Circular

Encyclopedia

**Circular**is a basic geometric shape such as a Circle

Circle

A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane that are a given distance from a given point, the centre. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius....

.

**Circular**may also refer to:

### Documents

- Circular noteCircular noteA circular note is a document request by a bank to itsforeign correspondents to pay a specified sum of money to anamed person. The person in whose favour a circular note isissued is furnished with a letter A circular note is a document request by a bank to itsforeign correspondents to pay a...

, a document request by a bank to its foreign correspondents to pay a specified sum of money to a named person - Flyer (pamphlet)Flyer (pamphlet)__notoc__A flyer or flier, also called a circular, handbill or leaflet, is a form of paper advertisement intended for wide distribution and typically posted or distributed in public place....

, sometimes referred to as a circular, is a notice sent out in large quantities - Government circularGovernment circularA Government circular is a written statement of government policy. It will often provide information, guidance, rules, and/or background information on legislative or procedural matters.-References:*...

, a written statement of government policy - Circular letter (disambiguation), multiple meanings
- List of circulars, multiple documents

## Travel and transportation

- Circular journeyCircular JourneyA circular journey is an excursion in which the final destination is the same as the starting point. A traveler who wishes to go on a pilgrimage or sightseeing trip to many destinations may plan a circular journey which completes at the point of departure....

, an excursion in which the final destination is the same as the starting point - Central Circular Route (Shuto Expressway)Central Circular Route (Shuto Expressway)The , signed as Route C2, is one of the routes of the Shuto Expressway system serving the central part of the Greater Tokyo Area. The route is a circumferential highway running through the outer wards of Tokyo. The complete route is 48.8 km in length, and now 36.4 km length is currently...

, a route of the Shuto Expressway system serving the central part of the Greater Tokyo Area - Circular Line (TRTS)Circular Line (TRTS)The Taipei Metro Circular Line is an elevated, medium-capacity rapid transit in Taipei and New Taipei, Taiwan. It is currently under construction with the first section scheduled to open in 2015...

, a medium-capacity rapid transit line in Taipei, Taiwan - Crewe and Nantwich Circular WalkCrewe and Nantwich Circular WalkThe Crewe and Nantwich Circular Walk is a long-distance walkers' path in the Cheshire East area of Cheshire, England. As the name suggests, the walk forms a circuit around the towns of Crewe and Nantwich...

, a walking circuit around the towns of Crewe and Nantwich in Cheshire, England - Inner Circular Route (Shuto Expressway)Inner Circular Route (Shuto Expressway)The , signed as Route C1, is one of the routes of the Shuto Expressway system serving the central part of the Greater Tokyo Area. The route runs as a complete loop around the central Tokyo wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, with a total length of . In addition to serving areas of central Tokyo,...

, a route of the Shuto Expressway system serving the central part of the Greater Tokyo Area - Karachi Circular RailwayKarachi Circular RailwayKarachi Circular Railway is a revival and proposed Mass Rapid Transit System for Karachi, the largest city in Pakistan with aims to connect several industrial and commercial districts within the city and outlying suburbs. The system will consist of a loop line, encircling the entire city of...

, a Mass Transport System for the city of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan - Kolkata Circular Railway, a railway line that encircles the entire city of Kolkata
- Yangon Circular RailwayYangon Circular RailwayYangon Circular Railway is the local commuter rail network that serves the Yangon metropolitan area. Operated by Myanmar Railways, the 39-station loop system connects satellite towns and suburban areas to the city. The railway has about 200 coaches, runs 20 times and sells 100,000 to 150,000...

, the commuter rail network operated by Myanmar Railways that serves the Yangon metropolitan area

## Places

- Circular Quay ferry wharf, the complex of the main commuter wharves in Circular Quay in Sydney, Australia
- Circular Quay railway station, a CityRail station located in Sydney, Australia and is situated on the City Circle line
- Circular Quay, a location in Sydney, Australia
- Penha CircularPenha CircularPenha Circular is a suburb in the north of Rio de Janeiro It has approximately 52000 inhabitants.-Violence:In the past Penha Circular was a calm place but in the nowadays the violence took place. Its levels of violence are very high....

, a suburb in the north of Rio de Janeiro - Ponte Pedonal Circular (Aveiro), a bridge in Portugal located in Aveiro District
- Circular Head Council, a Local Government Area of Tasmania
- Circular Kinopanorama a cinema in Moscow which plays a cinema presentation on a circular screen with a horizontal 360° view

## Anatomy

- Circular fibers, also known as the Iris sphincter muscle, is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris
- Circular foldsCircular foldsThe circular folds are large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel.-Composition:...

