Zelenograd is a city, which, along with the territories and settlements under its jurisdiction, forms one of the administrative okrugs
Administrative divisions of Moscow
The federal city of Moscow, Russia is divided into ten administrative okrugs, which are in turn subdivided into districts . The city does not have a downtown area; the urban core is scattered across the city. Prominent business areas include Tverskoy, Arbat, and Presnensky Districts to the east...

 of Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 - Zelenograd Administrative Okrug (ZelAO). It is located 37 kilometres (23 mi) from the center of the Russian capital along Leningradskoye Shosse highway.


Zelenograd was one of the most powerful centers of electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

, microelectronics
Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. As the name suggests, microelectronics relates to the study and manufacture of very small electronic components. Usually, but not always, this means micrometre-scale or smaller,. These devices are made from semiconductors...

 and computer industry
Computer industry
Computer industry is a collective term used to describe the whole range of businesses involved in developing computer software, designing computer hardware and computer networking infrastructures, the manufacture of computer components and the provision of information technology services.-See...

 in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, and it still plays a similar role in modern Russia. It was developed as a reflection of the California Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley is a term which refers to the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The region is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations...

 and known also as Soviet/Russian Silicon Valley.

Zelenograd was founded in 1958 and planned as center of textile industry
Textile industry
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the production of yarn, and cloth and the subsequent design or manufacture of clothing and their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry....

 initially. In 1962 Alexander Shokin (Chairman of State Committee of Electronic Technology, then first Minister of Electronic Technology) proposed to changed the line of future city business to electronics. Some researchers of Soviet electronics history mentioned, that similar idea was proposed to the Soviet government by two fugitive Silicon Valley engineers - Alfred Sarant
Alfred Sarant
Alfred Epaminondas Sarant, also known as Filipp Georgievich Staros and Philip Georgievich Staros , was an engineer and a member of the Communist party in New York City in 1944. He was part of the Rosenberg spy ring that reported to Soviet intelligence...

 (more known in Russia as Philip Staros) and Joel Barr
Joel Barr
Joel Barr , also Iozef Veniaminovich Berg and Joseph Berg, was part of the Soviet Atomic Spy Ring...

 (Joseph Berg).

Before 1989 Zelenograd was a de-facto closed city
Closed city
A closed city or closed town is a settlement with travel and residency restrictions in the Soviet Union and some of its successor countries. In modern Russia, such places are officially known as "closed administrative-territorial formations" ....

 in some aspect: it was prohibited to take photos in the central parts of the city, near the plants, teaching and research facilities and the foreigners were not admitted into the city, as the buses entering the city were sporadically checked at the border.

As Zelenograd was built de novo on a previously empty, forested place, its architecture and civic layout yields to one general architectural plan
Architectural plan
An architectural plan is a plan for architecture, and the documentation of written and graphic descriptions of the architectural elements of a building project including sketches, drawings and details.- Overview :...

 (chief architects Igor Rozhin (1956–1963), then Igor Pokrovsky (1963–2002)).

In 1988, Zelenograd incorporated the former village of Kryukovo, one of the important sites during the Battle of Moscow
Battle of Moscow
The Battle of Moscow is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II. It took place between October 1941 and January 1942. The Soviet defensive effort frustrated Hitler's attack on Moscow, capital of...

 (October 1941 – January 1942). Several monuments to the Defenders of Moscow and the heroes of the Great Patriotic War are located in Zelenograd and the surrounding area, the most famous of which is the Shtyki Memorial
Shtyki Memorial
The Shtyki Memorial , also named the Monument to the Defenders of Moscow , is a memorial complex in honour of those who defended Russia in the Battle of Moscow. At the site are a common grave and an architectural complex. It is located on the 40th km of Leningrad highway, at the second entry into...

