Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan
A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with timing and resources, used to achieve an objective. See also strategy. It is commonly understood as a temporal set of intended actions, through which one expects to achieve a goal...

, idea, model
Scientific modelling
Scientific modelling is the process of generating abstract, conceptual, graphical and/or mathematical models. Science offers a growing collection of methods, techniques and theory about all kinds of specialized scientific modelling...

, design
Design as a noun informally refers to a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system while “to design” refers to making this plan...

, specification, standard
Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards.The goals of standardization can be to help with independence of single suppliers , compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality....

, algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning...

, or policy
A policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome. The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done, this is normally referred to as either procedure or protocol...


Computer Science

In computer science
Computer science
Computer science or computing science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems...

, an implementation is a realization of a technical specification or algorithm as a program
Computer program
A computer program is a sequence of instructions written to perform a specified task with a computer. A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the program's instructions in a central processor. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute...

, software component, or other computer system through programming and deployment
Software deployment
Software deployment is all of the activities that make a software system available for use.The general deployment process consists of several interrelated activities with possible transitions between them. These activities can occur at the producer site or at the consumer site or both...

. Many implementations may exist for a given specification or standard. For example, web browser
Web browser
A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content...

s contain implementations of World Wide Web Consortium
World Wide Web Consortium
The World Wide Web Consortium is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web .Founded and headed by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the...

-recommended specifications, and software development tools contain implementations of programming languages.

IT Industry

In the IT Industry, implementation refers to post-sales process of guiding a client from purchase to use of the software or hardware that was purchased. This includes Requirements Analysis, Scope Analysis, Customizations, Systems Integrations, User Policies, User Training and Delivery. These steps are often overseen by a Project Manager using Project Management Methodologies set forth in the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Software Implementations involve several professionals that are relatively new to the knowledge based economy such as Business Analysts
Business Analysis
Business analysis is the discipline of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems. Solutions often include a systems development component, but may also consist of process improvement, organizational change or strategic planning and policy development...

, Technical Analysts
Technical analysis
In finance, technical analysis is security analysis discipline for forecasting the direction of prices through the study of past market data, primarily price and volume. Behavioral economics and quantitative analysis incorporate technical analysis, which being an aspect of active management stands...

, Solutions Architect
Solutions Architect
A Solutions Architect in Enterprise Architecture is a practitioner in the field of Solution Architecture.The role title has a wider meaning in relation to solving problems, but is more often used in the narrower domain of Technical architecture - the context for the remainder of this definition...

, and Project Managers.

IT Implementation and the Role of End users

System implementation generally benefits from high levels of user involvement and management support. User participation in the design and operation of information systems has several positive results. First, if users are heavily involved in systems design, they move opportunities to mold the system according to their priorities and business requirements, and more opportunities to control the outcome. Second, they are more likely to react positively to the change process. Incorporating user knowledge and expertise leads to better solutions.

The relationship between users and information systems specialists has traditionally been a problem area for information systems implementation efforts. Users and information systems specialists tend to have different backgrounds, interests, and priorities. This is referred to as the user-designer communications gap. These differences lead to divergent organizational loyalties, approaches to problem solving, and vocabularies. Examples of these differences or concerns are below:

User Concerns

  • Will the system deliver the information I need for my work?
  • How quickly can I access the data?
  • How easily can I retrieve the data?
  • How much clerical support will I need to enter data into the system?
  • How will the operation of the system fit into my daily business schedule?

Designer Concerns

  • How much disk storage space will the master file consume?
  • How many lines of program code will it take to perform this function?
  • Now can we cut down on CPU time when we run the system?
  • What are the most efficient ways of storing this data?
  • What database management system should we use?

Political Science

In political science
Political science
Political Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior...

, implementation refers to the carrying out of public policy
Public policy
Public policy as government action is generally the principled guide to action taken by the administrative or executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. In general, the foundation is the pertinent national and...

. Legislatures pass laws that are then carried out by public servants working in bureaucratic agencies
A bureaucracy is an organization of non-elected officials of a governmental or organization who implement the rules, laws, and functions of their institution, and are occasionally characterized by officialism and red tape.-Weberian bureaucracy:...

. This process consists of rule-making, rule-administration and rule-adjudication. Factors impacting implementation include the legislative intent, the administrative capacity of the implementing bureaucracy, interest group activity and opposition, and presidential or executive support.

Types of implementation

  • Direct changeover
    Direct changeover
    Direct changeover is one of the methods to change from an existing system to a new one. This is the simplest methods of changeover. Imagine a new checkout system for a supermarket...

  • Hot standby
  • Parallel running
    Parallel running
    Parallel running is one of the ways to change from an existing system to a new one.During changeover, a new system and an existing system run side by side. To input the same data and perform the same processes, compare their output and prove the reliability of the new system...

     or as known as parallel
  • Pilot introduction or as known as pilot
  • Well-trade

See also

  • Interface (computer science)
    Interface (computer science)
    In the field of computer science, an interface is a tool and concept that refers to a point of interaction between components, and is applicable at the level of both hardware and software...

  • Programming language implementation
    Programming language implementation
    A programming language implementation is a system for executing programs written in a programming language.There are two general approaches to programming language implementation:...

  • Algorithm
    In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning...

  • Application software
    Application software
    Application software, also known as an application or an "app", is computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with...

  • Code
    A code is a rule for converting a piece of information into another form or representation , not necessarily of the same type....

  • Computation
    Computation is defined as any type of calculation. Also defined as use of computer technology in Information processing.Computation is a process following a well-defined model understood and expressed in an algorithm, protocol, network topology, etc...

  • Function
  • Method (computer science)
    Method (computer science)
    In object-oriented programming, a method is a subroutine associated with a class. Methods define the behavior to be exhibited by instances of the associated class at program run time...

  • Process
    Process (computing)
    In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. It contains the program code and its current activity. Depending on the operating system , a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently.A computer program is a...

  • Proceeding
  • Procedure (disambiguation)
  • Scheme
    Scheme may refer to:* Scheme , a minimalist, multi-paradigm dialect of Lisp* Scheme , a concept in algebraic geometry* Scheme , a figure of speech that changes a sentence's structure-See also:...

  • Solution
    In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The solvent does the dissolving.- Types of solutions :...

  • System
    System is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole....

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