Masanobu Fukuoka
was a Japanese farmer and philosopher celebrated for his natural farming
Natural farming
Natural farming is an ecological farming approach established by Masanobu Fukuoka , a Japanese farmer and philosopher who described his agricultural philosophy as in Japanese. It is also referred to as "the Fukuoka Method", "the natural way of farming" or "do-nothing farming"...

 and re-vegetation of desertified lands. He was a proponent of no-till
No-till farming
No-till farming is a way of growing crops from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage. No-till is an agricultural technique which increases the amount of water and organic matter in the soil and decreases erosion...

, no-herbicide grain
Cereals are grasses cultivated for the edible components of their grain , composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran...

 cultivation farming methods traditional to many indigenous cultures, from which he created a particular method of farming, commonly referred to as "Natural Farming" or "Do-Nothing Farming".

He was the author of several Japanese books, scientific papers and other publications, and was featured in television documentaries and interviews from the 1970s onwards. His influences went beyond farming to inspire individuals within the natural food and lifestyle movements. He was an outspoken advocate of the value of observing nature's principles.


Fukuoka was born on 2 February 1913 in Iyo, Ehime
Iyo, Ehime
is a city located in Ehime, Japan.On April 1, 2005, Iyo merged with the towns of Nakayama and Futami from the surrounding Iyo District to form the new city of Iyo, raising its population to over 40,000 and nearly quadrupling its area.-Geography:...

, Japan, the second son of Kameichi Fukuoka, an educated and wealthy land owner and local leader. He attended Gifu Prefecture
Gifu Prefecture
is a prefecture located in the Chūbu region of central Japan. Its capital is the city of Gifu.Located in the center of Japan, it has long played an important part as the crossroads of Japan, connecting the east to the west through such routes as the Nakasendō...

 Agricultural College and trained as a microbiologist
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell , cell clusters or no cell at all . This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes...

 and agricultural scientist
Agricultural science
Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. -Agriculture and agricultural science:The two terms are often confused...

, beginning a career as a research scientist specialising in plant pathology. He worked at the Plant Inspection Division of the Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

 Customs Bureau in 1934 as an agricultural customs inspector. In 1937 he was hospitalised with pneumonia, and while recovering he stated that he had a profound spiritual experience that transformed his world view and led him to doubt the practices of modern "Western" agricultural science
Agricultural science
Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. -Agriculture and agricultural science:The two terms are often confused...

. He immediately resigned from his post as a research scientist, returning to his family's farm on the island of Shikoku
is the smallest and least populous of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshū and east of the island of Kyūshū. Its ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima , Iyo-shima , and Futana-shima...

 in southern Japan.

From 1938, Fukuoka began to practise and experiment with new techniques on organic
Organic farming
Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm...

 citrus orchards and used the observations gained to develop the idea of "Natural Farming". Amongst other practices, he abandoned pruning an area of the citrus trees, which caused the trees to become affected by insects and tangled branches. He stated that the experience taught him the difference between nature and non-intervention. His efforts were interrupted by World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, during which he worked at the Kōchi Prefecture
Kochi Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located on the south coast of Shikoku. The capital is the city of Kōchi.- History :Prior to the Meiji Restoration, Kōchi was known as Tosa Province and was controlled by the Chosokabe clan in the Sengoku period and the Yamauchi family during the Edo period.- Geography...

 agricultural experiment station on subjects including farming research and food production.

In 1940, Fukuoka married his wife Ayako and over his life they had five children together. After the war, his father lost most of the family lands due to forced redistribution by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following World War II...

 and was left with only three-eighths of an acre of rice land and the hillside citrus orchards his son had taken over before the war. Despite these setbacks, in 1947 he took up natural farming again with success, using no-till farming methods to raise rice and barley. He wrote his first book Mu: The God Revolution, or Mu: Kami no Kakumei in Japanese, during the same year and worked to spread word of the benefits of his methods and philosophy. His later book, The One-Straw Revolution
The One-Straw Revolution
The One Straw Revolution is a seminal book written by Masanobu Fukuoka concerning his methods of natural farming which has been highly influential with various organic farming and natural food and lifestyle movements.-External links:...

was published in 1975 and translated into English in 1978.

