Bernice Pauahi Bishop
Overview
 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop born Bernice Pauahi Pākī, was a Hawaiian princess, philanthropist
Philanthropist
A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, and/or reputation to charitable causes...

, alii
Ali'i
Alii is a word in the Polynesian language denoting chiefly status in ancient Hawaii and the Samoa Islands. A similar word with the same concept is found in other Polynesian societies. In the Cook Islands, an ariki is a high chief and the House of Ariki is a parliamentary house...

, and direct descendant of the royal House of Kamehameha
House of Kamehameha
The House of Kamehameha , or the Kamehameha Dynasty, was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Hawaii between the unification of the islands by Kamehameha I in 1810 and the death of Kamehameha V in 1872...

. She was the great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I , also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaii's independence under his rule...

 and last surviving heir. Her estate is the largest private landowner in the state of Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, comprising approximately 9% of Hawaii's total area. The revenues from these lands are used to operate the Kamehameha Schools
Kamehameha Schools
Kamehameha Schools , formerly called Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate , is a private co-educational college-preparatory institution that specializes in Native Hawaiian language and cultural education. It is located in Hawaii and operates three campuses: Kapālama , Pukalani , and Keaau...

, which were established in 1887 according to Princess Pauahi's will.
Encyclopedia
Bernice Pauahi Bishop born Bernice Pauahi Pākī, was a Hawaiian princess, philanthropist
Philanthropist
A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, and/or reputation to charitable causes...

, alii
Ali'i
Alii is a word in the Polynesian language denoting chiefly status in ancient Hawaii and the Samoa Islands. A similar word with the same concept is found in other Polynesian societies. In the Cook Islands, an ariki is a high chief and the House of Ariki is a parliamentary house...

, and direct descendant of the royal House of Kamehameha
House of Kamehameha
The House of Kamehameha , or the Kamehameha Dynasty, was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Hawaii between the unification of the islands by Kamehameha I in 1810 and the death of Kamehameha V in 1872...

. She was the great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I , also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaii's independence under his rule...

 and last surviving heir. Her estate is the largest private landowner in the state of Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, comprising approximately 9% of Hawaii's total area. The revenues from these lands are used to operate the Kamehameha Schools
Kamehameha Schools
Kamehameha Schools , formerly called Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate , is a private co-educational college-preparatory institution that specializes in Native Hawaiian language and cultural education. It is located in Hawaii and operates three campuses: Kapālama , Pukalani , and Keaau...

, which were established in 1887 according to Princess Pauahi's will. Pauahi was married to businessman and philanthropist Charles Reed Bishop
Charles Reed Bishop
Charles Reed Bishop was a businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii.Born in Glens Falls, New York, he sailed to Hawaii in 1846 at the age of 24, and made his home there. Bishop was one of the first trustees of and a major donor to the Kamehameha Schools in Hawaii...

.

Life

Pauahi was born in Honolulu on December 19, 1831 in Aikupika, the grass hut compound of her father.
Her father, High Chief Abner Kuhooheiheipahu Pākī
Abner Paki
Abner Kuhooheiheipahu Pākī was a Hawaiian high chief during the reign of King Kamehameha III, the father of Bernice Pauahi Pākī, founder of Kamehameha Schools.-Early life:He was born about 1808 on the island of Molokai...

 (c. 1808-1855), was a noble from the island of Molokai
Molokai
Molokai or Molokai is an island in the Hawaiian archipelago. It is 38 by 10 miles in size with a land area of , making it the fifth largest of the main Hawaiian Islands and the 27th largest island in the United States. It lies east of Oahu across the 25-mile wide Kaiwi Channel and north of...

, and son of Alii Kawao and Kalani-hele-maiiluna Pākī, who descended from Alii Aimoku of the island of Maui.
Her mother was Princess Laura Kōnia
Konia
Konia may refer to:* Kōnia a Hawaiian princess* Konia , a cichlid genus containing the Dikume and the Konye * Konia, Guinea* Konia, Paphos, a village in Cyprus* Konia Water, leaders in Water from Air technology...

 (c 1808-1857), granddaughter of Kamehameha I. She was the younger daughter of Alii Pauli Kaōleiokū (1767–1818), by his second wife, Alii Kahailiopua Luahine, was an illegitimate but legitimated natural (eldest) son of King Kamehameha I. She was named for her aunt Queen Pauahi
Kalanipauahi
Kalani Pauahi was a member of the royal family of the Kingdom of Hawaii in the House of Kamehameha.-Life:Pauahi was born circa 1804....

 (c. 1804–1826), one of the widows of King Kamehameha II
Kamehameha II
Kamehameha II was the second king of the Kingdom of Hawaii. His birth name was Liholiho and full name was Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu Iolani...

, and given the Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 name of Bernice.
Bernice Pauahi was adopted at birth by Princess Kīnau
Kaahumanu II
Princess Kalani Ahumanu i Kaliko o Iwi Kauhipua o Kīnau, also known as Elizabeth Kīnau was Kuhina Nui of the Kingdom of Hawaii as Kaahumanu II, Queen regent and Dowager Queen.-Life:...

 (who took office as Kuhina-Nui Kaahumanu II). She was sent back home when Kīnau died of the mumps
Mumps
Mumps is a viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus. Before the development of vaccination and the introduction of a vaccine, it was a common childhood disease worldwide...

 in 1839.

Beginning at age eight, Pauahi went to the Chiefs' Children's School (later called the Royal School) until about 1846. Her teachers were Mr. and Mrs. Cooke. Pauahi greatly enjoyed horseback riding and swimming, and she also liked music, flowers, and the outdoors. She dressed like any fashionable New York or London woman and wore the trappings of the Victorian Era
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

.

