The Burgtheater originally known as K.K. Theater an der Burg, then until 1918 as the K.K. Hofburgtheater, is the Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n National Theatre in Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 and one of the most important German language
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 theatres in the world.

The Burgtheater was created in 1741 and has become known as "die Burg" by the Viennese population; its theatre company of more or less regular members has created a traditional style and speech typical of Burgtheater performances.


The theatre opened on 14 March 1741, the creation of the Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

 Empress Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma...

 who wanted a theatre next to her palace. Her son, Emperor Joseph II called it the "German National Theatre" in 1776. Three Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music...

 operas premiered there: Die Entführung aus dem Serail
Die Entführung aus dem Serail
Die Entführung aus dem Serail is an opera Singspiel in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The German libretto is by Christoph Friedrich Bretzner with adaptations by Gottlieb Stephanie...

(1782), Le nozze di Figaro (1786) and Così fan tutte
Così fan tutte
Così fan tutte, ossia La scuola degli amanti K. 588, is an opera buffa by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart first performed in 1790. The libretto was written by Lorenzo Da Ponte....

(1790). Beginning in 1794, the theatre was called the "K.K. Hoftheater nächst der Burg". Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential composers of all time.Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of...

's 1st Symphony
Symphony No. 1 (Beethoven)
Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 1 in C major, Op. 21, was dedicated to Baron Gottfried van Swieten, an early patron of the composer. The piece was published in 1801 by Hoffmeister & Kühnel of Leipzig...

 premiered there on 2 April 1800.

The theatre was moved to a new building at the Ringstraße
The Ringstraße is a circular road surrounding the Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria and is one of its main sights...

 on 14 October 1888 designed by Gottfried Semper
Gottfried Semper
Gottfried Semper was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841. In 1849 he took part in the May Uprising in Dresden and was put on the government's wanted list. Semper fled first to Zürich and later...

 and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer
Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer
Baron Karl von Hasenauer was an important Austrian architect and key representative of the Historismus school....


In 1943, under Nazi rule, a notoriously extreme production of The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice is a tragic comedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598. Though classified as a comedy in the First Folio and sharing certain aspects with Shakespeare's other romantic comedies, the play is perhaps most remembered for its dramatic...

was staged at the Burgtheater - with Werner Krauss
Werner Krauss
Werner Johannes Krauss was a German stage and film actor.-Early life:Krauss was born at the parsonage of Gestungshausen in Upper Franconia, where his grandfather was Protestant pastor. He spent his childhood in Breslau and from 1901 attended the teacher's college at Kreuzburg...

 as Shylock
Shylock is a fictional character in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.-In the play:In The Merchant of Venice, Shylock is a Jewish moneylender who lends money to his Christian rival, Antonio, setting the security at a pound of Antonio's flesh...

, one of several theatre and film roles by this actor pandering
Pandering (politics)
Pandering is the act of expressing one's views in accordance with the likes of a group to which one is attempting to appeal. The term is most notably associated with politics...

 to antisemitic stereotypes.

On March 12, 1945 the Burgtheater was largely destroyed in a bombing raid, and, one month later, on April 12, 1945, it was further damaged by a fire of unknown origin. After the war, the theatre was restored between 1953 and 1955. The classic Burgtheater style and the Burgtheater-German language were trend-setting for German language
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....


Directors of the Burgtheater

Before 1776 the theatre had been leased from the state by Johann Koháry. The tenant of the theatre Johann Koháry came into financial difficulties in 1773, he got in 1773 Joseph Keglevich
House of Keglević
The House of Keglević is a Croatian noble family originally from Dalmatia, their members were pointed out in public life, also as soldiers...

 as a curator to his side, the director of the theatre Wenzel Sporck, who was the great nephew of Franz Anton Sporck
Franz Anton von Sporck
Franz Anton von Sporck, Count was a German-speaking literatus and patron of the arts who lived in the province of Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic...

