Fort Kamehameha
Fort Kamehameha was a United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 military base that was the site of several coastal artillery
Coastal artillery
Coastal artillery is the branch of armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications....

 batteries to defend Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor, known to Hawaiians as Puuloa, is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet...

 starting in 1907 in Honolulu, Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii
Honolulu is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Hawaii. Honolulu is the southernmost major U.S. city. Although the name "Honolulu" refers to the urban area on the southeastern shore of the island of Oahu, the city and county government are consolidated as the City and...



The eastern areas of the fort were in the district called Moanalua
Moanalua is a valley, a stream, an ahupuaa, and a residential neighborhood in Honolulu, Hawaii. The valley extends inland from behind Āliapaakai crater to the crest of the Koʻolau Range....

. It was royal land won by conquest by Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I , also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaii's independence under his rule...

 in the 1790s and eventually passed to Bernice Pauahi Bishop
Bernice Pauahi Bishop
Bernice Pauahi Bishop , born Bernice Pauahi Pākī, was a Hawaiian princess, philanthropist, alii, and direct descendant of the royal House of Kamehameha. She was the great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I and last surviving heir...

 (named "Bishop's Point") and then inherited by Samuel Mills Damon
Samuel Mills Damon
Samuel Mills Damon was a businessman and politician in the Kingdom of Hawaii, through the Republic of Hawaii and into the Territory of Hawaii.-Life:Samuel Mills Damon was born in Honolulu on March 13, 1845....

 in 1884. The western side known as Halawa
Halawa, Hawaii
Halawa is a census-designated place in the ‘Ewa District of Honolulu County, Hawaii, United States. Halawa Stream branches into two valleys: North and South Halawa; North Halawa is the larger stream and fluvial feature. Their confluence is within the H-3/H-201 highways exchange. Most of Halawa...

, was the former beach-front estate of Queen Emma of Hawaii
Queen Emma of Hawaii
Queen Consort Emma Kalanikaumakaamano Kaleleonālani Naea Rooke of Hawaii was queen consort of King Kamehameha IV from 1856 to his death in 1863. She ran for ruling monarch against King David Kalākaua but was defeated....

. The sandy dunes had been used as a burial site.
After annexation of the Territory of Hawaii
Territory of Hawaii
The Territory of Hawaii or Hawaii Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 7, 1898, until August 21, 1959, when its territory, with the exception of Johnston Atoll, was admitted to the Union as the fiftieth U.S. state, the State of Hawaii.The U.S...

 it was used for the U.S. Army in 1901, and acquired by the U.S. federal government in 1907 by condemnation from Emma's estate. It was sometimes called "Queen Emma Military Reservation" or "Queen Emma Point".
Secretary of war William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th President of the United States and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States...

 under President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States . He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity...

 headed a group to review coastal defenses, in light of "possessions" such as Hawaii and the Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, based on the findings of the Board of Fortifications.
Originally named Fort Upton for General Emory Upton
Emory Upton
Emory Upton was a United States Army General and military strategist, prominent for his role in leading infantry to attack entrenched positions successfully at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House during the American Civil War, but he also excelled at artillery and cavalry assignments...

 (1839–1881), on January 28, 1909 after local citizens objected, Archibald Cleghorn
Archibald Cleghorn
Archibald Scott Cleghorn was a Scottish businessman who married into the royal family of the Kingdom of Hawaii....

 suggested the name be changed to honor Kamehameha I, the first king of the unified Hawaiian islands
Hawaiian Islands
The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and undersea seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaii in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll...


Battery Selfridge

Battery Selfridge was constructed from November 1907 to 1913 with two 12-inch M1895 guns on disappearing carriages
Disappearing gun
A disappearing gun is a type of heavy artillery for which the gun carriage enabled the gun to rotate backwards and down into a pit protected by a wall or a bunker after it was fired...

, with a range of about 30000 yards (27.4 km). It was fort building 420, NRHP site 84000975, located at 21°19′5"N 157°57′9"W. It was named for Lt Thomas Etholen Selfridge (1882–1908).

Battery Jackson

Battery Jackson was constructed in 1913 was equipped with two 6 inches (152.4 mm) guns on disappearing carriages, with a range of about 15000 yards (13.7 km). It was fort building 430, about 1.1 acres (4,451.5 m²), state site 80-13-1601 and NRHP site 84000954, 21°19′6"N 157°57′22"W. It was named for American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 General Richard H. Jackson. A massive concrete air raid shelter was built in 1915.

Battery Hawkins

Battery Hawkins was constructed in 1914 with two 3 inches (76.2 mm) guns with a range of about 6000 yards (5.5 km). It was fort building 440, NRHP site 84000928 located at 21°19′12"N 157°57′36"W, 440 Nelson Avenue.
Another bunker built here was known as Hawkins annex, fort building 450, NRHP site 84000948, state site 80-13-1603. Although the smallest of the batteries, it is the easiest to access. It was named for General Hamilton Smith Hawkins
Hamilton S. Hawkins
Hamilton Smith Hawkins was a United States Army Major General during the Spanish-American War.Hawkins attended the United States Military Academy between 1852 and 1855, but did not graduate with the class of 1856 due to deficient academics. Despite being a South Carolinian, Hawkins served in the...


Battery Hasbrouck

Battery Hasbrouck (sometimes misspelled as "Hasebrock") was constructed from July 1909 to 1914 and was equipped with eight 12-inch coast defense mortar
12-inch coast defense mortar
The coast defense mortar was a massive weapon of 12-inch caliber emplaced during the 1890s and early 1900s to defend U.S. harbors from seaborne attack . In 1886 when the Endicott Board set forth its plan for upgrading the coast defenses of the United States, it relied primarily on mortars, not...

s, with a range of about 15000 yards (13.7 km). It was fort building 460 and NRHP site 84000925. It was directly east of the entrance to Pearl Harbor, designed to protect its mine field, at coordinates 21°19′30"N 157°57′40"W, covering 2.6 acres (10,521.8 m²).
It was named for General Henry Cornelius Hasbrouck (1839–1910) son of William C. Hasbrouck
William C. Hasbrouck
William Cornelius Hasbrouck was an American lawyer and politician.-Life:...