, large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel - Circular sulcus of insulaCircular sulcus of insulaThe insula is surrounded by a deep circular sulcus which separates it from the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes....

, a deep circular sulcus surrounds the insula

## Archaeology

- Circular Congregational Church and Parish HouseCircular Congregational Church and Parish HouseCircular Congregational Church and Parish House is a church in Charleston, South Carolina that was built in Richardsonian Romanesque style circa 1892 , and its Greek revival-style parish house built in about 1806. The parish house was designed by Robert Mills, along with the original church on the...

, a church in Charleston, South Carolina - Circular Congregational ChurchCircular Congregational ChurchThe Circular Congregational Church is a church located in Charleston, South Carolina. It is one of the oldest continuously worshiping congregations in the South. Founded in 1681, the church remains a vibrant, diverse community....

, a church located in Charleston, South Carolina that was founded in 1681 - Circular ditchesCircular ditchesAbout 150 arrangements of prehistoric circular ditches are known to archaeologists spread over Germany, Austria, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic. Their diameters range from ca. 20 to ca. 130 m, and they date to the 5th millennium BC. Tools, bones, and some artefacts were found in their context....

, prehistoric arrangements known to archaeologists that are have been found in Germany, Austria and Slovakia, and the Czech Republic

## Architecture

- Circular Tower, one of the three Azrieli center skyscrapers located in Tel Aviv, Israel
- Circular window, a feature of classical architecture since the 16th century
- Circular rampartCircular rampartA circular rampart is an embankment built in the shape of a circle that was used as part of the defences for a military fortification, hill fort or refuge, or was built for religious purposes or as a place of gathering....

, an embankment built in the shape of a circle

## Biology

- Circular bacterial chromosomeCircular bacterial chromosomeCircular bacterial chromosome are the bacterial chromosomes contained in a circular DNA molecule. Unlike the linear DNA of vertebrates, typical bacterial chromosomes contain circular DNA....

, the bacterial chromosome contained in a circular DNA molecule - Circular crabCircular crabAtelecyclus rotundatus is a medium-sized crab found on the west coast of Europe and Africa as well as almost all the Mediterranean Sea and on the Cape Verde and Canary islands. It has many common names, including circular crab, round crab and old man's face crab...

, a medium-sized crab found in the Mediterranean Sea and other places - Circular DNACircular DNACircular DNA is a form of DNA that is found in viruses, bacteria and archaea as well as in eukaryotic cells in the form of either mitochondrial DNA or plastid DNA....

, a form of DNA that is found in bacteria and archaea - Circular saw shell, a large sea snail of the family Turbinidae
- Circular stingareeCircular stingareeThe circular stingaree is an uncommon, little-known species of stingray in the family Urolophidae. Endemic to the coastal waters of southwestern Australia, it prefers a rocky and/or vegetated habitat...

, is a species of fish in the Urolophidae family that is endemic to Australia

## Computer sciences and programming

- Circular bufferCircular bufferA circular buffer, cyclic buffer or ring buffer is a data structure that uses a single, fixed-size buffer as if it were connected end-to-end.This structure lends itself easily to buffering data streams.-Uses:...

, a data structure that uses a single, fixed-size buffer as if it were connected end-to-end - Circular convolutionCircular convolutionThe circular convolution, also known as cyclic convolution, of two aperiodic functions occurs when one of them is convolved in the normal way with a periodic summation of the other function. That situation arises in the context of the Circular convolution theorem...
- Circular dependencyCircular dependencyIn software engineering, a circular dependency is a relation between two or more modules which either directly or indirectly depend on each other to function properly.-Overview:...

, in software engineering, a relation between two or more modules which either directly or indirectly depend on each other to function properly - Circular list, a linked list in which all nodes are linked in a continuous circle without using null
- Circular wait, one of the conditions necessary for deadlock to occur
- Meta-circular evaluatorMeta-circular evaluatorA meta-circular evaluator is a special case of a self-interpreter in which the existing facilities of the parent interpreter are directly applied to the source code being interpreted, without any need for additional implementation...

, a special case of a self-interpreter in which the existing facilities of the parent interpreter are directly applied to the source code being interpreted

## Geometry

- CircleCircleA circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane that are a given distance from a given point, the centre. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius....

, a basic geometric shape - Circular algebraic curveCircular algebraic curveIn geometry, a circular algebraic curve is a type of plane algebraic curve determined by an equation F = 0, where F is a polynomial with real coefficients and the highest-order terms of F form a polynomial divisible by x2 + y2...