, who had brought the french horn and Antonio Vivaldi
Antonio Vivaldi
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi , nicknamed because of his red hair, was an Italian Baroque composer, priest, and virtuoso violinist, born in Venice. Vivaldi is recognized as one of the greatest Baroque composers, and his influence during his lifetime was widespread over Europe...

 to Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, got a committee for financing under the chairman Franz Keglevich as his assistance in 1773 and Karl Keglevich became the director of the Theater am Kärntnertor
Theater am Kärntnertor
Theater am Kärntnertor or Kärntnertortheater was a prestigious theatre in Vienna during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries...

 in 1773 to have comparative figures. The curator Joseph Keglevich declared the bankruptcy of the theatre in 1776 and the state under Joseph II
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I...

 took over the theatre again in 1776. The director of the theatre Wenzel Sporck and the chairman of the committee for financing the theatre Franz Keglevich were released of their duties in 1776 and the University of Trnava
University of Trnava
The University of Trnava is a college of "university type" based in Trnava, Slovakia.-Historical university:The original Jesuit university was founded in 1635 by the Archbishop of Esztergom, Peter Pázmány. It had a faculty of arts, faculty of theology, faculty of law and faculty of medicine...

, which rector was Alexander Keglevich in the year 1770/71, got the permission to move into the Buda Castle
Buda Castle
Buda Castle is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest, first completed in 1265. In the past, it was also called Royal Palace and Royal Castle ....

. Until 1776 the theatre had been financed de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

, but not de jure
De jure
De jure is an expression that means "concerning law", as contrasted with de facto, which means "concerning fact".De jure = 'Legally', De facto = 'In fact'....

, by the University of Trnava of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

, which were suppressed by the order of Pope Clement XIV
Pope Clement XIV
Pope Clement XIV , born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, was Pope from 1769 to 1774. At the time of his election, he was the only Franciscan friar in the College of Cardinals.-Early life:...

 in 1773, therefore it is difficult to determine who the actual director was and therefore the suspicion that the same surnames were no coincidence, however, did not constitute a kinship, but a financial intelligence for purchased exams and for identifying of high-risk housing tenants. Francis II
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz...

 decided on 4th July 1792 to let out the theatre to lease again, but it was not possible to find any tenant, therefore it was not permitted to the directors of the Burgtheater as state employees to bow to the audience, because their performance was not over, because there was no new tenant. The benchmark
Benchmark (surveying)
The term bench mark, or benchmark, originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors made in stone structures, into which an angle-iron could be placed to form a "bench" for a leveling rod, thus ensuring that a leveling rod could be accurately repositioned in the same place in the future...

 for the directors became the finances of the house. Finally, Ferdinánd Pálffy became the tenant 1794-1817, his finances had come from the mining institute in Banská Štiavnica
Banská Štiavnica
Banská Štiavnica is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano. For its size, the caldera is known as Štiavnica Mountains. Banská Štiavnica has a population of more than 10,000. It is a completely preserved medieval town...

 the first technical university in the world.
Name Start  End 
Joint direction by 15-22 senior
members (Künstlerrepublik)
1776 1789
Franz Carl Hieronymus Brockmann 1790 1790
Direction by 5 senior members
1790 1794
Peter von Braun 1794 1806
Direction by a group of senior courtiers
(initially 8) (Kavaliersdirektion)
1807 1817
Joseph Schreyvogel 1814 1832
Johann Ludwig Deinhardstein 1832 1841
Franz Ignaz von Holbein 1841 1849
Heinrich Laube
Heinrich Laube
Heinrich Laube , German dramatist, novelist and theatre-director, was born at Sprottau in Prussian Silesia.-Life:He studied theology at Halle and Breslau , and settled in Leipzig in 1832...

1849 1867
Friedrich Halm (pseudonym of
Eligius Freiherr von Münch-Bellinghausen)
1867 1868
August Wolff 1868 1870
Franz Freiherr von Dingelstedt
Franz von Dingelstedt
Franz von Dingelstedt was a German poet, dramatist and theatre administrator.-Biography:Dingestedt was born at Halsdorf, Hesse-Kassel , Germany, and later studied at the University of Marburg nearby. In 1836 he became a master at the Lyceum in Kassel, from where he was transferred to Fulda in 1838...

1870 1881
Adolf von Wilbrandt 1881 1887
Adolf von Sonnenthal
Adolf von Sonnenthal
Adolf von Sonnenthal , Austrian actor, was born of Jewish parentage in Budapest. Though brought up in penury and apprenticed to a working tailor, he cultivated his talent for drama, and was fortunate in receiving the support of a co-religionist, the actor Bogumil Dawison, who trained him for the...

