Cottingham, East Riding of Yorkshire
Cottingham is a village
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand , Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighbourhoods, such as the West Village in Manhattan, New...

 and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire
East Riding of Yorkshire
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Yorkshire, is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England. For ceremonial purposes the county also includes the city of Kingston upon Hull, which is a separate unitary authority...

, England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

. It lies just to the north-west of the city of Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull , usually referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It stands on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea. Hull has a resident population of...

. With a parish population of 17,263 in the 2001 UK census
United Kingdom Census 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK Census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194....

, Cottingham (along with other villages) claims to be the largest village in England
Largest village in England
Several places claim to be the largest village in England. This title is disputed as there is no standard definition of a village and size might be determined by population or area....



The name Cottingham derives from 'Homestead of Cotta's people'; Cotta being the name of an Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon is a term used by historians to designate the Germanic tribes who invaded and settled the south and east of Great Britain beginning in the early 5th century AD, and the period from their creation of the English nation to the Norman conquest. The Anglo-Saxon Era denotes the period of...

 tribal chief from the mid 5th century. Cotta is derived from Ket
Ket can also refer to:*Ket people, a people of Siberia*Ket language, the language of the Ket people*Ket River, a river in Siberia*Keť, a village in south-west Slovakia...

, the female deity of the Ancient Britons, which itself comes from the Celtic
Celtic languages
The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family...

 word Coed which means 'a wood'. The earliest recorded owner of Cottingham was Gamel, the son of Osbert, from the reign of Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor also known as St. Edward the Confessor , son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy, was one of the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England and is usually regarded as the last king of the House of Wessex, ruling from 1042 to 1066....

 in the 11th century.
Shortly after 1066, William the Conqueror took possession of the manor and handed it to Robert Front de Boeuf, one of his prized knights. By the time of the Domesday book
Domesday Book
Domesday Book , now held at The National Archives, Kew, Richmond upon Thames in South West London, is the record of the great survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086...

 in 1086 the Cotting manor was owned by descendants of Front de Boeuf, a family called Stuteville. It was made up of a mill, several fisheries and cultivated farm land.

In 1200, a royal licence to hold a market, fairs and to fortify Baynard castle
Baynard Castle
Baynard Castle was a motte castle built in the 12th century in the village of Cottingham which is some 7 km south of Beverley in the East Riding of Yorkshire . It was sometimes referred to as the 'castle at Cottingham' or 'Stuteville's castle'....

 was obtained from King John
John of England
John , also known as John Lackland , was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death...

. By 1349, the manor had passed through Stuteville's female family line to Joan Wake, the Fair Maid of Kent (who married her cousin Edward the Black Prince and was the mother of Richard II
Richard II of England
Richard II was King of England, a member of the House of Plantagenet and the last of its main-line kings. He ruled from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard was a son of Edward, the Black Prince, and was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III...

). Baynard castle remained the manor house until the reign of Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

, when it was destroyed by fire. The rampart
Defensive wall
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city or settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements...

s of the castle are still visible in the gardens off Northgate, near the corner of West End Road. (see map)

In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, the current site of Cottingham High School
Cottingham High School
Cottingham High School is a large secondary school, situated in Cottingham in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. The school has been awarded specialist Arts College status, and has modern facilities for media arts, music, drama and dance...

 was a royal hunting ground to be enjoyed by the Prior
Prior is an ecclesiastical title, derived from the Latin adjective for 'earlier, first', with several notable uses.-Monastic superiors:A Prior is a monastic superior, usually lower in rank than an Abbot. In the Rule of St...

 of the Minster of St John, Beverley
Beverley is a market town, civil parish and the county town of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, located between the River Hull and the Westwood. The town is noted for Beverley Minster and architecturally-significant religious buildings along New Walk and other areas, as well as the Beverley...

. From the 16th to late 18th centuries, the site remained arable open fields until enclosure
Enclosure or inclosure is the process which ends traditional rights such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on common land. Once enclosed, these uses of the land become restricted to the owner, and it ceases to be common land. In England and Wales the term is also used for the...

 in 1793. Shortly afterward in 1802, the site was used to build a late Georgian styled house called Cottingham Grange. The house survived until 1951 and although in disrepair, was used by the Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces....

