  • Juniperus sect. Juniperus: Needle-leaf junipers. The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, and jointed at the base (see below right).
    • Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Juniperus: Cones with 3 separate seeds; needles with one stomatal band.
      • Juniperus communis
        Juniperus communis
        Juniperus communis, the Common Juniper, is a species in the genus Juniperus, in the family Cupressaceae. It has the largest range of any woody plant, throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia.-...

         - Common Juniper
        • Juniperus communis subsp. alpina - Alpine Juniper
      • Juniperus conferta
        Juniperus rigida
        Juniperus rigida is a species of juniper, native to northern China, Korea, Japan, and the far southeast of Russia , occurring at altitudes of 10-2,200 m. It is closely related to Juniperus communis and Juniperus conferta , the latter sometimes treated as a variety or subspecies of J...

         - Shore Juniper (syn. J. rigida var. conferta)
      • Juniperus rigida
        Juniperus rigida
        Juniperus rigida is a species of juniper, native to northern China, Korea, Japan, and the far southeast of Russia , occurring at altitudes of 10-2,200 m. It is closely related to Juniperus communis and Juniperus conferta , the latter sometimes treated as a variety or subspecies of J...

         - Temple Juniper or Needle Juniper
    • Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Oxycedrus: Cones with 3 separate seeds; needles with two stomatal bands.
      • Juniperus brevifolia
        Juniperus brevifolia
        Juniperus brevifolia is a species of juniper, endemic to the Azores , where it occurs at altitudes of 240-800 m, rarely up to 1,500 m...

         - Azores Juniper
      • Juniperus phoenicea
        Juniperus phoenicea
        Juniperus phoenicea, the Phoenicean Juniper or Arâr, is a juniper found throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal east to Italy, Turkey and Egypt, south on the mountains of Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and in western Saudi Arabia near the Red Sea, and also on Madeira and the Canary...

         - Phoenicean Juniper or Arâr
      • Juniperus cedrus
        Juniperus cedrus
        Juniperus cedrus is a species of juniper, native to the western Canary Islands and Madeira , where it occurs at altitudes of 500-2400 m...

         - Canary Islands Juniper
      • Juniperus deltoides
        Juniperus oxycedrus
        Juniperus oxycedrus is a species of juniper, native across the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal, north to southern France, east to westernmost Iran, and south to Lebanon and Israel, growing on a variety of rocky sites from sea level up...

         - Eastern Prickly Juniper
      • Juniperus formosana
        Juniperus formosana
        Juniperus formosana is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found in China and Taiwan.-References:* IUCN - Conifer Specialist Group 1998.**.** Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Chinese Prickly Juniper
      • Juniperous exceisa polycarpus Ziarat
        Ziarat
        Ziarat is the capital of Ziarat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. It is located at 30°22'47N 67°43'38E with an altitude of 2543 metres and is a famous holiday resort of Balochistan and nearly every trip from Karachi to Quetta stops at Ziarat...

      • Juniperus lutchuensis
        Juniperus lutchuensis
        Juniperus lutchuensis is a species of juniper, native to the Ryukyu Islands, Izu Ōshima and the adjacent coast of Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan.-Description:Juniperus lutchuensis is an evergreen coniferous shrub growing to a height of 1–3...

         - Ryukyu Juniper
      • Juniperus navicularis
        Juniperus oxycedrus
        Juniperus oxycedrus is a species of juniper, native across the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal, north to southern France, east to westernmost Iran, and south to Lebanon and Israel, growing on a variety of rocky sites from sea level up...

         - Portuguese Prickly Juniper
      • Juniperus oxycedrus
        Juniperus oxycedrus
        Juniperus oxycedrus is a species of juniper, native across the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal, north to southern France, east to westernmost Iran, and south to Lebanon and Israel, growing on a variety of rocky sites from sea level up...