1887 1888
August Förster
August Förster
The August Förster piano manufacturing company currently has a staff of 40 employees and produces around 120 grand pianos and 150 uprights per year.-History:On April 1, 1859, August Förster opened a small piano workshop in Löbau, Germany, expanding to a factory on...

1888 1889
Adolf von Sonnenthal
Adolf von Sonnenthal
Adolf von Sonnenthal , Austrian actor, was born of Jewish parentage in Budapest. Though brought up in penury and apprenticed to a working tailor, he cultivated his talent for drama, and was fortunate in receiving the support of a co-religionist, the actor Bogumil Dawison, who trained him for the...

1889 1890
Max Burckhard
Max Burckhard
Max Burckhard was director of the Burgtheater, Vienna, 1890-1898.Max Burckhard, a lawyer, became director of the theatre on May 12, 1890. He remained director of the theatre for eight years. He brought a fresh perspective to the theatre and introduced Sunday matinees at a reduced cost in order to...

1890 1898
Paul Schlenther 1898 1910
Alfred Freiherr von Berger 1910 1912
Hugo Thimig
Hugo Thimig
Hugo August Thimig , although born in Germany, spent his working life in Austria as an actor, director, and director of the Burgtheater in Vienna.-Biography:...

1912 1917
Max von Millenkovich 1917 1918
Joint direction by Hermann Bahr
Hermann Bahr
Hermann Bahr was an Austrian writer, playwright, director, and critic.-Biography:Born and raised in Linz, Bahr studied Philosophy, Law, Economics and Philology in Vienna, Czernowitz and Berlin. During a prolonged stay in Paris he discovered his interest in literature and art...

, Max Devrient
and Robert Michel (Dreierkollegium)
1918 1918
Albert Heine 1918 1921
Anton Wildgans
Anton Wildgans
Anton Wildgans was an Austrian poet and playwright.His works, in which realism, neo-romanticism and expressionism mingle, focus on the drama of daily life....

1921 1922
Max Paulsen 1922 1923
Franz Herterich 1923 1930
Anton Wildgans
Anton Wildgans
Anton Wildgans was an Austrian poet and playwright.His works, in which realism, neo-romanticism and expressionism mingle, focus on the drama of daily life....

1930 1931
Hermann Röbbeling 1932 1938
Mirko Jelusich 1938 1938
Ulrich Bettac
Ulrich Bettac
Ulrich Bettac , born Ulrich Ewald Berthold Bettac, was a German-born Austrian actor and theatre director. He was especially well known for his work as a character actor at the Burgtheater in Vienna; he also had a fairly extensive film career.-Selected filmography:*Mysterious Shadows *1...

1938 1939
Lothar Müthel
Lothar Müthel
Lothar Max Müthel was a German stage and film actor and director.Müthel was born in Berlin, Germany where he attended the acting school of Max Reinhardt, Schauspielschule, Berlin....

1939 1945
Raoul Aslan
Raoul Aslan
Raoul Aslan was an Austrian theater actor of Greek-Armenian ancestry. Born in Saloniki, Greece, Aslan lived in Vienna from 1897 until his death...

1945 1948
Erhard Buschbeck 1948 1948
Josef Gielen 1948 1954
Adolf Rott 1954 1959
Ernst Haeusserman 1959 1968
Paul Hoffmann 1968 1971
Gerhard Klingenberg 1971 1976
Achim Benning
Achim Benning
Achim Benning is a German actor and director.Benning finished his actor training in 1959 and was thereafter engaged at various German theatres. Starting in 1971, he began to work as a director, enabling him to become a director at the Viennese Burgtheater.-References:...

1976 1986
Claus Peymann 1986 1999
Klaus Bachler
Klaus Bachler
Klaus Bachler is an Austrian racing driver. He has competed in such series as ADAC Formel Masters and the German Formula Three Championship. He won the 2007 Formula Lista Junior championship season.-External links:*...

1999 2009
Matthias Hartmann 2009

The theatre and its actors

The Burgtheater remained a strongly traditional stage with a distinct culture until the late 1960s. From the early 1970s on, it became a venue for some of Europe's most important stage director and designers. With many debut performances of plays written by Thomas Bernhard
Thomas Bernhard
Thomas Bernhard was an Austrian novelist, playwright and poet. Bernhard, whose body of work has been called "the most significant literary achievement since World War II," is widely considered to be one of the most important German-speaking authors of the postwar era.- Life :Thomas Bernhard was...