From 1979, Fukuoka travelled the world extensively, giving lectures, working directly to plant seeds and re-vegetate areas, and receiving a number of awards in various countries in recognition of his work and achievements. By the 1980s, Fukuoka recorded that he and his family shipped some 6,000 crates of citrus to Tokyo each year totalling about 90 tonnes.

During his first journey overseas, Fukuoka was accompanied by his wife Ayako, met macrobiotic diet leaders Michio Kushi
Michio Kushi
Michio Kushi born 1926 in Japan, helped to introduce modern macrobiotics to the United States in the early 1950s. He has lectured about philosophy, spiritual development, health, food and diseases at conferences and seminars all over the world.-Background:After World War II, Kushi studied with...

 and Herman Aihara, and was guided by his leading supporter and translation editor Larry Korn. They sowed seeds in desertified land, visited the University of California
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U.S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-tier public higher education system, which also includes the California State University...

 in Berkley
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley , is a teaching and research university established in 1868 and located in Berkeley, California, USA...

 and Los Angeles
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university located in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, USA. It was founded in 1919 as the "Southern Branch" of the University of California and is the second oldest of the ten campuses...

, the Green Gulch Farm Zen Center
Green Gulch Farm Zen Center
Green Gulch Farm Zen Center, or Soryu-ji is a Soto Zen practice center located near Muir Beach, California that practices in the lineage of Shunryu Suzuki. In addition to its Zen training program, the center also manages an organic farm and gardens...

, the Lundberg Family Farms
Lundberg Family Farms
Lundberg Family Farms, based in Richvale, California in the United States, produces, packages, and markets organic foods. It is family owned and has been a pioneer in organic farming, especially rice products. It was the first business to produce and market a brand of organic rice in the United...

, and met with United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 UNCCD representatives including Maurice Strong
Maurice Strong
Maurice F. Strong, PC, CC, OM, FRSC is a Canadian entrepreneur and a former under-secretary general of the United Nations. Strong's first name is pronounced "Mor'ris" with the accent on the first syllable....

, who encouraged Fukuoka's practical involvement in the "Plan of Action to Combat Desertification". He also travelled to New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 and surrounding areas such as Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

 and the Amherst College
Amherst College
Amherst College is a private liberal arts college located in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States. Amherst is an exclusively undergraduate four-year institution and enrolled 1,744 students in the fall of 2009...

 in Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...


In 1983, he travelled to Europe for fifty days holding workshops, educating farmers and sowing seeds. In 1985, he spent forty days in Somalia
Somalia , officially the Somali Republic and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic under Socialist rule, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. Since the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991 there has been no central government control over most of the country's territory...

 and Ethiopia
Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

, sowing seeds in areas of desert to re-vegetate them, including working in remote villages and a refugee camp. The following year he returned to the United States, speaking at three international conferences on natural farming in Washington state
Washington State
Washington State may refer to:* Washington , often referred to as "Washington state" to differentiate it from Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States* Washington State University, a land-grant college in that state- See also :...

, San Francisco and at the Agriculture Department of the University of California, Santa Cruz
University of California, Santa Cruz
The University of California, Santa Cruz, also known as UC Santa Cruz or UCSC, is a public, collegiate university; one of ten campuses in the University of California...

. Fukuoka also took the opportunity to visit farms, forests and cities giving lectures and meeting people. In 1988, he lectured at the Indian Science Congress, state agricultural universities and other venues.

Fukuoka went to Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 in 1990 and 1991, visiting farms and collecting seeds for re-vegetating deserts in India which he returned to during November and December of the same year to sow seeds in the deserts for two months in an attempt to re-vegetate them. The next year saw him participate in official meetings in Japan associated with the Rio Earth Summit
Earth Summit
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development , also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 June to 14 June 1992.-Overview:...

 being held in Brazil, and in 1996 he returned to Africa, sowing seeds in desert areas of Tanzania
The United Republic of Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern borders lie on the Indian Ocean.Tanzania is a state...

