A naukograd meaning "science city", is a formal term for towns with high concentration of research and development facilities in Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, some specifically built by the Soviet Union for these purposes. Some of the towns were secret, and were part of a larger system of closed cities
Closed city
A closed city or closed town is a settlement with travel and residency restrictions in the Soviet Union and some of its successor countries. In modern Russia, such places are officially known as "closed administrative-territorial formations" ....

 in the USSR, many built by forced labor from the Soviet Gulag
The Gulag was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems. While the camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners, large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD troikas and other instruments of...

. In the Russian Federation in post Soviet times
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was the disintegration of the federal political structures and central government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , resulting in the independence of all fifteen republics of the Soviet Union between March 11, 1990 and December 25, 1991...

, the term is used generally for about seventy towns that have concentrations of scientific research and production, and specifically, refers to a small number of towns that have been recognised for their scientific capabilities and hence get special privileges.

Of the more general naukograds, about thirty are located in Moscow Oblast
Moscow Oblast
Moscow Oblast , or Podmoskovye , is a federal subject of Russia . Its area, at , is relatively small compared to other federal subjects, but it is one of the most densely populated regions in the country and, with the 2010 population of 7,092,941, is the second most populous federal subject...

 and the rest mainly in the Volga, Urals, and Siberia
Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

n regions. Few are now "closed"— there are only ten closed nuclear towns where Russia's nuclear military work is still carried out. Some still have military connections, like Fryazino
Fryazino is a scientific town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Lyuboseyevka River northeast of the city of Moscow. Population: Fryazino is a center of the Russian microwave electronics.-History:...

 that develops advanced radio and electronics devices, but most are now focusing on civilian work with the help of Western aid funds. Some naukograds are operated by the Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of the national academy of Russia and a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation as well as auxiliary scientific and social units like libraries, publishers and hospitals....

, among them: Pushchino
Pushchino is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated south of Moscow, on the right side of the Oka River opposite the Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve. As it can be confused with other towns with similar names, it is informally called Pushchino-on-Oka...

, a biological sciences center and Chernogolovka
Chernogolovka is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located northeast from Moscow border. Population: Chernogolovka does not have a rail link but long distance buses link the town to Moscow, Noginsk and Fryanovo.-Research facilities:...

, a center for physics and chemistry. Zelenograd
Zelenograd is a city, which, along with the territories and settlements under its jurisdiction, forms one of the administrative okrugs of Moscow - Zelenograd Administrative Okrug...

 (a city and an administrative district of Moscow located forty kilometres from the city centre), is the Russian center for research, education and production in the electronics area.

The first town to be officially made a "Naukograd" in 2000 was Obninsk
Obninsk is a city in Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located southwest of Moscow. Population: Obninsk is one of the major Russian science cities. The first nuclear power plant in the world for the large-scale production of electricity opened here on June 27, 1954, and it also doubled as a training...

, a town with many nuclear and other special materials, meteorology and medical research facilities. Three others quickly followed: Dubna
Dubna is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. It has a status of naukograd , being home to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, an international nuclear physics research centre and one of the largest scientific foundations in the country. It is also home to MKB Raduga, a defence aerospace company...

, an international nuclear research centre; Korolyov
Korolyov (city)
Korolyov or Korolev is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration. It was originally founded as Kaliningrad in 1938 by Vasily Boldyrev, Naum Nosovsky, and Mikhail Loginov as the leading Soviet center for production of anti-tank...

, where many space research facilities are located; and Koltsovo
Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast
Koltsovo is an urban locality in Novosibirsky District of Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia, located from Novosibirsk. Population: Municipally, Koltsovo is incorporated as Koltsovo Urban Okrug...

, near Akademgorodok
Akademgorodok , is a part of the Russian city Novosibirsk, located 20 km south of the city center. It is the educational and scientific centre of Siberia...

, originally the home of the biowarfare center Vector but now a center for pharmaceutical and medical research. Shortly thereafter (December 2003), Reutov
Reútov is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located east of Moscow. Population: 50,200 .In 2007, Reutov was named one of the best places to live in the Russian Federation in the category of small towns with a population of fewer than 100,000 people....

 and Fryazino
Fryazino is a scientific town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Lyuboseyevka River northeast of the city of Moscow. Population: Fryazino is a center of the Russian microwave electronics.-History:...

were also granted the status of naukograd.
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