 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 as officers quarters. The current school opened in 1955 with additional blocks added in September 1975.

The Cottingham Parish Church
Parish church
A parish church , in Christianity, is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches....

 is a large Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 structure built in 1272 and dedicated to St. Mary, the Virgin. The interior is predominantly Victorian with several monuments; of note those dedicated to Burtons of Hotham and the tombstones with monumental brass
Monumental brass
Monumental brass is a species of engraved sepulchral memorial which in the early part of the 13th century began to partially take the place of three-dimensional monuments and effigies carved in stone or wood...

es dating from 1383.

The first Free school
Free education
Free education refers to education that is funded through taxation, or charitable organizations rather than tuition fees. Although primary school and other comprehensive or compulsory education is free in many countries, for example, all education is mostly free including...

 in Cottingham was built in the grounds of the church in 1666, by John Wardle Jnr to educate the children of the poor. Mark Kirby left a substantial endowment in his will of 1712, renaming the school the Mark Kirby Free School. By 1783, a workhouse had been built as an extension to the school, with segregated male and female sections. The present building on the site is not the original and is now the Church Hall.

In the same period, around 1771 the Churchwardens of St Mary’s allocated land to the east of the village to poor families of Cottingham. The settlement was originally known as 'Paupers’ Gardens' and renamed 'New Village' in the 1820s - leading to the current name New Village Road, between Endyke and Middledyke lanes.

Castle Hill Hospital
Castle Hill Hospital
Castle Hill Hospital is an NHS hospital to the west of Cottingham, East Riding of Yorkshire, England, and is run by Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust.-History:...

 is built on the grounds of a manor house called Cottingham Castle, which was owned by Thomas Thompson until the late 19th century. In the 1820s there were high quality fresh water springs on the site linked to nearby Springhead. A single turret
In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle. Turrets were used to provide a projecting defensive position allowing covering fire to the adjacent wall in the days of military fortification...

, a Folly in the grounds of the original house still remains and can be seen from Eppleworth Road. The Castle Park estate, lying on the land below the hospital grounds was built over a 20 year period from the mid 1960s.

Until 1857, nearby Skidby
Skidby is a small village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated approximately north west of Hull city centre and south of Beverley. It lies just to the west of the A164 road which makes it very accessible....

 was part of the parish of Cottingham.

Cottingham today

The modern village has two Victorian high streets, Hallgate and King Street, which cross at a set of traffic lights in the centre of the village. Two main roads run to the north and south; Northgate and Southgate, respectively. The railway line from Hull to Beverley is to the east. Baynard Avenue and West Green are to the west. To the south of the main crossroads is the modern market square with council offices, a Civic Hall and library. To the north is King George V playing fields. Surrounding these areas is mainly post-war suburban housing.

The most affluent, old houses lie east of the railway line, on the main route into Hull. Two of these buildings are now the home to campus accommodation for the University of Hull
University of Hull
The University of Hull, known informally as Hull University, is an English university, founded in 1927, located in Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire...

; Needler Hall, a former psychiatric hospital
Psychiatric hospital
Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, are hospitals specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders. Psychiatric hospitals vary widely in their size and grading. Some hospitals may specialise only in short-term or outpatient therapy for low-risk patients...

 and Thwaite Hall
Thwaite Hall
Thwaite Hall is a traditional hall of residence of the University of Hull.Thwaite Hall is in the village of Cottingham, just outside Hull, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It consists of 187 rooms and includes a junior common room, a TV room, games room, library and senior common room....

, an 18th century country house with a 1960s annex.

The Lawns
The Lawns
The Lawns is a student accommodation complex for the University of Hull, located in Cottingham. It comprises seven halls of residence and the Lawns Centre. The latter is the complex's catering and social hub...

 is a late 1960s student accommodation complex near the original site of Baynard Castle. The Lawns was built by architects Gillespie, Kidd and Coia, winning the RIBA
Riba means one of the senses of "usury" . Riba is forbidden in Islamic economic jurisprudence fiqh and considered as a major sin...

 Bronze Regional Award for architecture in 1968 and was Listed Grade II in 1993.

