Proof
Encyclopedia
Proof may refer to:
• Proof (truth)
Proof (truth)
A proof is sufficient evidence or argument for the truth of a proposition.The concept arises in a variety of areas, with both the nature of the evidence or justification and the criteria for sufficiency being area-dependent...

, sufficient evidence or argument for the truth of a proposition
• Formal proof
Formal proof
A formal proof or derivation is a finite sequence of sentences each of which is an axiom or follows from the preceding sentences in the sequence by a rule of inference. The last sentence in the sequence is a theorem of a formal system...

• Mathematical proof
Mathematical proof
In mathematics, a proof is a convincing demonstration that some mathematical statement is necessarily true. Proofs are obtained from deductive reasoning, rather than from inductive or empirical arguments. That is, a proof must demonstrate that a statement is true in all cases, without a single...

, a convincing demonstration that some mathematical statement is necessarily true
• Proof theory
Proof theory
Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. Proofs are typically presented as inductively-defined data structures such as plain lists, boxed lists, or trees, which are constructed...

, a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects
• Alcohol proof, a measure of an alcoholic drink's strength
• Artist's proof
Artist's proof
An artist's proof is, at least in theory, an impression of a print taken in the printmaking process to see the current printing state of a plate while the plate is being worked on by the artist...

, a single print taken during the printmaking process
• Galley proof
Galley proof
In printing and publishing, proofs are the preliminary versions of publications meant for review by authors, editors, and proofreaders, often with extra wide margins. Galley proofs may be uncut and unbound, or in some cases electronic...

, a preliminary version of a publication
• Prepress proof
Prepress proofing
A Contract Proof usually serves as an agreement between customer and printer and as a color reference guide for adjusting the press before the final press run. Most contract proofs are a Prepress Proof....

, a facsimile of press artwork for job verification
• Proof coinage
Proof coinage
Proof coinage means special early samples of a coin issue, historically made for checking the dies and for archival purposes, but nowadays often struck in greater numbers specially for coin collectors . Many countries now issue them....

, coins once made as a test, but now specially struck for collectors
Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or computer monitor to detect and correct production-errors of text or art. Proofreaders are expected to be consistently accurate by default because they occupy the last stage of typographic production before publication.-Traditional method:A proof is...

, reviewing a manuscript or artwork for errors or improvements
• Proofing (baking technique)
Proofing (baking technique)
Proofing , as the term is used by professional bakers, is the final dough-rise step before baking, and refers to a specific rest period within the more generalized process known as fermentation...

, the process by which a yeast-leavened dough rises, also called "proving"

In entertainment:
• Proof (TV series)
Proof (TV series)
Proof is an Irish television mini-serial co-produced by Subotica for RTÉ in Ireland and TV2 in Denmark. Proof had two season the second season entitled Proof 2.-Production:...

, an Irish TV drama/thriller
• Proof (1991 film)
Proof (1991 film)
Proof is a 1991 Australian film by Jocelyn Moorhouse starring Hugo Weaving, Geneviève Picot and Russell Crowe. It was chosen as "Best Film" at the 1991 Australian Film Institute Awards, along with 5 other awards, including Moorhouse for "Best Director", Weaving for "Best Leading Actor", and Crowe...

, an Australian film by Jocelyn Moorhouse
• Proof (play)
Proof (play)
Proof is a play by David Auburn originally produced by the Manhattan Theatre Club on 23 May 2000. It then went to Broadway on 24 October 2000 at the Walter Kerr Theatre, and was directed by Daniel J. Sullivan, with Mary-Louise Parker as Catherine, Larry Bryggman as Robert, Ben Shenkman as Hal, and...

, a play by David Auburn
• Proof (2005 film)
Proof (2005 film)
Proof is a 2005 American drama film directed by John Madden and starring Anthony Hopkins, Gwyneth Paltrow, Jake Gyllenhaal, and Hope Davis; it was written by Rebecca Miller, based on David Auburn's Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same title.-Plot:...

, a film by John Madden, based on the play
• Proof (rapper)
Proof (rapper)
DeShaun Dupree Holton better known as Proof his stage name, was an American rapper from Detroit, Michigan. During his career, he was a member of the groups Goon Squad, 5 Elementz, Promatic, and most notably D12...

(1973–2006), American rapper and member of D12
• Proof (comics)
Proof (comics)
Proof is an American comic book series, published by Image Comics and created by writer Alex Grecian and artist Riley Rossmo. The story concerns John "Proof" Prufrock, a sasquatch, who works for a secret government organization. He hunts cryptids with his partner, Ginger Brown, and seeks clues to...

