on the Iberian Peninsula
. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean
to the West and South and by Spain
to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelago
s of the Azores
are part of Portugal. The country is named after its second largest city, Porto
, whose Latin name was Portus Cale.
The land within the borders of today's Portuguese Republic has been continuously settled since prehistoric times
: occupied by Celts like the Gallaeci and the Lusitanians
, integrated into the Roman Republic
and later settled by Germanic peoples such as the Suebi
and the Visigoths, in the 8th century the lands were conquered by Moors
1143 King Alfonso VII of Leon recognises Portugal as a Kingdom.
1147 The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a four-month siege.
1325 Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal.
1373 Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force.
1383 The 1383-1385 Crisis in Portugal: King Fernando dies without a male heir to the Portuguese throne, sparking a period of civil war and disorder.
1484 Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of the Congo River.
1488 Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal lands in Mossel Bay after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, becoming the first known European to travel so far south.
1493 Explorer Christopher Columbus arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what is now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean.
1493 Pope Alexander VI divides the New World between Spain and Portugal along the Line of Demarcation.
1494 Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas which divides the New World between the two countries.