A bouffant is a type of hairstyle characterized by hair piled high on the head and hanging down on the sides.


The bouffant was a mainstream hairstyle in the mid-to-late 18th century in western Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

. It was thought to be created for Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette ; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was an Archduchess of Austria and the Queen of France and of Navarre. She was the fifteenth and penultimate child of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I....

, as she had relatively thin hair and wanted to create the illusion of having very full hair. In modern times, the bouffant was popular in Western culture
Western culture
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization or European civilization, refers to cultures of European origin and is used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, and specific artifacts and...

 in the 1960s, when it was created with the help of back-combing
Backcombing is a way of combing hair which is used to create volume as well as to create certain hairstyles. Backcombing means repeatedly combing the hair towards the scalp, causing the hair to tangle and knot up...

 and large amounts of hair spray
Hair spray
Hair spray is a common cosmetic product that is sprayed onto hair to keep it stiff or in a certain style...

The modern bouffant is considered to have been invented by Raymond Bessone
Raymond Bessone
Raymond Bessone , was a British hairdresser of the 1950s and 1960s.-Personal life:...


Bouffant cap

A 'bouffant cap' (from its resemblance to the hairstyle) is a type of cap that completely covers the hair for use in cleanroom
A cleanroom is an environment, typically used in manufacturing or scientific research, that has a low level of environmental pollutants such as dust, airborne microbes, aerosol particles and chemical vapors. More accurately, a cleanroom has a controlled level of contamination that is specified by...

s and other situations where it is important to avoid loose hairs. They are usually made of polypropylene
Polypropylene , also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging, textiles , stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes...

 or some other non-woven material, with an elastic
An elastomer is a polymer with the property of viscoelasticity , generally having notably low Young's modulus and high yield strain compared with other materials. The term, which is derived from elastic polymer, is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, although the latter is preferred...

 band around the rim to keep it tight around the forehead and the back of the head below the hairline. As they can be worn by any sex and over any hairstyle, bouffant caps are a popular and economical choice of workplace head covering. Cafeteria workers' hairnet
A hairnet, or sometimes simply a net or caul, is a small, often elasticised, fine net worn over long hair to hold it in place. It is often worn by food service workers to prevent hair from contaminating the food...

s and hospital scrub hats
Scrubs (clothing)
Scrubs are the shirts and trousers or gowns worn by nurses , surgeons, and other operating room personnel when "scrubbing in" for surgery. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes known as Theatre Blues. They are designed to be simple with minimal places for dirt to hide, easy to launder, and...

 are two common examples of bouffant-style caps.

Examples of the bouffant hairstyle

  • Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
    Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
    Jacqueline Lee Bouvier "Jackie" Kennedy Onassis was the wife of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and served as First Lady of the United States during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Five years later she married Greek shipping magnate Aristotle...

    , style icon and former First Lady of the United States
  • Lady Bird Johnson
    Lady Bird Johnson
    Claudia Alta "Lady Bird" Taylor Johnson was First Lady of the United States from 1963 to 1969 during the presidency of her husband Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout her life, she was an advocate for beautification of the nation's cities and highways and conservation of natural resources and made that...

    , former First Lady of the United States
  • Pat Nixon
    Pat Nixon
    Thelma Catherine "Pat" Ryan Nixon was the wife of Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States, and was First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974. She was commonly known as Patricia or Pat Nixon.Born in Nevada, Pat Ryan grew up in Los Angeles, California...

    , former First Lady of the United States
  • Imelda Marcos
    Imelda Marcos
    Imelda R. Marcos is a Filipino politician and widow of 10th Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos. Upon the ascension of her husband to political power, she held various positions to the government until 1986...

    , former First Lady of the Philippines
  • Kate Pierson
    Kate Pierson
    Catherine Elizabeth "Kate" Pierson is an American vocalist and one of the lead singers and founding members of The B-52's. One of the multi-instrumentalists in the band, Pierson played guitar, bass and various keyboard instruments...

     and Cindy Wilson
    Cindy Wilson
    Cynthia Leigh Wilson is a vocalist and a founding member of new wave rock band The B-52s.- Career :...

     of the B-52's are known for wearing their iconic bouffant and beehive wigs. The latter type of hairstyle is where the band gets its name from.
  • Beyonce Knowles
    Beyoncé Knowles
    Beyoncé Giselle Knowles , often known simply as Beyoncé, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, she enrolled in various performing arts schools and was first exposed to singing and dancing competitions as a child...

     wore a pulled back bouffant for her "Single Ladies" music video.
  • The Ronettes
    The Ronettes
    The Ronettes were a 1960s girl group from New York City, best known for their work with producer Phil Spector. The group consisted of lead singer Veronica Bennett ; her older sister, Estelle Bennett; and their cousin Nedra Talley...

     wore their hair in bouffants, as did many girl groups of the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Amy Winehouse
    Amy Winehouse
    Amy Jade Winehouse was an English singer-songwriter known for her powerful deep contralto vocals and her eclectic mix of musical genres including R&B, soul and jazz. Winehouse's 2003 debut album, Frank, was critically successful in the UK and was nominated for the Mercury Prize...