         - Western Prickly Juniper or Cade Juniper
      • Juniperus macrocarpa
        Juniperus macrocarpa
        Juniperus macrocarpa is a species of juniper, native across the northern Mediterranean region from southeastern Spain east to western Turkey and Cyprus, growing on coastal sand dunes from sea level up to 75 m altitude.It is a spreading shrub 2-5 m tall, rarely a small tree up to 14 m...

         (J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa) - Large-berry Juniper
    • Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Caryocedrus: Cones with 3 seeds fused together; needles with two stomatal bands.
      • Juniperus drupacea
        Juniperus drupacea
        Juniperus drupacea, the Syrian Juniper, is a species of juniper native to the eastern Mediterranean region from southern Greece , southern Turkey, western Syria, and Lebanon, growing on rocky sites from 800-1700 m altitude....

         - Syrian Juniper


  • Juniperus sect. Sabina: Scale-leaf junipers. The adult leaves are mostly scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus
    Cupressus
    The genus Cupressus is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that have the common name cypress; for the others, see cypress. It is considered a polyphyletic group...

     species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, and the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base (including in the few that have only needle-like leaves; see below right). Provisionally, all the other junipers are included here, though they form a paraphyletic group.
    • Old World species
      • Juniperus chinensis
        Juniperus chinensis
        Juniperus chinensis grows as a shrub or tree with a very variable in shape, reaching 1-20 m tall. This native of northeast Asia grows in China, Mongolia, Japan, Korea and the southeast of Russia.-Growth:...

         - Chinese Juniper
        • Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii - Sargent's Juniper
        • Juniperus chinensis L. var. tsukusiensis Masummune
        • Juniperus chinensis Kaizuka
        • Junipers chinensis var. Procumbens
        • Junipers chinensis Globosa
        • Junipers chinensis Aurea
      • Juniperus convallium
        Juniperus convallium
        Juniperus convallium is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found only in China.-Source:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Mekong Juniper
      • Juniperus excelsa
        Juniperus excelsa
        Juniperus excelsa is a juniper found throughout the eastern Mediterranean, from northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria across Turkey to Syria and the Lebanon, and the Caucasus mountains. A subspecies, J. excelsa subsp...

         - Greek Juniper
        • Juniperus excelsa polycarpos
          Juniperus macrocarpa
          Juniperus macrocarpa is a species of juniper, native across the northern Mediterranean region from southeastern Spain east to western Turkey and Cyprus, growing on coastal sand dunes from sea level up to 75 m altitude.It is a spreading shrub 2-5 m tall, rarely a small tree up to 14 m...

      • Juniperus polycarpos - Persian Juniper
      • Juniperus foetidissima
        Juniperus foetidissima
        Juniperus foetidissima is a juniper native to southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, from southern Albania and northern Greece across Turkey to Syria and the Lebanon, the Caucasus mountains, the Alborz mountains of northern Iran, and east to southwestern Turkmenistan...

         - Stinking Juniper
      • Juniperus indica
        Juniperus indica
        Juniperus indica is a juniper native to high altitudes in the Himalaya, occurring from the northern Indus Valley in Kashmir east to western Yunnan in China....

         - Black Juniper
      • Juniperus komarovii
        Juniperus komarovii
        Juniperus komarovii is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found only in China.-Source:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Komarov's Juniper
      • Juniperus phoenicea
        Juniperus phoenicea
        Juniperus phoenicea, the Phoenicean Juniper or Arâr, is a juniper found throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal east to Italy, Turkey and Egypt, south on the mountains of Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and in western Saudi Arabia near the Red Sea, and also on Madeira and the Canary...

         - Phoenicean Juniper
      • Juniperus pingii
        Juniperus pingii
        Juniperus pingii is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found only in China.-Source:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Ping Juniper
        • Juniperus pingii var. chengii
        • Juniperus pingii var. miehei
        • Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii
      • Juniperus procera
        Juniperus procera
        Juniperus procera, commonly known in English as African Juniper or East African Juniper, is a coniferous tree native to the mountains of eastern Africa from eastern Sudan south to Zimbabwe, and the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula...