To the west of The Lawns is the Victorian municipal cemetery, where poet Phillip Larkin is buried. Larkin resided locally whilst head librarian at the University of Hull, a role he kept for 30 years until his death in 1985.

There are a number of public houses in Cottingham; Black Prince on The Parkway, The Blue Bell on West Green, The Duke of Cumberland on the market square, the Cross Keys on Northgate and The Railway on Thwaite Street. The Fair Maid is a recent renovation, also overlooking West Green. Near the cross-roads in the centre of the village are The King Billy (King William IV), The Tiger and Hallgate Tavern. In May 2011, six of the public houses were involved in the Cottingham Springboard Festival
Cottingham Springboard Festival
Cottingham Springboard Festival is a free live music festival that takes place annually in the village of Cottingham, East Riding of Yorkshire, England.-History:The first Cottingham Springboard Festival was created as an afternoon and evening music event...

, an annual music festival that showcases local and regional performers.

In 1981, the annual Christmas lights were started by local traders as a way of increasing trade and adding to the sense of community during the winter season.

St Mary's church has developed and maintained an Anglo-Catholic tradition and has several choirs. On Sundays there is a sung Eucharist
The Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance...

 at 9.30 am and Choral Evensong at 6.30 pm. The church has some interesting animal-related traditions; on Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter. The feast commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, an event mentioned in all four Canonical Gospels. ....

 a donkey is led through the church and there is also an annual St. Francistide service at which pet
A pet is a household animal kept for companionship and a person's enjoyment, as opposed to wild animals or to livestock, laboratory animals, working animals or sport animals, which are kept for economic or productive reasons. The most popular pets are noted for their loyal or playful...

s may receive a blessing.
Also living freely in the church tower are a pair of Orange-winged Amazon Parrots. There are also Roman Catholic, Methodist and URC
United Reformed Church
The United Reformed Church is a Christian church in the United Kingdom. It has approximately 68,000 members in 1,500 congregations with some 700 ministers.-Origins and history:...

 churches in the centre of the village, and Jehovah's Witness and Plymouth Brethren
Plymouth Brethren
The Plymouth Brethren is a conservative, Evangelical Christian movement, whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland, in the late 1820s. Although the group is notable for not taking any official "church name" to itself, and not having an official clergy or liturgy, the title "The Brethren," is...

 places of worship further out.

There are four primary schools: Bacon Garth, Croxby, Hallgate and Westfield. In September 2004, Cottingham High School was made a specialist Media Arts college. Cottingham has two local police stations. The first is on Priory Road, which replaced the station which was originally on Finkle Street and the second is located within the University of Hull's accommodation 'The Lawns'.

Cottingham has a Scout
Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society....

 group consisting of Beavers, Cubs, Scouts and Explorers. There are also two Guide Units, two Rainbow Units, three Brownie Packs and one Ranger (Senior Section) Unit based in the village. Further groups belong to the Cottingham Guiding District in Skidby (Rainbows), and Little Weighton (Brownies).

Hull City A.F.C.
Hull City A.F.C.
Hull City Association Football Club is an English association football club based in Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, founded in 1904. The club participates in the Football League Championship, the second tier of English football...

's training ground is located on Millhouse Woods Lane on facilities previously owned by Northern Foods. The local football club, Cottingham Rangers AFC, was established in 1972. It consists of seventeen teams playing in the Hull Boys Sunday Football League and the East Riding Girls Football League. The Club is affiliated to the East Riding County Football Association and is an FA Charter Standard Club.

Cottingham is served by a railway station
Cottingham railway station
Cottingham railway station serves the village of Cottingham in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is located on the Yorkshire Coast Line and is operated by Northern Rail who provide all passenger train services....

 that provides an intermediate stop between Hull
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull , usually referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It stands on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea. Hull has a resident population of...

 and Beverley
Beverley is a market town, civil parish and the county town of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, located between the River Hull and the Westwood. The town is noted for Beverley Minster and architecturally-significant religious buildings along New Walk and other areas, as well as the Beverley...

 on the Yorkshire Coast Line
Yorkshire Coast Line
The Yorkshire Coast Line is a railway line in northern England. It runs northwards from Hull Paragon to Bridlington and Scarborough calling at other intermediate stations.-History:...

 to Scarborough.

External links

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