, observing Baobab
Adansonia is a genus of eight species of tree, six native to Madagascar, one native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and one to Australia. The mainland African species also occurs on Madagascar, but it is not a native of that island....

 trees and jungle country. He taught the making and sowing of clay seed balls in Vietnam during 1995 and attended the World Expo 2005
Expo 2005
Expo 2005 was the World's Fair held for 185 days between Friday, March 25 and Sunday, September 25, 2005, in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, east of the city of Nagoya. It was a Specialized International Exhibition under the scheme of the 1972 protocol of the Convention relating to International Exhibitions...

 in Aichi Prefecture
Aichi Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region. The region of Aichi is also known as the Tōkai region. The capital is Nagoya. It is the focus of the Chūkyō Metropolitan Area.- History :...

, Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...


He travelled to the Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 in 1998, carrying out Natural Farming research, and visited Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 later that year to assist plans to re-vegetate 10,000 hectares around the Lake Vegoritis area in the Pella Prefecture
Pella Prefecture
Pella is one of the regional units of Greece, in the geographic region of Macedonia. It is part of the Region of Central Macedonia. It is named after the ancient city of Pella, the capital of ancient Macedonia. The capital of Pella is Edessa....

 and to produce a film of the major seed ball effort. The next year he returned to Europe, visiting Mallorca
Majorca or Mallorca is an island located in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the Balearic Islands.The capital of the island, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. The Cabrera Archipelago is administratively grouped with Majorca...


He visited China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 in 2001, and in 2002 he returned again to India to speak at the "Nature as Teacher" workshop at Navdanya
Navdanya is an Indian-based non-governmental organization which promotes biodiversity conservation, biodiversity, organic farming, the rights of farmers, and the process of seed saving. One of Navdanya's founders, and outspoken members, is Vandana Shiva, an environmental activist, physicist, and...

 Farm and at Bija Vidyapeeth Earth University in Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand , formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Land of Gods due to the many holy Hindu temples and cities found throughout the state, some of which are among Hinduism's most spiritual and auspicious places of pilgrimage and worship...

 in northern India. On Gandhi's Day
Gandhi Jayanti
Gandhi Jayanti is a National Holiday celebrated in India to mark the occasion of the birthday of Mohandas Gandhi, the "Father of the Nation." He was born on October 2, 1869. Hence Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated every year on the 2nd of October. It is one of the three official declared National...

, he gave the third annual Albert Howard
Albert Howard
Sir Albert Howard was an English botanist, an organic farming pioneer, and a principal figure in the early organic movement. He is considered by many in the English-speaking world as the father of modern organic agriculture....

 Memorial Lecture to attendees from all six continents. That autumn he was to visit Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

 with Yuko Honma but was unable to attend, shipping eight tons of seed in his stead. In 2006 he appeared in an hour long interview on Japanese television network NHK
NHK is Japan's national public broadcasting organization. NHK, which has always identified itself to its audiences by the English pronunciation of its initials, is a publicly owned corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee....


Masanobu Fukuoka died on 16 August 2008, at the age of 95, after a period of confinement in bed and in a wheelchair.

Natural Farming

Fukuoka called his agricultural philosophy , most commonly translated into English as "natural farming
Natural farming
Natural farming is an ecological farming approach established by Masanobu Fukuoka , a Japanese farmer and philosopher who described his agricultural philosophy as in Japanese. It is also referred to as "the Fukuoka Method", "the natural way of farming" or "do-nothing farming"...

". It is also referred to as "the Fukuoka Method", "the natural way of farming" or "Do-Nothing Farming", despite being labor intensive.