         - East African Juniper
      • Juniperus procumbens
        Juniperus procumbens
        Juniperus procumbens is a low-growing shrubby juniper native to the southern Japan. Its status as a wild plant is disputed; some authorities treat it as endemic on high mountains on Kyūshū and a few other islands off southern Japan, while others consider it native to the coasts of southern Japan ...

         - Ibuki Juniper
      • Juniperus pseudosabina
        Juniperus pseudosabina
        Juniperus pseudosabina is a species of juniper native to the mountains of central Asia in northern Pakistan, northeastern Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, eastern Kazakhstan, western China, western Mongolia, and south-central Russia, typically growing at altitudes of 2,000-4,100 m.It is...

         - Xinjiang Juniper
      • Juniperus recurva
        Juniperus recurva
        Juniperus recurva is a juniper native to the Himalaya, from northern Pakistan east to western Yunnan in southwestern China. It grows at 3,000-4,000 m altitude....

         - Himalayan Juniper
        • Juniperus recurva var. butanica
        • Juniperus recurva var. coxii - Cox's Juniper
      • Juniperus sabina
        Juniperus sabina
        Juniperus sabina is a species of juniper native to the mountains of central and southern Europe and western and central Asia, from Spain east to eastern Siberia, typically growing at altitudes of 1,000-3,300 m....

         - Savin Juniper
        • Juniperus sabina var. davurica - Daurian Juniper
      • Juniperus saltuaria
        Juniperus saltuaria
        Juniperus saltuaria is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found only in China.-References:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Sichuan Juniper
      • Juniperus semiglobosa
        Juniperus semiglobosa
        Juniperus semiglobosa, the Himalayan Pencil Juniper, Chinese: 昆仑多子柏 kun lun duo zi bai, is a species of juniper native to the mountains of Central Asia, in northeastern Afghanistan, westernmost China , northwesternmost India, southeastern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, western Nepal, northern Pakistan,...

         - Russian Juniper
      • Juniperus squamata
        Juniperus squamata
        Juniperus squamata is a species of juniper native to the Himalaya and China, from northeastern Afghanistan east to western Yunnan in southwestern China, and with disjunct populations north to western Gansu and east to Fujian. It grows at 1,600-4,900 m altitude...

         - Flaky Juniper
      • Juniperus thurifera
        Juniperus thurifera
        Juniperus thurifera is a species of juniper native to the mountains of the western Mediterranean region, from southern France across eastern and central Spain to Morocco and locally in northern Algeria....

         - Spanish Juniper
      • Juniperus tibetica
        Juniperus tibetica
        Juniperus tibetica is a species of juniper, native to western China in southern Gansu, southeastern Qinghai, Sichuan, and Tibet, where it grows at high to very high altitudes of 2,600–4,800 m....

         - Tibetan Juniper
      • Juniperus wallichiana - Himalayan Black Juniper
    • New World species
      • Juniperus angosturana
        Juniperus angosturana
        Juniperus angosturana is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found only in Mexico.-References:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Mexican One-seed Juniper
      • Juniperus ashei
        Juniperus ashei
        Juniperus ashei is a drought-tolerant evergreen shrub or small tree, native to northeastern Mexico and the south-central United States north to southern Missouri; the largest areas are in central Texas, where extensive stands occur...

         - Ashe Juniper
      • Juniperus arizonica - Synonym: Juniperus coahuilensis var. arizonica or Juniperus erythrocarpa var. coahuilensis. common names: Redberry Juniper, Roseberry Juniper
      • Juniperus barbadensis
        Juniperus barbadensis
        Juniperus barbadensis is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found in The Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, and Saint Lucia.-References:* Conifer Specialist Group 2000. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - West Indies Juniper
      • Juniperus bermudiana
        Juniperus bermudiana
        Juniperus bermudiana is a species of juniper endemic to Bermuda. This species is most commonly known as Bermuda cedar although, like most "cedars" it is not a true cedar ; a more botanically accurate name would be Bermuda juniper, but this term is extremely rare.It is an evergreen tree growing up...

