German–Turkish Non-Aggression Pact
The German-Turkish Non-Aggression Pact was signed between Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 and Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 on June 18, 1941 in Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

 by German ambassador to Turkey Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
Lieutenant-Colonel Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen zu Köningen was a German nobleman, Roman Catholic monarchist politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and as Vice-Chancellor under Adolf Hitler in 1933–1934...

 and Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkey)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for foreign affairs in Turkey. Professor Ahmet Davutoğlu is current Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey, appointed on May 1, 2009....

 Şükrü Saracoğlu
Sükrü Saracoglu
Mehmet Şükrü Saracoğlu was a Turkish politician and the sixth Prime Minister of Republic of Turkey. He was also the chairman of Fenerbahçe S.K. for 16 years between 1934-1950, including his time as prime minister as well.-Biography:...

. It became effective on the same day.

The pact was intended for a period of ten years, lasted however until October 24, 1945, when Turkey joined on United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...


Related events around Turkey before and after

After the outbreak of the World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 in 1939, Turkish president İsmet İnönü
Ismet Inönü
Mustafa İsmet İnönü was a Turkish Army General, Prime Minister and the second President of Turkey. In 1938, the Republican People's Party gave him the title of "Milli Şef" .-Family and early life:...

 pursued a policy of neutrality, and tried his country stayed out of act of war. He detained the fighting parties by asking of military equipment deliveries. On the other hand, Nazi Germany tried with diplomatic efforts to draw Turkey away from Britain.

As Germany prepared to invade Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...

 and Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 in April 1941, German troops came along to Bulgarian borders, and demanded permission to pass through its territory. On March 1, 1941, Bulgaria signed the Tripartite Pact
Tripartite Pact
The Tripartite Pact, also the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940, which established the Axis Powers of World War II...

, and so officially joined the Axis powers
Axis Powers
The Axis powers , also known as the Axis alliance, Axis nations, Axis countries, or just the Axis, was an alignment of great powers during the mid-20th century that fought World War II against the Allies. It began in 1936 with treaties of friendship between Germany and Italy and between Germany and...


On March 4, 1941, Franz von Papen forwarded a letter of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 to İnönü. In his letter, Hitler wrote that "he did not started the war, and he was not intending to attack Turkey". He emphasized further "he ordered his troops in Bulgaria to stay far from the Turkish border in order not to make out a false impression of their presence". Hitler offered a non-aggression pact
Non-aggression pact
A non-aggression pact is an international treaty between two or more states/countries agreeing to avoid war or armed conflict between them and resolve their disputes through peaceful negotiations...

 to Turkey.

A military coup d'état launched on April 1, 1941 by Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani overthrew the British sympathising regime in Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

. The four revolting generals worked close with German intelligence, and accepted military aid from Germany. Hitler asked Turkey for permission to pass through Turkish territory to give Iraq military assistance. The Turkish government demanded the execution of some border corrections with Iraq against the acceptance of the German request. As the negotiations were held, British forces attacked Iraq from April 18 on, and finally on June 3, Britain restored the regime of Emir Abdul-Illah
'Abd al-Ilah
Crown Prince Abd al-Ilāh of Hejaz, GCB, GCMG, GCVO was a cousin and brother-in-law of King Ghazi of the Kingdom of Iraq. Abdul Ilah served as Regent for King Faisal II from April 4, 1939 to May 2, 1953, when Faisal came of age...

, regent of four-year-old King Faisal II. The problem was resolved with this development.

On April 6, Axis powers' troops attacked Yugoslavia with Operation 25 and Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 with Operation Marita through Bulgaria in an effort to secure its southern flank. The invasion of Yugaslavia was accomplished on April 17. The annexation and occupation of the Balkan region
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

 by the Axis powers was completed.

While the German-Turkish relations entered a softening phase with İnönü's positive respond to Hitler, the Britains observed the developments with great anxiety. Soon, they declared that the four submarines, Turkey had ordered before and their delivery was delayed, were now ready to be handed out. The British government demanded a Turkish military mission to take over the submarines in England as soon as possible. The journey of the Turkish mission that should go from Mersin
-Mersin today:Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper , huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban...

 to England via British controlled Port Said
Port Said
Port Said is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about 30 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787...

, Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 found a tragic
Refah Tragedy
The Refah tragedy refers to a maritime disaster during World War II, when the cargo steamer Refah of neutral Turkey, carrying Turkish military personnel from Mersin in Turkey to Port Said, Egypt was sunk in eastern Mediterranean waters by a torpedo fired from an unidentified submarine...

 end on June 23, 1941, when their ship was torpedoed by an unidentified submarine, and most of the Turkish military personnel were killed.

On June 22, 1941, only four days after the signing of the German-Turkish Non-Aggression Pact, German troops crossed the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 borders starting Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that began on 22 June 1941. Over 4.5 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a front., the largest invasion in the history of warfare...

to invade the country.
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