The system is based on the recognition of the complexity of living organisms that shape an ecosystem and deliberately exploiting it. Fukuoka saw farming not just as a means of producing food but as an aesthetic and spiritual approach to life, the ultimate goal of which was "the cultivation and perfection of human beings".

The five principles of Natural Farming are that:
  • human cultivation of soil, plowing or tilling
    Tilling can mean:* Tilling * TILLING * Tilling is a fictional town in the Mapp and Lucia novels of E. F. Benson....

     are unnecessary, as is the use of powered machines
  • prepared fertilizer
    Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. A recent assessment found that about 40 to 60% of crop yields are attributable to commercial fertilizer use...

    s are unnecessary, as is the process of preparing compost
  • weeding, either by cultivation or by herbicides, is unnecessary. Instead only minimal weed suppression with minimal disturbance
  • applications of pesticide
    Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.A pesticide may be a chemical unicycle, biological agent , antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest...

    s or herbicide
    Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often synthetic "imitations" of plant...

    s are unnecessary
  • pruning of fruit trees is unnecessary

Clay seed balls

Fukuoka re-invented and advanced the use of clay seed balls. Clay seeds balls
Seed ball
Seed balls, also known as "earth balls" or nendo dango and tsuchi dango , consist of a variety of different seeds rolled within a ball of clay, preferably volcanic plastic red clay. Into this medium various additives may be included, such as humus or compost. These are placed around the seeds, at...

 were originally an ancient practice in which seeds for the next season's crops are mixed together, sometimes with humus or compost
Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost is a key ingredient in organic farming. At its most essential, the process of composting requires simply piling up waste outdoors and waiting for the materials to break down from anywhere...

 for microbial inoculants, and then are rolled within clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

 to form into small balls. This method is now commonly used in guerilla gardening to rapidly seed restricted or private areas.


In 1988, Fukuoka received India's most prestigious award, the Desikottam Award as well as the Ramon Magsaysay Award
Ramon Magsaysay Award
The Ramon Magsaysay Award is an annual award established to perpetuate former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay's example of integrity in government, courageous service to the people, and pragmatic idealism within a democratic society. The Ramon Magsaysay Award is often considered Asia's Nobel...

 for Public Service in the Philippines', often considered "Asia's Nobel Prize".

In March 1997, the Earth Summit+5 forum in Rio de Janeiro elected to award him with the Earth Council Award, which he received in person at a ceremony in Tokyo on May 26 that year, honoring him for his contributions to sustainable development.

In 1998, Fukuoka received a grant of US$10,000 from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund
Rockefeller Brothers Fund
The Rockefeller Brothers Fund , , is an international philanthropic organisation created and run by members of the Rockefeller family. It was set up in New York City in 1940 as the primary philanthropic vehicle of the five famous Rockefeller brothers: John D...

 but the grant was returned because his advanced age prevented him from completing the project.


In the preface to The One Straw Revolution, Wendell Berry wrote that the Natural Farming system would not be directly applicable to most American farms. In fact, Fukuoka’s techniques have proved difficult to apply, even on most Japanese farms, and is too technically demanding for most people to follow. Despite this, in the international development of the organic farming movement, Fukuoka is considered to be amongst the "five giant personalities who inspired the movement" along with Austrian Rudolf Steiner
Rudolf Steiner
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist. He gained initial recognition as a literary critic and cultural philosopher...

, German-Swiss Hans Müller, Lady Eve Balfour
Lady Eve Balfour
Lady Evelyn Barbara "Eve" Balfour was an English farmer, educator, organic farming pioneer, and a founding figure in the organic movement. She was one of the first women to study agriculture at an English university, graduating from the University of Reading.The daughter of the second Earl of...

 in the United Kingdom and J.I. Rodale in the United States.

One Straw Revolution has been translated into over 20 languages and sold more than one million copies and Fukuoka has been widely influential, inspiring an international movement of individuals investigating and applying his principles to varying degrees, such as Akinori Kimura, David Mas Masumoto
David Mas Masumoto
David "Mas" Masumoto is an organic peach and grape farmer and author of Epitaph for a Peach , which offers a glimpse of life on a family farm in Central California, Letters to the Valley, A Harvest of Memories , Four Seasons in Five Senses, Things Worth Savoring , and Harvest Son, Planting Roots in...