         - Bermuda Juniper
      • Juniperus blancoi
        Juniperus blancoi
        Juniperus blancoi is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is endemic and found only in Mexico.-Source:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Blanco's Juniper
      • Juniperus californica
        Juniperus californica
        Juniperus californica is a species of juniper native to southwestern North America; as the name implies, it is mainly found in California, although its range also extends through most of Baja California, a short distance into the Great Basin in southern Nevada, and western Arizona...

         - California Juniper
      • Juniperus coahuilensis
        Juniperus coahuilensis
        Juniperus coahuilensis is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family. It is found in northern Mexico and parts of the southwestern United States....

         - Coahuila Juniper
      • Juniperus comitana
        Juniperus comitana
        Juniperus comitana is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found in Guatemala and Mexico.-Source:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Comitán Juniper
      • Juniperus deppeana
        Juniperus deppeana
        Juniperus deppeana is a small to medium-sized tree reaching 10-15 m tall. It is native to central and northern Mexico and the southwestern United States...

         - Alligator Juniper
      • Juniperus durangensis
        Juniperus durangensis
        Juniperus durangensis is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is endemic and found only in Mexico.-Source:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Durango Juniper
      • Juniperus flaccida
        Juniperus flaccida
        Juniperus flaccida is a large shrub or small tree reaching 5-10 m tall. It is native to central and northern Mexico and the extreme southwest of Texas, United States...

         - Mexican Weeping Juniper
      • Juniperus gamboana
        Juniperus gamboana
        Juniperus gamboana is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found in Guatemala and Mexico.It is threatened by habitat loss.-Source:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Gamboa Juniper
      • Juniperus horizontalis
        Juniperus horizontalis
        Juniperus horizontalis is a low-growing shrubby juniper native to northern North America, throughout most of Canada from Yukon east to Newfoundland, and in the United States in Alaska, and locally from Montana east to Maine, reaching its furthest south in Wyoming and northern Illinois.It lives up...

         - Creeping Juniper
      • Juniperus jaliscana
        Juniperus jaliscana
        Juniperus jaliscana is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found only in Mexico.-Source:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Jalisco Juniper
      • Juniperus monosperma
        Juniperus monosperma
        Juniperus monosperma is a species of juniper native to western North America, in the United States in Arizona, New Mexico, southern Colorado, western Oklahoma , and western Texas, and in Mexico in the extreme north of Chihuahua...

         - One-seed Juniper
      • Juniperus monticola
        Juniperus monticola
        Juniperus monticola is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found only in Mexico.-References:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Mountain Juniper
      • Juniperus occidentalis
        Juniperus occidentalis
        Juniperus occidentalis is a shrub or tree native to the western United States, growing in mountains at altitudes of 800-3,000 m .-Description:...

         - Western Juniper
        • Juniperus occidentalis subsp. australis - Sierra Juniper
      • Juniperus osteosperma
        Juniperus osteosperma
        Juniperus osteosperma is a shrub or small tree reaching 3-6 m tall. It is native to the southwestern United States, in Utah, Nevada, Arizona, western New Mexico, western Colorado, Wyoming, southern Montana, southern Idaho and eastern California...

         - Utah Juniper
      • Juniperus pinchotii
        Juniperus pinchotii
        Juniperus pinchotii is a species of juniper native to southwestern North America, in Mexico: Nuevo León and Coahuila, and in the United States: southeast New Mexico, central Texas, and western Oklahoma.It grows at 600–2,100 m altitude.-Description:Juniperus pinchotii...

         - Pinchot Juniper
      • Juniperus saltillensis
        Juniperus saltillensis
        Juniperus saltillensis is a species of conifer in the Cupressaceae family.It is found only in Mexico.-References:* Conifer Specialist Group 1998. . Downloaded on 10 July 2007....