, Elfriede Jelinek
Elfriede Jelinek
Elfriede Jelinek is an Austrian playwright and novelist. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2004 for her "musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that, with extraordinary linguistic zeal, reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power."-...

, Peter Handke
Peter Handke
Peter Handke is an avant-garde Austrian novelist and playwright.-Early life:Handke and his mother lived in the Soviet-occupied Pankow district of Berlin from 1944 to 1948 before resettling in Griffen...

, Peter Turrini
Peter Turrini
Peter Turrini is an Austrian leftist playwright.Born in Carinthia, Turrini has been writing since 1971, when his play Rozznjogd premiered at the Volkstheater, Vienna. A versatile author, he has written plays, screenplays, poems, and essays...

 and George Tabori
George Tabori
George Tabori was a Hungarian writer and theater director.-Life and career:Tabori was born in Budapest as György Tábori, a son of Kornél and Elsa Tábori. His father died in Auschwitz in 1944, but his mother and his brother Paul managed to escape the Nazis. His son Peter Tabori and again his son...

, Claus Peymann managed to affirm the Burgtheater's reputation as one of Europe's foremost stages.

Among the best known actors in the ensemble of about 120 members are: Sven-Eric Bechtolf, Klaus Maria Brandauer
Klaus Maria Brandauer
Klaus Maria Brandauer is an Austrian actor, film director, and professor at the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna.-Personal life:...

, Kirsten Dene, Andrea Clausen
Andrea Clausen
Andrea Clausen is a German stage actress, member of the Burgtheater ensemble.- Life and theatre career :...

, Bruno Ganz
Bruno Ganz
Bruno Ganz is a Swiss actor, known for his roles as Damiel in Wings of Desire and Adolf Hitler in Downfall.- Early life :Bruno Ganz was born in Zürich to a Swiss mechanic father and a northern Italian mother. He had decided to pursue an acting career by the time he entered university...

, Karlheinz Hackl
Karlheinz Hackl
Karlheinz Hackl is an Austrian actor whose varied career has included theater, television, film and cabaret performances as well as directing....

, Robert Meyer, Gertraud Jesserer
Gertraud Jesserer
-Selected filmography:* Eva * I Learned It from Father * Attempted Flight * Debt of Love * Rex-der Kleine Kommissar * Germanija * Lautlos * Il Commissario Rex...

, Ignaz Kirchner, Jutta Lampe, Susanne Lothar
Susanne Lothar
Susanne Lothar is a German actress.Lothar studied at the Schauspiel an der Hochschule für Theater und Musik in Hamburg...

, Michael Maertens, Tamara Metelka, Birgit Minichmayr
Birgit Minichmayr
Birgit Minichmayr is an Austrian actress and singer born in Linz, Austria. Birgit Minichmayr studied drama at the Max-Reinhardt-Seminar in Vienna.-Career:...

, Nicholas Ofczarek, Hedwig Pistorius, Elisabeth Orth, Martin Schwab, Peter Simonischek, Ulrich Tukur
Ulrich Tukur
Ulrich Tukur is a German actor and musician.-Biography:Tukur spent his youth near Hanover where he finished his final secondary-school examinations in 1977. He also achieved a high school degree in Boston during an exchange of students where he met his first wife, Amber Wood. With her, he had two...

, Franz Tscherne
Franz Tscherne
Franz Tscherne is an Austrian actor and film director.The actor, who was born in Graz, Austria, has been on the stage of major and renowned theaters in Switzerland, Germany and Austria such as Zurich, Basel, Düsseldorf, Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Berlin, Munich and Vienna since the age of 19, playing...

, Gert Voss, Gusti Wolf
Gusti Wolf
Gusti Wolf was an Austrian stage, film, and television actress.Born in Vienna, Wolf made her stage debut at the Burgtheater in 1934 and from there moved on to Ostrava, Munich, and Berlin...

, and Heinz Zuber.

Some famous former members of the ensemble were Max Devrient, Josef Kainz
Josef Kainz
Josef Gottfried Ignaz Kainz was an Austrian actor of Hungarian birth. He was highly active in theatres in Austria and Germany from 1873–1910...