, Yoshikazu Kawaguchi
Yoshikazu Kawaguchi
is the leading Japanese practitioner of the “natural farming” method popularized by Masanobu Fukuoka and has farmed by this method in Sakurai City, Nara Prefecture for 30 years...

, and has significantly influenced alternative movements in the West, such as permaculture
Permaculture is an approach to designing human settlements and agricultural systems that is modeled on the relationships found in nature. It is based on the ecology of how things interrelate rather than on the strictly biological concerns that form the foundation of modern agriculture...


His books are considered both farming compendiums and guides to a way of life. His influence likened to that of a "strict and authoritarian grandfather figure" having a tendency to "theorize in a grand way" but not always be practical. Fukuoka theorized that any ecological system forms an extremely complex "network of relationality" and is "holistic system", and this included farms themselves. His ideology disregarded causal associations in farming systems, believing that attention should not be on the crops but on the system as a whole. For example, he did not focus on the idea of "harmful insects" requiring to be dealt with, in his system the crops in the farm had to become strong enough to resist insects.

In Northern Thailand, his visit organized by a former student was influential in the rapid and widespread adoption of organic and chemical-free rice agriculture.


In some applications, Fukuoka’s famous ‘do-nothing’ techniques have been criticized as “grow-nothing” techniques, leading to crop failures and requiring many years of adaption to make them work. Despite its simple appearance, his technique has been described as sophisticated and in the initial years of transition from conventional, there is some loss in crop yield, estimated by Fukuoka himself to be about 10%.

Critics argue that he was too focused on the "inner world" and its connection with nature, and did not give attention to the realm of interpersonal relationships or society which are also an essential part of living, and his rejection of mechanization was not justifiable for modern agricultural production. Fukuoka had few followers or associates in his own native country of Japan.

Recent developments

His farm in Shikoku changed hands to his son and daughter-in-law gradually during the late 1980s, as Fukuoka reached an advanced age and his grandson now also farms. The family orchards of iyo-kan
The iyokan , also known as anadomikan , is a Japanese citrus fruit. It is the second most widely produced citrus fruit in Japan after the unshū mikan. It was discovered in the Meiji era in Yamaguchi Prefecture. It is now produced mostly in Ehime Prefecture.The peel is thicker than a mikan, but it...

, amanatsu mikan
is a yellowish orange citrus fruit, a group of cultivars of natsumikan , which were discovered in 1740 in the Yamaguchi prefecture of Japan. Natsumikan is about the size of grapefruit and oblate in shape. The fruit contains 12 segments and about 30 seeds.Natsumikan is grown commercially in Japan,...

 and related varieties of citrus, and many more fruit and other trees remain. Many of his iyo-kan and amanatsu mikan trees are still growing, although some old iyo-kan were replaced by new varieties of fruit due to old age. Woodlands remain along with orchards, including some areas of wild vegetables still growing amongst them. Some areas of straw-mulched cropping continue to produce grains and vegetables.

The farm now also features an orchard area of ginko trees, shiitake
The Shiitake is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries, as well as being dried and exported to many countries around the world. It is a feature of many Asian cuisines including Vietnamese, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Thai...

 mushroom crops grow on tree logs in shady woodland, and recent new plantings of lime
Lime (fruit)
Lime is a term referring to a number of different citrus fruits, both species and hybrids, which are typically round, green to yellow in color, 3–6 cm in diameter, and containing sour and acidic pulp. Limes are a good source of vitamin C. Limes are often used to accent the flavors of foods and...

s, grapefruit
The grapefruit , is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour fruit, an 18th-century hybrid first bred in Barbados. When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit"; it has also been misidentified with the pomelo or shaddock , one of the parents of this hybrid, the other being sweet orange The...

s, feijoa
Acca sellowiana, a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, is native to the highlands of southern Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, and northern Argentina. It is widely cultivated as a garden plant and fruiting tree in New Zealand, and can be found as a garden plant in Australia and...

s, avocado
The avocado is a tree native to Central Mexico, classified in the flowering plant family Lauraceae along with cinnamon, camphor and bay laurel...

s and mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

s exist.

