The Cisplatina Province (literally, Province of this side of the Rio de la Plata from the Brazilian perspective, c.f. Cisalpine
Cisalpine may mean:-Historic geography:* Cisalpine Gaul, ancient Roman province* Cisalpine Republic, Napoleonic client state-Languages:...

) was a Portuguese
Portuguese Empire
The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or the Portuguese Colonial Empire , was the first global empire in history...

 and later a Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

ian province in existence from 1815 to 1828. The province was formed after the Portuguese
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 captured and subsequently annexed the territory of the Banda Oriental, which today forms the independent nation of Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...


The Banda Oriental had always been a sparsely populated contested border-area between the Spanish and Portuguese Colonial Empires. In the First Treaty of San Ildefonso
First Treaty of San Ildefonso
The First Treaty of San Ildefonso was signed on October 1, 1777 between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire, shortly after the crowning of Mary I of Portugal and dismissal of Sebastião de Melo, Marquis of Pombal as de facto ruler of Portugal....

 in 1777 the control of the area was given to Spain.

In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas is a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".-Early life:Artigas was born in Montevideo on June 19, 1764...

, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against Spain, defeating them on May 18 in the Battle of Las Piedras
Battle of Las Piedras
The Battle of Las Piedras was fought on May 18, 1811 as part of the Uruguayan struggle for independence.-Background and development of events:...

. In 1814 he formed the Liga Federal
Liga Federal
The Federal League or League of Free Peoples was a confederal state based around Montevideo from 1815 to 1820...

 (Federal League) of which he was declared Protector.

The constant growth of influence and prestige of the Federal League frightened Portugal (because of its republicanism), and in August, 1816 they invaded the Eastern Province, with the intention of destroying the protector and his revolution. The Portuguese forces, thanks to their numerical and material superiority, occupied Montevideo on January 20, 1817, and finally after a struggle for three years in the countryside, defeated Artigas in the Battle of Tacuarembó
Battle of Tacuarembó
The Battle of Tacuarembó was a battle between the Portuguese forces under the Count of Figueira, José de Castelo Branco Correia, and the Artiguist forces of Andrés Latorre in Tacuarembó, modern-day Uruguay....


In 1821, the Provincia Oriental del Río de la Plata (present-day Uruguay), was annexed by Brazil under the name of Província Cisplatina.
Brazil justified the incorporation of the province through the general acclamation of an Assembly of “Eastern notables” on July 18, 1821.

The borders of Cisplatina were: on the east the Atlantic Ocean, on the south the Rio de la Plata
Río de la Plata
The Río de la Plata —sometimes rendered River Plate in British English and the Commonwealth, and occasionally rendered [La] Plata River in other English-speaking countries—is the river and estuary formed by the confluence of the Uruguay River and the Paraná River on the border between Argentina and...

, on the west the Uruguay River
Uruguay River
The Uruguay River is a river in South America. It flows from north to south and makes boundary with Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, separating some of the Argentine provinces of the Mesopotamia from the other two countries...

 and on the north the Cuareim river until la Cuchilla de Santa Ana. This means that territories traditionally belonging to the Banda Oriental had been annexed to the jurisdiction of Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...


The Latin prefix cis, meaning on this side, suggests that the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, had plans to also annex the present Argentine territory as the Transplatina Province, basing themselves on the hereditary rights of Charlotte of Spain
Charlotte of Spain
Doña Carlota Joaquina of Spain was a Queen consort of Portugal as wife of John VI...


Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 became an independent nation in 1822. On September 15, 1823, the envoy of the Argentine president Bernardino Rivadavia
Bernardino Rivadavia
Bernardino de la Trinidad Gónzalez Rivadavia y Rivadavia was the first president of Argentina, from February 8, 1826 to July 7, 1827 . He was a politician of the United Provinces of Río de la Plata, Argentina today...

, Valentín Gómez, wrote in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

 a memorandum in which it was stated that at no moment the Eastern Province had stopped belonging to the territory of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, present-day Argentina. Gómez received this answer:

"The incorporation of the Cisplatina Province into the Empire is an act of the free will of all its inhabitants, and Brazil, by the sacrifices it has done, is resolute to defend that territory, not allowing that the opinion with respect to the incorporation from that State to the United Provinces is raised again. (...) the Government of H.I.M. [His Imperial Majesty] (...) cannot enter with the one of Buenos Aires in negotiations that have as fundamental base the cession of the Cisplatino State, whose inhabitants do not have to leave".

As a reaction a group of Uruguayan nobles, the Thirty-Three Orientals
Thirty-Three Orientals
The Treinta y Tres Orientales was a militant revolutionary group led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja against the Empire of Brazil. Their actions culminated in the foundation of modern Uruguay...

 led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja
Juan Antonio Lavalleja
Juan Antonio Lavalleja was an Uruguayan revolutionary and political figure. Today's Lavalleja Department is named after him.-Pre-Independence role:...

 declared independence on August 25, 1825 supported by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.

This led to the 500-day Argentina-Brazil War
Argentina-Brazil War
The Cisplatine War or the Argentine–Brazilian War was an armed conflict over an area known as Banda Oriental or "Eastern Shore" in the 1820s between the United Provinces of River Plate and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' emancipation from Spain.-Background:Led by...

. Despite the Argentine victory in the battle of Ituzaingó
Battle of Ituzaingó
The Battle of Ituzaingó was fought in vicinity of Santa Maria river, in a valley of small hills where a stream divided the valley in two....

, neither side gained the upper hand, and in 1828 the Treaty of Montevideo
Treaty of Montevideo
There have been several treaties signed in Montevideo such as:*1828 Treaty of Montevideo in which Brazil and Argentina recognized the independence of Uruguay, after British mediation....

, fostered by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, gave birth to Uruguay as an independent state, and - more importantly to planned British goals - established the international status of the Rio de la Plata, so that international commerce was easier to accomplish.
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