Battery Chandler and Barri

At the west end of Fort Kamehameha, coordinates 21°19′53"N 157°58′6"W Battery Chandler had two 3 inches (76.2 mm) guns named for Lt. Rex Chandler who died in an airplane crash in 1913. Battery Barri had two 4.7 guns, was named for Captain Thomas O. Barri who died in the Civil War in 1863. Construction on these was started in September 1914. Barri was dismantled in 1925 and both no longer exist.

Batteries Adair and Boyd

Each of these had two 6 inches (152.4 mm) guns in casemate
A casemate, sometimes rendered casement, is a fortified gun emplacement or armored structure from which guns are fired. originally a vaulted chamber in a fortress.-Origin of the term:...

s located on Ford Island
Ford Island
Ford Island is located in the middle of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. It is connected to the main island by the Ford Island Bridge. Before the bridge was built, Ford Island could only be reached by a ferry boat which ran at hourly intervals for cars and foot passengers. The island houses several naval...

. They were constructed starting in August 1916 and named for Lt Henry R. Adair (died 1916) and Captain Charles T. Boyd (died 1916). A few years later an airfield was constructed on the island called Luke Field, and the site is now owned by the Navy.

Battery Closson

The batteries were placed behind massive reinforced concrete walls about 20 feet (6.1 m) thick, which were in turn behind 30 feet (9.1 m) of earth. Within a few years the armaments of the first phase were obsolete. In 1920, two 12 inches (304.8 mm) guns of a new style on a barbette
A barbette is a protective circular armour feature around a cannon or heavy artillery gun. The name comes from the French phrase en barbette referring to the practice of firing a field gun over a parapet rather than through an opening . The former gives better angles of fire but less protection...

 carriage that could traverse a full 360 degrees were installed and named after Civil War General Henry Whitney Closson (1834–1917). This design had a 975 pounds (442.3 kg) projectile with elevation up to 35 degrees and range of 17 miles (27.4 km). It was located about 21°19′9"N 157°56′3"W. Anti-aircraft guns were also added to protect from attack from above. In 1942, concrete shielding was added above the guns. A row of officers' houses was built in 1916, and a chapel added in 1940.


World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 some of the anti-aircraft guns were used in the attack on Pearl Harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941...

 on December 7, 1941, and a Japanese Mitsubishi A6M2 model 21
A6M Zero
The Mitsubishi A6M Zero was a long-range fighter aircraft operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service from 1940 to 1945. The A6M was designated as the , and also designated as the Mitsubishi A6M Rei-sen and Mitsubishi Navy 12-shi Carrier Fighter. The A6M was usually referred to by the...

 "Zero" crashed to become the first to fall into American hands.


None of the large caliber guns were ever fired except in practice about once a year. They were salvaged after the war. Some other sites within the fort besides the ones listed above were destroyed.
The area around Selfridge and Jackson batteries are now used for the Hawaii Air National Guard
Hawaii Air National Guard
The Hawaii Air National Guard is the air force militia of the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is, along with the Hawaii Army National Guard, an element of the Hawaii National Guard...

The eastern side of the military reservation (where Battery Closson was located) became the Mamala Bay Golf Course.
The "Artillery District of Honolulu" (state historic site 80-13-1382) was added to the National Register of Historic Places listings in Oahu
National Register of Historic Places listings in Oahu
This is a list of properties and districts on the Hawaiian island of Oahu that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Oahu is the only major island in Honolulu County. The location of the city of Honolulu, Oahu is the most populous island in the state. There are 149 properties and...

 on June 5, 1984.
Fort DeRussy Military Reservation
Fort DeRussy Military Reservation
Fort DeRussy is a United States military reservation in the Waikiki area of Honolulu, Hawaii, under the jurisdiction of the United States Army. Unfenced and largely open to public traffic, the installation consists mainly of landscaped greenspace. The former Battery Randolph now houses the U.S...

 Battery Randolf (which now houses a museum) was also included in the preservation effort.

In 1991 a sewage treatment plant was built on the western end of the fort.
On October 1, 1992 its 506 acres (204.8 ha) became part of Hickam Air Force Base
Hickam Air Force Base
Hickam Field, re-named Hickam Air Force Base in 1948, was a United States Air Force facility now part of Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, named in honor of aviation pioneer Lt Col Horace Meek Hickam.- History :...

The homes were abandoned in 2008 since they were near the runway of Honolulu International Airport
Honolulu International Airport
Honolulu International Airport is the principal aviation gateway of the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawaii and is identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States, with traffic now exceeding 21 million passengers a year and rising.It is located in the Honolulu...


See also

  • U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps
    U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps
    The U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps was a Corps level organization responsible for coastal and harbor defense of the United States between 1901 and 1950.-History:...

  • 41st Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
    41st Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
    The 41st Field Artillery Regiment is an Field Artillery regiment of the United States Army.-Lineage:Constituted 26 August 1918 in the Regular Army as the 41st Artillery *Organized 1 October 1918 at Fort Monroe, Virginia...

  • 15th Coast Artillery (United States)
    15th Coast Artillery (United States)
    The 15th Coast Artillery Regiment was a Coast Artillery Regiment in the United States Army,-Lineage 1:Constituted and organized October 1918 at Fort Crockett, but demoblized in November 1918.-Lineage 2:...

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