Sandmeyer reaction
The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction
Chemical reaction
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Chemical reactions can be either spontaneous, requiring no input of energy, or non-spontaneous, typically following the input of some type of energy, such as heat, light or electricity...

 used to synthesize aryl
In the context of organic molecules, aryl refers to any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, be it phenyl, naphthyl, thienyl, indolyl, etc....

A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. Many salts are halides...

s from aryl diazonium salts. It is named after the Swiss chemist Traugott Sandmeyer
Traugott Sandmeyer
Traugott Sandmeyer was a Swiss chemist after whom the Sandmeyer reaction, which he discovered 1884, was named. He became a professor of organic chemistry, although he never graduated with a degree in chemistry....


An aromatic (or heterocyclic) amine quickly reacts with a nitrite to form an aryl diazonium salt, which decomposes in the presence of copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

(I) salts, such as copper(I) chloride
Copper(I) chloride
Copper chloride, commonly called cuprous chloride, is the lower chloride of copper, with the formula CuCl. The substance is a white solid sparingly soluble in water, but very soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid...

, to form the desired aryl halide. The reaction is a radical-nucleophilic aromatic substitution
Radical-nucleophilic aromatic substitution
Radical-nucleophilic aromatic substitution or SRN1 in organic chemistry is a type of substitution reaction in which a certain substituent on an aromatic compound is replaced by a nucleophile through an intermediary free radical species:...


Several improvements have been made to the standard procedures.


The majority of variations of the Sandmeyer reactions consist of using various copper salts. For example, using cuprous cyanide produces benzonitrile
Benzonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula C6H5CN, abbreviated PhCN. This aromatic organic compound is colourless, with a sweet almond odour. It is prepared by the dehydration of benzamide, or by the reaction of sodium cyanide with bromobenzene....

s. Substituting thiols or water for the copper salts generates thioethers or phenols, respectively.

The Schiemann reaction
Schiemann reaction
The Schiemann reaction is a chemical reaction in which anilines are transformed to aryl fluorides via diazonium fluoroborates...

 uses tetrafluoroborate
Tetrafluoroborate is the anion BF4−. This tetrahedral species is isoelectronic with tetrafluoromethane, CF4 and tetrafluoroammonium NF4+, and is valence isoelectronic with many stable and important species including the closely related anion perchlorate, ClO4−...

 and delivers the halide-substituted product, fluorobenzene
Fluorobenzene is the chemical compound with the formula C6H5F, often abbreviated PhF. This species is a derivative of benzene, with a single fluorine atom attached. Its melting point is 44 °C lower than that of benzene, indicative of the remarkable effect of fluorination on the intermolecular...

, which is not obtained by the use of copper fluoride
Copper fluoride
Copper fluoride could refer to:*Copper fluoride .*Copper fluoride ....


Sandmeyer reactions with copper salts used in catalytic amounts are also known. One bromination protocol employs a 0.2 equivalent Cu(I)/Cu(II) mixture with additional amounts of the bidentate ligand
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding between metal and ligand generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. The nature of metal-ligand bonding can range from...

Phenanthroline is a heterocyclic organic compound. As a bidentate ligand in coordination chemistry, it forms strong complexes with most metal ions...

 and phase-transfer catalyst dibenzo-18-crown-6
Dibenzo-18-crown-6 is a benzannulated crown ether. It is related to the non-benzannulated 18-crown-6. This compound may be synthesized from catechol and bisether:...


Amyl nitrites are also useful as reagents in a modification of the Sandmeyer reaction
Sandmeyer reaction
The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction used to synthesize aryl halides from aryl diazonium salts. It is named after the Swiss chemist Traugott Sandmeyer....

. The reaction of the alkyl nitrite with an aromatic amine
Amines are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. Amines are derivatives of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group. Important amines include amino acids, biogenic amines,...

 in a halogenated solvent produces a radical
Radical (chemistry)
Radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons on an open shell configuration. Free radicals may have positive, negative, or zero charge...

 aromatic species, this then abstracts a halogen
The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 IUPAC Style of the periodic table, comprising fluorine , chlorine , bromine , iodine , and astatine...

 atom from the solvent. For the synthesis of aryl iodide
Organoiodine compound
Organoiodine compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more carbon–iodine bonds. They occur widely in organic chemistry, but are relatively rare in nature...

s diiodomethane
Diiodomethane or methylene iodide, commonly abbreviated "MI", is a liquid organoiodine compound. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether and alcohol. It has a relatively high refractive index of 1.741, and a surface tension of 0.0508 N·m−1...

 is used, whereas bromoform
Bromoform is a pale yellowish liquid with a sweet odor similar to chloroform, a halomethane or haloform. Its refractive index is 1.595 . Bromoform is produced naturally by phytoplankton and seaweeds in the ocean and this is thought to be the predominant source to the environment...

 is the solvent of choice for the synthesis of aryl bromide
Organobromine compound
Organobromine compounds are organic compounds that contain carbon bonded to bromine. The most pervasive is the naturally produced bromomethane. One prominent application is the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers as fire-retardants. A variety of minor organobromine compounds are found in...

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