, Josef Lewinsky, Joseph Schreyvogel, Adolf von Sonnenthal
Adolf von Sonnenthal
Adolf von Sonnenthal , Austrian actor, was born of Jewish parentage in Budapest. Though brought up in penury and apprenticed to a working tailor, he cultivated his talent for drama, and was fortunate in receiving the support of a co-religionist, the actor Bogumil Dawison, who trained him for the...

, Charlotte Wolter
Charlotte Wolter
Charlotte Wolter , Austrian actress, was born at Cologne, and began her artistic career at Budapest in 1857.-Biography:...

, Ludwig Gabillon, Zerline Gabillon, Attila Hörbiger
Attila Hörbiger
Attila Hörbiger was an Austrian stage and movie actor.Hörbiger was born in Budapest, then Austria–Hungary, the son of engineer Hanns Hörbiger and younger brother of actor Paul Hörbiger...

, Paula Wessely
Paula Wessely
Paula Anna Maria Wessely was an Austrian theatre and film actress. Die Wessely , as she was affectionately called by her admirers and fans, was Austria's foremost popular postwar actress....

, Curd Jürgens
Curd Jürgens
Curd Gustav Andreas Gottlieb Franz Jürgens was a German-Austrian stage and film actor. He was usually billed in English-speaking films as Curt Jurgens.-Early life:...

, O. W. Fischer
O. W. Fischer
Otto Wilhelm Fischer was an Austrian actor. A leading man of German cinema, he began his career with Max Reinhardt's stage company....

, Paul Hörbiger
Paul Hörbiger
Paul Hörbiger was an Austrian theatre and film actor.-Life and work:Paul Hörbiger was born in Budapest, the son of Hans Hörbiger, an engineer who wrote Welteislehre on glacial cosmology, and elder brother of actor Attila Hörbiger. In 1902 the family returned to Vienna, while Paul attended the...

, Otto Tausig, Peter Weck
Peter Weck
-Selected filmography:Actor* Mariandl * Almost Angels * Mariandl's Homecoming * The Cardinal * Marry Me, Cherie * When the Grapevines Bloom on the Danube...

, Fritz Muliar
Fritz Muliar
Fritz Muliar, born as Friedrich Ludwig Stand , was an Austrian actor who, due to his huge popularity, is often referred to by his countrymen as Volksschauspieler.- Biography :...

, and Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz is an Austrian-German actor. He received international acclaim for his portrayal of SS-Standartenführer Hans Landa in the 2009 film Inglourious Basterds, for which he won the Best Actor Award at the Cannes Film Festival and the BAFTA, Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild Award and...

. Particularly deserving artists may be designated honorable members. Their names are engraved in marble at the bottom end of the ceremonial stairs at the side of the theatre facing the Volksgarten
Volksgarten (Vienna)
The Volksgarten is a public parc in the Innere Stadt, the First District of Vienna and part of the Hofburg.It was built over the city fortifications destroyed by Napoleon...

. Members of honor are: Annemarie Düringer
Annemarie Düringer
Annemarie Düringer is a Swiss actress. She graduated from the Cours Simon in Paris in 1946, and from the Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna in 1947. She is the daughter of a Swiss industrialist...

, Wolfgang Gasser, Heinrich Schweiger
Heinrich Schweiger
Heinrich Schweiger was a Viennese film and stage actor who played leading roles at the Burgtheater on the Ring beginning in 1949...

, Gusti Wolf
Gusti Wolf
Gusti Wolf was an Austrian stage, film, and television actress.Born in Vienna, Wolf made her stage debut at the Burgtheater in 1934 and from there moved on to Ostrava, Munich, and Berlin...

, and Michael Heltau
Michael Heltau
Michael Heltau is an German television actor and singer, living in Austria.-Television appearances:*Mino *Maximilian von Mexiko - External links :* *...


The Burgtheater has seen productions staged by directors like Otto Schenk
Otto Schenk
Otto Schenk is an Austrian actor, and theater and opera director.-Life and career:Schenk was born to Catholic parents. His father, a lawyer, had Jewish roots and therefore lost his job after the Anschluss in 1938...

, Peter Hall, Giorgio Strehler
Giorgio Strehler
Giorgio Strehler was an Italian opera and theatre director.-Biography:Strehler was born in Barcola, Trieste to an Austrian father and a Franco-Slovene mother; he grew up speaking Italian but spoke French well and his German was passable. He became suddenly fatherless at the age of three, his...