         - Saltillo Juniper
      • Juniperus scopulorum
        Juniperus scopulorum
        Juniperus scopulorum is a species of juniper native to western North America, in Canada in British Columbia and southwest Alberta, in the United States from Washington east to North Dakota, south to Arizona and also locally western Texas, and northernmost Mexico from Sonora east to Coahuila...

         - Rocky Mountain Juniper
      • Juniperus standleyi
        Juniperus standleyi
        Juniperus standleyi is a species of juniper native to Guatemala and the adjacent extreme southeast of Mexico , where it occurs at high altitudes of 3,000–4,250 m. -Description:...

         - Standley's Juniper
      • Juniperus virginiana
        Juniperus virginiana
        Juniperus virginiana is a species of juniper native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, east of the Great Plains...

         - Eastern Juniper (Eastern Redcedar)
        • Juniperus virginiana subsp. silicicola - Southern Juniper
      • Juniperus zanonii (proposed)

Cultivation and uses

Juniper berries are a spice used in a wide variety of culinary dishes and best known for the primary flavoring in gin
Gin
Gin is a spirit which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries . Although several different styles of gin have existed since its origins, it is broadly differentiated into two basic legal categories...

 (and responsible for gin's name, which is a shortening of the Dutch word for juniper, genever). Juniper berries are also used as the primary flavor in the liquor Jenever
Jenever
Jenever , is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Belgium, from which gin evolved...

 and sahti
Sahti
Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself...

-style of beers. Juniper berry sauce is often a popular flavoring choice for quail
Quail
Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds generally considered in the order Galliformes. Old World quail are found in the family Phasianidae, while New World quail are found in the family Odontophoridae...

, pheasant
Pheasant
Pheasants refer to some members of the Phasianinae subfamily of Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly ornate with bright colours and adornments such as wattles and long tails. Males are usually larger than females and have...

, veal
Veal
Veal is the meat of young cattle , as opposed to meat from older cattle. Though veal can be produced from a calf of either sex and any breed, most veal comes from male calves of dairy cattle breeds...

, rabbit
Rabbit
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world...

, venison
Venison
Venison is the meat of a game animal, especially a deer but also other animals such as antelope, wild boar, etc.-Etymology:The word derives from the Latin vēnor...

 and other meat dishes.

Many of the earliest prehistoric people lived in or near juniper forests which furnished them food, fuel, and wood for shelter or utensils. Many species, such as J. chinensis (Chinese Juniper) from eastern Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, are extensively used in landscaping
Landscaping
Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including:# living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly referred to as gardening, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape.#...

 and horticulture
Horticulture
Horticulture is the industry and science of plant cultivation including the process of preparing soil for the planting of seeds, tubers, or cuttings. Horticulturists work and conduct research in the disciplines of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic...

, and as one of the most popular species for use in bonsai
Bonsai
is a Japanese art form using miniature trees grown in containers. Similar practices exist in other cultures, including the Chinese tradition of penjing from which the art originated, and the miniature living landscapes of Vietnamese hòn non bộ...

. It is also a symbol of longevity, strength, athleticism, and fertility.

Some junipers are susceptible to Gymnosporangium
Gymnosporangium
Gymnosporangium is a genus of heteroecious plant-pathogenic fungi which alternately infect members of the family Cupressaceae, primarily species in the genus Juniperus , and members of the family Rosaceae in the subfamily Maloideae...

 rust disease, and can be a serious problem for those people growing apple
Apple
The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family . It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apple grow on small, deciduous trees that blossom in the spring...

 trees, the alternate host
Host (biology)
In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a parasite, or a mutual or commensal symbiont, typically providing nourishment and shelter. In botany, a host plant is one that supplies food resources and substrate for certain insects or other fauna...

 of the disease.

Some juniper trees are misleadingly given the common name "cedar," including Juniperus virginiana
Juniperus virginiana
Juniperus virginiana is a species of juniper native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, east of the Great Plains...