, a type of plane algebraic curve - Circular cone, a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a circular base to the apex
- Circular cylinder, a basic curvilinear geometric shapes
- Circular milCircular milA circular mil is a unit of area, equal to the area of a circle with a diameter of one mil . It is a convenient unit for referring to the area of a wire with a circular cross section, because the area in circular mils can be calculated without reference to pi .The area in circular mils, A, of a...

, a unit of area equal to the area of a circle with a diameter of one thousandth of an inch - Circular paraboloid, an elliptic paraboloid
- Circular points at infinityCircular points at infinityIn projective geometry, the circular points at infinity in the complex projective plane are and ....

, a term used in projective geometry - Circular sectorCircular sectorA circular sector or circle sector, is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor sector and the larger being the major sector. In the diagram, θ is the central angle in radians, r the radius of the circle, and L is the arc length of the...

, is the portion of a circle enclosed by two radii and an arc - Circular segmentCircular segmentIn geometry, a circular segment is an area of a circle informally defined as an area which is "cut off" from the rest of the circle by a secant or a chord. The circle segment constitutes the part between the secant and an arc, excluding the circle's center...

, the area of a circle which is "cut off" from the rest of the circle by a secant or a chord - Circular surface, a term used in differential geometry
- Trigonometric functions, also called circular functions, are functions of an angle

## Graph theory

- Circular coloringCircular coloringIn graph theory, circular coloring may be viewed as a refinement of usual graph coloring. The circular chromatic number of a graph G, denoted \chi_c can be given by any of the following definitions, all of which are equivalent .1...

, a refinement of usual graph coloring - Circular graph, a graph that consists of some number of vertices connected in a closed chain
- Circular-arc graphCircular-arc graphIn graph theory, a circular-arc graph is the intersection graph of a set of arcs on the circle. It has one vertex for each arc in the set, and an edge between every pair of vertices corresponding to arcs that intersect....

, a circular-arc graph is the intersection graph of a set of arcs on the circle

## General Mathematics

- Circular coordinates, a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a fixed point and an angle from a fixed direction
- Circular number, a number whose square "ends" in the same digits as number itself
- Circular ordering, a term used in combinatorial mathematics
- Circular permutation, a permutation built from one or more sets of elements in cyclic order
- Circular shiftCircular shiftIn combinatorial mathematics, a circular shift is the operation of rearranging the entries in a tuple, either by moving the final entry to the first position, while shifting all other entries to the next position, or by performing the inverse operation...

, in combinatorial mathematics, the operation of rearranging the entries in a tuple - Mean of circular quantitiesMean of circular quantitiesIn mathematics, a mean of circular quantities is a mean which is suited for quantities like angles, daytimes, and fractional parts of real numbers. This is necessary since most of the usual means fail on circular quantities...

, a mean of circular quantities

## Philosophy

- Circular cause and consequence, a logical fallacy where the consequence of the phenomenon is claimed to be its root cause
- Circular definitionCircular definitionA circular definition is one that uses the term being defined as a part of the definition or assumes a prior understanding of the term being defined. Either the audience must already know the meaning of the key term, or the definition is deficient in including the term to be defined in the...

, a definition that assumes a prior understanding of the term being defined - Circular reasoningCircular reasoningCircular reasoning, or in other words, paradoxical thinking, is a type of formal logical fallacy in which the proposition to be proved is assumed implicitly or explicitly in one of the premises. For example:"Only an untrustworthy person would run for office...

, a logical fallacy in which the proposition to be proved is assumed in one of the premises - Circular referenceCircular referenceA circular reference is a series of references where the last object references the first, resulting in a closed loop.-In language:A circular reference is not to be confused with the logical fallacy of a circular argument...

, a series of references where the last object references the first, resulting in a closed loop - Circular reportingCircular reportingIn source criticism, circular reporting or false confirmation is a situation where a piece of information appears to come from multiple independent sources, but in fact is coming from only one source...

, (also known as “false confirmation”), a situation where a piece of information appears to come from multiple independent sources, but in fact is coming from only one source

## Physics

- Circular dichroismCircular dichroismCircular dichroism refers to the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized light. This phenomenon was discovered by Jean-Baptiste Biot, Augustin Fresnel, and Aimé Cotton in the first half of the 19th century. It is exhibited in the absorption bands of optically active chiral...

, refers to the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized light - Circular ensembleCircular ensembleIn the theory of random matrices, the circular ensembles are measures on spaces of unitary matrices introduced by Freeman Dyson as modifications of the Gaussian matrix ensembles...