, Luca Ronconi
Luca Ronconi
Luca Ronconi is an Italian actor, theater director, and opera director.- Biography :After growing up in Tunisia, where his mother was a school teacher, he graduated from the Academy of Dramatic Art in Rome in 1953. He acted in productions of Luigi Squarzina, Orazio Costa, Michelangelo Antonioni...

, Hans Neuenfels
Hans Neuenfels
Hans Neuenfels is a German writer, poet, film producer, librettist, theatre director and opera director.- Biography :...

, Terry Hands
Terry Hands
Terence David Hands is an English theatre director. He ran the Royal Shakespeare Company for 20 years during one of its most successful periods.-Early years:...

, Jonathan Miller
Jonathan Miller
Sir Jonathan Wolfe Miller CBE is a British theatre and opera director, author, physician, television presenter, humorist and sculptor. Trained as a physician in the late 1950s, he first came to prominence in the 1960s with his role in the comedy revue Beyond the Fringe with fellow writers and...

, Peter Zadek
Peter Zadek
Peter Zadek was a German theatre and film director, play translator and screenwriter and is regarded as one of the greatest directors in German-speaking theater. He was the head of the Schauspielhaus Bochum, Bochum , the Deutsches Schauspielhaus, Hamburg and the Berliner Ensemble from 1992 to 1996...

, Paulus Manker
Paulus Manker
Paulus Manker is an Austrian film director and actor, as well as an author and screenplay writer.Manker is considered one of the most maverick German-speaking actors, and polarizes public opinion like scarcely no other...

, Luc Bondy
Luc Bondy
- Biography :Trained in Paris with the theatre teacher Jacques Lecoq, he received a job in 1969 as an assistant at the Hamburg Thalia Theatre. In a surprise, he took over in 1985 after the resignation of Peter Stein at the Schaubühne in Berlin. He also worked as a producer of both plays and operas...

, Christoph Schlingensief
Christoph Schlingensief
Christoph Maria Schlingensief was a German film and theatre director, actor, artist, and author. Starting as an independent underground filmmaker, Schlingensief later began staging productions for theatres and festivals, which often were accompanied by public controversies...

, and Thomas Vinterberg
Thomas Vinterberg
Thomas Vinterberg is a Danish film director who, along with Lars von Trier, co-founded the Dogme 95 movement in filmmaking, which established rules for simplifying movie production....

. Among the staged and costume designers were Fritz Wotruba
Fritz Wotruba
Fritz Wotruba was an Austrian sculptor of Czecho-Hungarian descent. He was considered one of the most notable Austrian 20th century sculptors...

, Luciano Damiani
Luciano Damiani
Luciano Damiani was an Italian stage and costume designer, who worked both for theatre and opera productions.- Theatre and opera productions :...

, Pier Luigi Pizzi
Pier Luigi Pizzi
Pier Luigi Pizzi is an Italian opera director, set designer, and costume designer.-Biography:Pizzi was born in Milan, Italy, and earned a degree in architecture at the Politecnico of Milan...

, Ezio Frigerio, Franca Squarciapino
Franca Squarciapino
Franca Squarciapino is an Italian costume designer who won the Academy Award for Costume Design in 1990 for Cyrano de Bergerac. She has spent much of her career designing costumes for major theatres and opera houses, including the Burgtheater in Vienna, Royal Opera at Covent Garden, the...

, Josef Svoboda
Josef Svoboda
Josef Svoboda was a Czech artist and scenic designer.Svoboda was born in Čáslav, Czechoslovakia . He began his training as an architect at the Central School of Housing in Prague. At the end of World War II he became interested in theatre and design...

, Anselm Kiefer
Anselm Kiefer
Anselm Kiefer is a German painter and sculptor. He studied with Joseph Beuys and Peter Dreher during the 1970s. His works incorporate materials such as straw, ash, clay, lead, and shellac...

, Moidele Bickel
Moidele Bickel
Moidele Bickel is a costume designer born in 1937, in Germany. She was nominated for the Academy Award for Costume Design for her work in the film Queen Margot .- External links :...

, and Milena Canonero
Milena Canonero
Milena Canonero is an Italian costume designer, working both for films and stage productions. She has won three Academy Awards for Best Costume design, and been nominated for it eight times.-Career:...


External links

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