, from which the remains of the Unknown Soldier
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Moscow)
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a war memorial, dedicated to the Soviet soldiers killed during World War II...

 were taken for reinterment at the Kremlin Wall
Kremlin Wall
The Kremlin Wall is a defensive wall that surrounds the Moscow Kremlin, recognizable by the characteristic notches and its Kremlin towers. The original walls were likely a simple wooden fence with guard towers built in 1156.-History:...

 in the Alexander Garden
Alexander Garden
Alexander Gardens was one of the first urban public parks in Moscow, Russia. The park comprises three separate gardens, which stretch along all the length of the western Kremlin wall for between the building of the Moscow Manege and the Kremlin.-History:...

 in Moscow.

Zelenograd is home to the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology
Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology
National Research University of Electronic Technology / MIET — is a Russian technical university in the field of microelectronics and one of 29 National Research Universities. University is founded in 1965 as Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology and located in Zelenograd, Moscow...


Zelenograd was headquarters of Sitronics
Sitronics is a microelectronics company based in Moscow, Russia and controlled by Sistema holding. Its main assets are the electronics fabs, research and development facilities in Zelenograd and elsewhere in Eastern Europe....

 Concerne since its founding in 1997 until 2005 (when its headquarters moved to Moscow). Now the city is the headquarters of its microelectroniс solutions department. The leading company of the department is NIIME and Mikron (Mikron) - the one of two largest Russian integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is an electronic circuit manufactured by the patterned diffusion of trace elements into the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material...

s manufacturers. Also the city is the headquarters of Angstrem, which is another largest Russian ICs manufacturer.

A local soccer team Zelenograd
FC Zelenograd
FC Zelenograd is an association football club from Zelenograd, Moscow. The club was founded in 2002 and as of today it plays in the Russian championship between amateur football clubs, which is the fourth level of the Russian football league system....

(nickname — Zeleno-Belye (Green-Whites)) was founded in 2002 and in 2007-2010 had been playing in the Russian Second Division
Russian Second Division
The Russian Second Division is the third level of Russian professional football.In 1998–2010, it was run by the Professional Football League....

. A local rugby team Zelenograd was founded in 2006 and played in Russian Rugby Championship 2008 (but it could not get to Championship 2009).

The city color is green
Green is a color, the perception of which is evoked by light having a spectrum dominated by energy with a wavelength of roughly 520–570 nanometres. In the subtractive color system, it is not a primary color, but is created out of a mixture of yellow and blue, or yellow and cyan; it is considered...

 and its emblemic animal is the squirrel
Squirrels belong to a large family of small or medium-sized rodents called the Sciuridae. The family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots , flying squirrels, and prairie dogs. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa and have been introduced to Australia...

 (more precisely Sciurus vulgaris).

The Skhodnya River
Skhodnya River
Skhodnya River , also known as Sukhodnya, Vkhodnya, Vykhodnya and Vskhodnya is a river in the northwest of Moscow, the second largest tributary of the Moskva River. The length of the Skhodnya is 47 km . The area of its basin is 17,2 km²...

 originates near the village of Alabushevo (one of settlements, which are under Zelenograd jurisdiction) and forms three ponds within the precincts of city: Water-tower Pond (School Lake), Small and Large City Pond.

Administrative divisions

Zelenograd is divided into five districts.
  • Matushkino , earlier Number 1
  • Savyolki , earlier Number 2
  • Staroye Kryukovo
    Staroye Kryukovo District
    Staroye Kryukovo is a district of Moscow within Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug....

     , earlier Number 3
  • Silino , earlier Number 4
  • Kryukovo 

Sister cities

Tulsa (Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

, U.S.
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

) Unterschleißheim
Unterschleißheim is a town in Bavaria, Germany. It is located about 10 km north of the city limits of Munich, and has a population of 27,106 .-History:...

Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

, Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...


Patronized ships

  • Landing ship Caesar Kunikov, Black Sea Fleet (since 1998)
  • Nuclear submarine Zelenograd, Pacific Ocean Fleet (1998–2010, retired)
  • Supply ship Berezina, Black Sea Fleet (1995–1997, retired)

External links

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