, a comic series from Image Comics
• "Proof", a 1942 hard SF short story by Hal Clement
Hal Clement
Harry Clement Stubbs better known by the pen name Hal Clement, was an American science fiction writer and a leader of the hard science fiction subgenre.-Biography:...

• "Proof", a song by Coldplay from "Speed of Sound
Speed of Sound (song)
"Speed of Sound" is a song by English alternative rock band Coldplay. It was written by all members of the band for their third album, X&Y. Built around a piano riff, the song builds into a huge, synthesizer-heavy chorus...

"
• "Proof" (I Am Kloot song)
Proof (I Am Kloot song)
"Proof" – a song by English band I Am Kloot.A demo version of "Proof" was released in 2001 as a B-side on the single "Morning Rain" from the album Natural History. This version is also included on the compilation album B from 2009....

, a song by I Am Kloot from their eponymous second album
• "Proof", a song by Paul Simon from The Rhythm of the Saints
The Rhythm of the Saints
The Rhythm of the Saints is the eighth studio album by Paul Simon, released in 1990. Like its predecessor Graceland, the album gained commercial success and received mostly favorable reviews from critics...

• "Proof", a song by Happy Rhodes from Many Worlds Are Born Tonight
Many Worlds Are Born Tonight
Many Worlds Are Born Tonight is the tenth album by American singer-songwriter Happy Rhodes.-Overview:Rhodes' first album on a larger independent label , leading to the All-Music Guide reviewer mistakenly describing this as her debut album."Roy " is the only Happy Rhodes track to have ever charted...

• "Proof", a song by angela
Angela (band)
Angela is a Japanese pop band that's best known for theme songs of anime television shows. The main members are atsuko and KATSU. Their signature upbeat tunes and rich arrangements is a dazzling mix of electronica, dance, rock, swing jazz and ska...

• "Proof", a song by Mell
Mell
Mell is a female Japanese singer from Sapporo, Japan. She is a senior vocalist of I've Sound, and one of the main vocalists. She has released six singles and one solo album...

• Proofing (disambiguation)
• Argument
Argument
In philosophy and logic, an argument is an attempt to persuade someone of something, or give evidence or reasons for accepting a particular conclusion.Argument may also refer to:-Mathematics and computer science:...

• Theory of justification
Theory of justification
Theory of justification is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant, rationality, and probability...

, in epistemology, a reason for or explanation of a proposition or belief
• Philosophic burden of proof
Philosophic burden of proof
The philosophic burden of proof is the obligation on a party in an epistemic dispute to provide sufficient warrant for their position.-Holder of the burden:When debating any issue, there is an implicit burden of proof on the person asserting a claim...

• Proof complexity
Proof complexity
In computer science, proof complexity is a measure of efficiency of automated theorem proving methods that is based on the size of the proofs they produce. The methods for proving contradiction in propositional logic are the most analyzed...

• Proof procedure
Proof procedure
In logic, and in particular proof theory, a proof procedure for a given logic is a systematic method for producing proofs in some proof calculus of statements....

• Provability logic
Provability logic
Provability logic is a modal logic, in which the box operator is interpreted as 'it is provable that'. The point is to capture the notion of a proof predicate of a reasonably rich formal theory, such as Peano arithmetic....

• A recursively enumerable set
Recursively enumerable set
In computability theory, traditionally called recursion theory, a set S of natural numbers is called recursively enumerable, computably enumerable, semidecidable, provable or Turing-recognizable if:...

, also known as a "provable set"
• Homeopathic proving, a homeopathic procedure
• Proof of concept
Proof of concept
A proof of concept or a proof of principle is a realization of a certain method or idea to demonstrate its feasibility, or a demonstration in principle, whose purpose is to verify that some concept or theory that has the potential of being used...

• Proof test
Proof test
A proof test is a test wherein a deliberately over-pressured round is fired from a firearm in order to verify that the firearm is not defective and will not explode on firing. The firearm is inspected after the test, and if it is found to be in sound condition, then it is marked with a proof mark...

, for a firearm

### Legal

• Evidence
Evidence
Evidence in its broadest sense includes everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth of an assertion. Giving or procuring evidence is the process of using those things that are either presumed to be true, or were themselves proven via evidence, to demonstrate an assertion's truth...

, information which tends to determine or demonstrate the truth of a proposition
• Evidence (law)
Evidence (law)
The law of evidence encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding. These rules determine what evidence can be considered by the trier of fact in reaching its decision and, sometimes, the weight that may be given to that evidence...

, tested evidence or a legal proof
• Legal burden of proof