, in the theory of random matrices, it is a measures on spaces of unitary matrices - Circular motionCircular motionIn physics, circular motion is rotation along a circular path or a circular orbit. It can be uniform, that is, with constant angular rate of rotation , or non-uniform, that is, with a changing rate of rotation. The rotation around a fixed axis of a three-dimensional body involves circular motion of...

, a rotation along a circle - Circular orbitCircular orbitA circular orbit is the orbit at a fixed distance around any point by an object rotating around a fixed axis.Below we consider a circular orbit in astrodynamics or celestial mechanics under standard assumptions...

, the orbit of any point of an object rotating around a fixed axis - Circular polarizationCircular polarizationIn electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization in which the electric field of the passing wave does not change strength but only changes direction in a rotary type manner....

, a polarization where the tip of the electric field vector describes a circle as time progresses. - Circular polarizer, used to create circularly polarized light
- Circular symmetryCircular symmetryCircular symmetry in mathematical physics applies to a 2-dimensional field which can be expressed as a function of distance from a central point only. This means that all points on each circle take the same value....

, in mathematical physics applies to a 2-dimensional field which can be expressed as a function of distance from a central point only - Circular wavenumber, in physical sciences, a property of a wave proportional to the reciprocal of the wavelength
- Uniform circular motionUniform circular motionIn physics, uniform circular motion describes the motion of a body traversing a circular path at constant speed. The distance of the body from the axis of rotation remains constant at all times. Though the body's speed is constant, its velocity is not constant: velocity, a vector quantity, depends...

and Non-uniform circular motionNon-uniform circular motionNon-uniform circular motion is any case in which an object moving in a circular path has a varying speed. Some examples of non-uniform circular motion include a roller coaster, a vertical pendulum, and a car riding over a hill. All of these situations include an object traveling at different...

, terms used to describe the motion of a body traversing a circular path

## Statistics

- Circular normal distribution, in probability theory and directional statistics, a continuous probability distribution on the circle
- Circular uniform distributionCircular uniform distributionIn probability theory and directional statistics, a circular uniform distribution is a probability distribution on the unit circle whose density is uniform for all angles.- Description :The pdf of the circular uniform distribution is:...

, in probability theory and directional statistics, a probability distribution on the unit circle whose density is uniform for all angles - Circular error probableCircular error probableIn the military science of ballistics, circular error probable is an intuitive measure of a weapon system's precision...

, an intuitive measure of a weapon system's accuracy

## Entertainment, fictional literature and music

*Circular*(album), a studio album released by Spanish singer Vega in 2006- Circular Reasoning Records, a sub-label of the independent record label Charnel Music
- Circular temperament, a type of tempered tuning described in 20th-century music theory
- Circular TimeCircular TimeCircular Time is a British audio drama based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It is produced by Big Finish Productions.-Circular Time:...

, a British audio drama based on the long-running science fiction television series Doctor Who - The Circular RuinsThe Circular Ruins"The Circular Ruins" is a fantasy short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. Published in the literary journal Sur in December 1940, it was included in the 1941 collection The Garden of Forking Paths and then in part one of the 1944 collection Ficciones...

, a fantasy short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges - Circular chain dance, also called a Circle danceCircle dance"Circle dance" is the most common name for a style of traditional dance usually done in a circle without partners to musical accompaniment.-Description:...

, a style of traditional dance usually done in a circle without partners

## Other

- Circular Head Football AssociationCircular Head Football AssociationThe Circular Head Football Association is an Australian rules football competition based in the Circular Head area of north-western Tasmania, Australia...

, an Australian rules football competition held in Tasmania, Australia - Circular Quay (horse)Circular Quay (horse)Circular Quay is a thoroughbred racehorse who was a 2007 Kentucky Derby contender. The son of 1995 Belmont Stakes and Kentucky Derby winner Thunder Gulch is owned by Michael Tabor and trained by Todd Pletcher....

, a thoroughbred racehorse who was a 2007 Kentucky Derby contender - Circular saw bench, a woodworking tool that consists of a circular saw blade, mounted on an arbor, that is driven by an electric motor
- Circular sawCircular sawThe circular saw is a machine using a toothed metal cutting disc or blade. The term is also loosely used for the blade itself. The blade is a tool for cutting wood or other materials and may be hand-held or table-mounted. It can also be used to make narrow slots...

, a spinning tool with saw teeth used for cutting wood or other materials - Circular transactions controversy, a 2008 Irish accounting scandal that triggered series of incidents which led to the eventual nationalisation of the Anglo Irish Bank
- Intermediate circular orbit, is the region of space around the Earth above low Earth orbit and below geostationary orbit
- Circular gear, a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque.
- Semi-circular kick, a form of roundhouse kick used in kick-boxing