    , British singer song-writer often wore her hair in a bouffant like style
  • Russell Brand
    Russell Brand
    Russell Edward Brand is an English comedian, actor, columnist, singer, author and radio/television presenter.Brand achieved mainstream fame in the UK in 2004 for his role as host of Big Brother spin-off, Big Brother's Big Mouth. His first major film role was in the 2007 film St Trinians...

     British comedian known for his somewhat eccentric back-combed bouffant
  • Sarah Palin
    Sarah Palin
    Sarah Louise Palin is an American politician, commentator and author. As the Republican Party nominee for Vice President in the 2008 presidential election, she was the first Alaskan on the national ticket of a major party and first Republican woman nominated for the vice-presidency.She was...

    , former governor of Alaska
    Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area. It is situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent, with Canada to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, with Russia further west across the Bering Strait...

     and 2008 Republican
    Republican Party (United States)
    The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

     nominee for Vice President of the United States
    Vice President of the United States
    The Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United States Constitution. The Vice President, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by the people, through the Electoral College, to a four-year term...

  • Miss Yvonne from Pee-wee's Playhouse
    Pee-wee's Playhouse
    Pee-wee's Playhouse is an American children's television program starring Paul Reubens as the child-like Pee-wee Herman. The show was developed from Reubens' popular stage show and the one-off TV special The Pee-wee Herman Show, produced for HBO, which was similar in style but featured much more...

    always has her hair in this style.
  • Katey Sagal
    Katey Sagal
    Catherine Louise "Katey" Sagal is an American actress and singer-songwriter. She first achieved widespread fame as Peggy Bundy on the long-running Fox comedy series Married.....

     intentionally parodies the 1960s look for her character Peggy Bundy in Married... With Children
    Married... with Children
    Married... with Children is an American surrealistic sitcom that aired for 11 seasons that featured a dysfunctional family living in Chicago, Illinois. The show, notable for being the first prime time television series to air on Fox, ran from April 5, 1987, to June 9, 1997. The series was created...

    by wearing a red bouffant wig.
  • Joan Sutherland
    Joan Sutherland
    Dame Joan Alston Sutherland, OM, AC, DBE was an Australian dramatic coloratura soprano noted for her contribution to the renaissance of the bel canto repertoire from the late 1950s through to the 1980s....

    , Australian operatic soprano famous for her bouffant hairstyle.
  • The character Fran Fine of The Nanny
    The Nanny (TV series)
    The Nanny is an American television sitcom co-produced by Sternin & Fraser Ink, Inc., and Fran Drescher in association with TriStar Television for the CBS network...

    has large bouffant hairstyle.
  • Kerry Fraser
    Kerry Fraser
    Kerry Fraser is a hockey analyst and former senior referee in the National Hockey League, having joined the National Hockey League Officials Association on September 1, 1973, and officiating his first game in the 1980–81 season. Fraser's father, Hilton "Hilt" Fraser, had him skating at 15 months...

    , a referee in the NHL is well known for his bouffant hairstyle.
  • Prince
    Prince (musician)
    Prince Rogers Nelson , often known simply as Prince, is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and actor. Prince has produced ten platinum albums and thirty Top 40 singles during his career. Prince founded his own recording studio and label; writing, self-producing and playing most, or all, of...

    , had a bouffant mass of curls in the mid-80's
  • Patsy Stone
    Patsy Stone
    Eurydice Colette Clytemnestra Dido Bathsheba Rabelais Patricia Cocteau Stone, more commonly known as Patsy Stone, is a fictional character on the UK television series Absolutely Fabulous, portrayed by actress Joanna Lumley.- Background :...

     from Absolutely Fabulous
    Absolutely Fabulous
    Absolutely Fabulous, also known as Ab Fab, is a British sitcom created by Jennifer Saunders, based on an original idea by her and Dawn French, and written by Saunders, who plays the leading character. It also stars Joanna Lumley and Julia Sawalha, along with June Whitfield and Jane Horrocks...

     is rarely seen without the Bouffant in this BBC series
  • Margaret Thatcher
    Margaret Thatcher
    Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990...