It had been planned from childhood that Pauahi, born into Hawaiian royalty, would marry her hānai (adopted) brother Prince Lot Kapuāiwa
Kamehameha V
aloghaKamehameha V , born as Lot Kapuāiwa, reigned as monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1863 to 1872. His motto was "Onipa`a": immovable, firm, steadfast or determined; he worked diligently for his people and kingdom and was described as the last great traditional chief...

. Pauahi married businessman Charles Reed Bishop
Charles Reed Bishop
Charles Reed Bishop was a businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii.Born in Glens Falls, New York, he sailed to Hawaii in 1846 at the age of 24, and made his home there. Bishop was one of the first trustees of and a major donor to the Kamehameha Schools in Hawaii...

 May 4, 1850 despite the objections of her parents.
Per her request, very few people attended her wedding. One of the few witnesses was Princess Elizabeth Kekaaniau, her cousin. The couple had no children of their own. They adopted a son from Pauahi's cousin Ruth Keelikōlani in 1862, but the infant died at the age of six months.

Prince Lot Kapuāiwa became King Kamehameha V in 1863, and offered Pauahi the throne on his deathbed in 1872. But, taken aback, she replied, "No, no, not me; don't think of me. I don't need it." The king pressed on. But she again spurned the throne: "Oh, no, do not think of me. There are others." After considering the alternatives, all of whom were rejected, the king said no more. The king died an hour later. Pauahi's refusal to accept the crown allowed the House of Kalākaua
House of Kalakaua
The House of Kalākaua, or the Kalākaua Dynasty, was the reigning family of the Kingdom of Hawaii between the assumption of King David Kalākaua to the throne in 1874 and the overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani in 1893. Liliuokalani died in 1917, leaving only cousins as heirs...

 to come to power. No one knows why Pauahi refused the throne. The answer may have been in her letters left in the care of her husband. Unfortunately, they were destroyed during the Great San Francisco earthquake of 1906.

On October 16, 1884, at the age of 52, Pauahi died of breast cancer
Breast cancer
Breast cancer is cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas; those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas...

 at Keōua Hale
Keoua Hale
Keōua Hale was the palace of Princess Ruth Keelikōlani at 1302 Queen Emma Street in downtown Honolulu, Hawaii.- History :The mansion was built upon the site of Princess Ruth and her adoptive son Leleiohoku's residence in Honolulu, Kaakopua. It burned down in 1873 and plans were made to build a...

, Honolulu. She is interred in the Kamehameha Crypt at Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii
Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii
The Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii, known as Mauna Ala in the Hawaiian language, is the final resting place of Hawaii's two prominent royal families: the Kamehameha Dynasty and the Kalākaua Dynasty.-Description:...

 at Mauna Ala on Oahu.

Legacy

Bishop wished that a portion of her estate be used "to erect and maintain in the Hawaiian Islands two schools...one for boys and one girls, to be known as, and called the Kamehameha Schools." She directed her five trustees to invest her estate at their discretion and use the annual income to operate the schools.
When she wrote her will, only 44,000 Hawaiians were alive. After Bishop's death in 1884, her husband Charles Reed Bishop started work in carrying out her will.

The original Kamehameha School for Boys was established in 1887. The girls' school was established in 1894 on a nearby campus. By 1955, the schools moved to a 600 acre (2.4 km²) location in the heights above Kapālama
Kapālama
-History:The name comes from ka pā lama in the Hawaiian language which means "the enclosure of lama wood". "Lama" was the Hawaiian name for endemic ebony trees of genus Diospyros that were used in religious ceremonies....

. Some time later, Kamehameha Schools established two more campuses on outer-islands: Pukalani, Maui and the Kamehameha Schools Hawaii Campus
Kamehameha Schools Hawaii Campus
The Kamehameha Schools Hawaii Campus consists of an elementary, middle and high school operated by Kamehameha Schools on the island of Hawaii.- History :...

 in Keaau on the island of Hawaii
Hawaii (island)
The Island of Hawaii, also called the Big Island or Hawaii Island , is a volcanic island in the North Pacific Ocean...

.

Charles Reed Bishop founded the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in 1889 as another memorial to Pauahi, using the building that was the original school.

Will controversies

Her will caused three major controversies. In 1992, a clause that all Kamehameha Schools teachers must be Protestant was challenged as illegal religious discrimination in employment by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is an independent federal law enforcement agency that enforces laws against workplace discrimination. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual's race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, perceived intelligence,...

. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a U.S. federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:* District of Alaska* District of Arizona...

 reversed a decision of the district court, and found that the school had not proved that it was "primarily religious", and thus this clause violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including racial segregation...

.

In 1997, several conflicts of interest were charged. Trustees received up to $900,000 per year and put their own money into the investments of the estate. The Supreme Court of Hawaii was directed in the will to replacement trustees, but also ruled on many cases involving the estate. An essay by Judge Samuel Pailthorpe King
Samuel Pailthorpe King
Samuel Pailthorpe King was an American lawyer and judge. Since 1972 he served as judge on the United States District Court for the District of Hawaii.-Life:...

 and University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii
The University of Hawaii System, formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as UH, is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor, master, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment...

 law professor Randall W. Roth and others was published as a series of newspaper articles. and a book. After a number of legal battles, the trustees resigned and management was re-organized.

Trustees were instructed "...to devote a portion of each year's income to the support and education of orphans, and others in indigent circumstances, giving the preference to Hawaiians of pure or part aboriginal blood..."."
Traditionally, this was interpreted to admit almost no students that could not prove native Hawaiian ancestry. A number of lawsuits challenged this policy. One included a settlement reported to be $7 million.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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