Some new experimentation is taking place but, for the most part, the family does not adhere strictly to Fukuoka's method.

Journals and papers

- prepared while working at the .


  • 'To Live on Earth - Fukuoka Masanobu visits India'. Director: Imaizumi, Koji. SALBONG発行, Japan 1997.

See also

  • Conservation Agriculture
    Conservation agriculture
    Conservation agriculture [CA] can be defined by a statement given by the as “a concept for resource-saving agricultural crop production that strives to achieve acceptable profits together with high and sustained production levels while concurrently conserving the environment” .Agriculture...

  • Ecoagriculture
    Ecoagriculture describes landscapes that support both agricultural production and biodiversity conservation, working in harmony together to improve the livelihoods of rural communities....

  • Ecosystem restoration
    Ecosystem restoration
    Ecosystem restoration is the return of a damaged ecological system to a stable, healthy, and sustainable state, often together with associated ecosystem services-Rationale:There are many reasons to restore ecosystems. Some include:...

  • Mokichi Okada
    Mokichi Okada
    Mokichi Okada was the founder of the Church of World Messianity, in which he is known by the honorific title Meishū-sama...

  • Nature farming
  • Permaculture
    Permaculture is an approach to designing human settlements and agricultural systems that is modeled on the relationships found in nature. It is based on the ecology of how things interrelate rather than on the strictly biological concerns that form the foundation of modern agriculture...

  • Reconciliation Ecology
    Reconciliation ecology
    Reconciliation ecology is the branch of ecology which studies ways to encourage biodiversity in human-dominated ecosystems. Michael Rosenzweig first articulated the concept in his book Win-Win Ecology, based on the theory that there is not enough area for all of Earth’s biodiversity to be saved...

  • Rewilding
    Rewilding (Conservation Biology)
    Rewilding is large-scale conservation aimed at restoring and protecting core wilderness areas, providing connectivity between such areas, and protecting or reintroducing apex predators and keystone species...

  • Satoyama
    is a Japanese term applied to the border zone or area between mountain foothills and arable flat land. Literally, sato means arable and livable land or home land, and yama means mountain...

  • Seed ball
    Seed ball
    Seed balls, also known as "earth balls" or nendo dango and tsuchi dango , consist of a variety of different seeds rolled within a ball of clay, preferably volcanic plastic red clay. Into this medium various additives may be included, such as humus or compost. These are placed around the seeds, at...

  • Soil structure
    Soil structure
    Soil structure is determined by how individual soil granules clump or bind together and aggregate, and therefore, the arrangement of soil pores between them...

  • Spiritual ecology
    Spiritual ecology
    Spiritual ecology is a recent term that refers to the intersection between religion and spirituality and environment . Practitioners of spiritual ecology fall into three categories: the scientific and academic, spiritual or religious environmentalism, and religious or spiritual individuals who...

  • Symbiosis
    Symbiosis is close and often long-term interaction between different biological species. In 1877 Bennett used the word symbiosis to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens...

  • Yoshikazu Kawaguchi
    Yoshikazu Kawaguchi
    is the leading Japanese practitioner of the “natural farming” method popularized by Masanobu Fukuoka and has farmed by this method in Sakurai City, Nara Prefecture for 30 years...

  • Shripad Dabholkar
    Shripad Dabholkar
    Shripad A. Dabholkar was an intellectual and activist from India born in 1924 and died May 2001. He was the founder of a non-structured methodology of grassroot networking for nature-friendly and human-friendly neighbourhood development called the Prayog Pariwar methodology.This approach to farming...

External links

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