    , First and only female British prime minister
    Prime minister
    A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

  • Tracy Turnblad in Hairspray (1988, Ricki Lake
    Ricki Lake
    Ricki Pamela Lake is an American actress, producer, and television host. She is best known for her starring role as Tracy Turnblad in the original Hairspray, her ground-breaking documentary film The Business of Being Born, and her talk show which was broadcasted internationally from...

     and in 2007
    Hairspray (2007 film)
    Hairspray is a 2007 musical film produced by Kolaja Productions and distributed by New Line Cinema. It was released in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on July 20, 2007. The film is an adaptation of the 2002 Broadway musical of the same name, which in turn was based on John...

    , Nikki Blonsky)
  • Matt Groening
    Matt Groening
    Matthew Abram "Matt" Groening is an American cartoonist, screenwriter, and producer. He is the creator of the comic strip Life in Hell as well as two successful television series, The Simpsons and Futurama....

    , of The Simpsons
    The Simpsons
    The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...

    fame, refers to Marge Simpson
    Marge Simpson
    Marjorie "Marge" Simpson is a fictional main character in the animated television series The Simpsons and part of the eponymous family. She is voiced by actress Julie Kavner and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987...

    's hairstyle as being a bouffant. This can also be seen in other members of the Bouvier Family (Selma, Patty, Jacqueline, etc.). A character once referred to Marge as "bouffant Betty."
  • Pinky Pinkerton of the Disney Channel
    Disney Channel
    Disney Channel is an American basic cable and satellite television network, owned by the Disney-ABC Television Group division of The Walt Disney Company. It is under the direction of Disney-ABC Television Group President Anne Sweeney. The channel's headquarters is located on West Alameda Ave. in...

     series Bunnytown
    Bunnytown is a children's television series that airs on Playhouse Disney's block in the United States and Canada, as well as more than seventy other countries...

    has a huge blond bouffant hairdo (which is actually a wig as her hair is brown).
  • Kim Jong-il
    Kim Jong-il
    Kim Jong-il, also written as Kim Jong Il, birth name Yuri Irsenovich Kim born 16 February 1941 or 16 February 1942 , is the Supreme Leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea...

     is well known and often parodied for his bouffant hairstyle.
  • Cosmo Kramer
    Cosmo Kramer
    Cosmo Kramer, usually referred to as simply "Kramer", is a fictional character on the American television sitcom Seinfeld , played by Michael Richards...

     from the Seinfeld
    Seinfeld is an American television sitcom that originally aired on NBC from July 5, 1989, to May 14, 1998, lasting nine seasons, and is now in syndication. It was created by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld, the latter starring as a fictionalized version of himself...

     television series.
  • Clint Eastwood
    Clint Eastwood
    Clinton "Clint" Eastwood, Jr. is an American film actor, director, producer, composer and politician. Eastwood first came to prominence as a supporting cast member in the TV series Rawhide...

     in the 1970s
  • Mary Tyler Moore
    Mary Tyler Moore
    Mary Tyler Moore is an American actress, primarily known for her roles in television sitcoms. Moore is best known for The Mary Tyler Moore Show , in which she starred as Mary Richards, a 30-something single woman who worked as a local news producer in Minneapolis, and for her earlier role as...

     as Laura Petrie on The Dick Van Dyke Show
    The Dick Van Dyke Show
    The Dick Van Dyke Show is an American television sitcom that initially aired on the Columbia Broadcasting System from October 3, 1961, until June 1, 1966. The show was created by Carl Reiner and starred Dick Van Dyke and Mary Tyler Moore. It was produced by Reiner with Bill Persky and Sam Denoff....

    wore a bouffant hairstyle when that series ran on CBS
    CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

  • Nicole Polizzi
    Nicole Polizzi
    Nicole Elizabeth "Snooki" Polizzi is an American reality television personality who appeared on the MTV reality show Jersey Shore starting in 2009.- Early life :Polizzi was born in Santiago, Chile...

    , reality television star frequently wears her hair in this style
  • Dr. Girlfriend of The Venture Bros has had this hairstyle for most of her life as a super-villain.
  • Helena Majdaniec
  • Brian Haklisch - Fall 2011

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.