, the "red cedar" that is used widely in cedar drawers. True cedars are those tree species in the genus Cedrus, family Pinaceae
Pinaceae
Pinaceae are trees or shrubs, including many of the well-known conifers of commercial importance such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces. The family is included in the order Pinales, formerly known as Coniferales. Pinaceae are supported as monophyletic by its protein-type sieve...

.

In Morocco, the tar (gitran) of the arar tree (Juniperus phoenicea
Juniperus phoenicea
Juniperus phoenicea, the Phoenicean Juniper or Arâr, is a juniper found throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal east to Italy, Turkey and Egypt, south on the mountains of Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and in western Saudi Arabia near the Red Sea, and also on Madeira and the Canary...

) is applied in dotted patterns on bisque drinking cups. Gitran makes the water more fragrant and is said to be good for the teeth.

American Indians have used juniper to treat diabetes; such treatments by the Navajo
Navajo people
The Navajo of the Southwestern United States are the largest single federally recognized tribe of the United States of America. The Navajo Nation has 300,048 enrolled tribal members. The Navajo Nation constitutes an independent governmental body which manages the Navajo Indian reservation in the...

, for example, are under clinical study. Clinical studies have shown that treatment with juniper may retard the development of streptozotocin
Streptozotocin
Streptozotocin is a naturally occurring chemical that is particularly toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in mammals...

 diabetes in mice. Native Americans also used juniper berries as a female contraceptive. The 17th Century herbalist
Herbalist
An herbalist is:#A person whose life is dedicated to the economic or medicinal uses of plants.#One skilled in the harvesting and collection of medicinal plants ....

 physician
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

 Nicholas Culpeper
Nicholas Culpeper
Nicholas Culpeper was an English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer. His published books include The English Physician and the Complete Herbal , which contain a rich store of pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge, and Astrological Judgement of Diseases from the Decumbiture of the Sick ,...

 recommended the ripened berries for conditions such as asthma
Asthma
Asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...

 and sciatica
Sciatica
Sciatica is a set of symptoms including pain that may be caused by general compression or irritation of one of five spinal nerve roots that give rise to each sciatic nerve, or by compression or irritation of the left or right or both sciatic nerves. The pain is felt in the lower back, buttock, or...

, as well as to speed childbirth
Childbirth
Childbirth is the culmination of a human pregnancy or gestation period with the birth of one or more newborn infants from a woman's uterus...

.

Juniper berries are steam distilled
Steam distillation
Steam distillation is a special type of distillation for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds....

 to produce an essential oil
Essential oil
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the "oil of" the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove...

 that may vary from colorless to yellow or pale green. Some of its chemical components are alpha pinene, cadinene
Cadinene
Cadinene is the trivial chemical name of a number of isomeric hydrocarbons that occur in a wide variety of essential oil-producing plants. The name is derived from that of the Cade juniper , the wood of which yields an oil from which cadinene isomers were first isolated.Chemically, the cadinenes...

, camphene
Camphene
Camphene is bicyclic monoterpene. It is nearly insoluble in water, but very soluble in common organic solvents. It volatilizes readily at room temperature and has a pungent smell. It is a minor constituent of many essential oils such as turpentine, cypress oil, camphor oil, citronella oil,...

 and terpineol
Terpineol
Terpineol is a naturally occurring monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil. There are three isomers, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-terpineol, the last two differing only by the location of the double bond...

.

Juniper in weave is a traditional cladding
Cladding (construction)
Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide a skin or layer intended to control the infiltration of weather elements, or for aesthetic purposes....

 technique used in Northern Europe (for example, at Havrå
Havrå
Havrå or Havre sometimes Havretunet or Havråtunet is a cluster of farm in Osterøy municipality in Hordaland, Norway. Havrå is one of the very last and best preserved of the common farm clusters on the Western coast of Norway. Havrå was the first cultural environment to be protected under section...

.)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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