Winnipeg
Overview
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba
Manitoba
Manitoba is a Canadian prairie province with an area of . The province has over 110,000 lakes and has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal
Longitude
Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds, and denoted by the Greek letter lambda ....

 centre of North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

, at the confluence
Confluence
Confluence, in geography, describes the meeting of two or more bodies of water.Confluence may also refer to:* Confluence , a property of term rewriting systems...

 of the Red
Red River of the North
The Red River is a North American river. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States, it flows northward through the Red River Valley and forms the border between the U.S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota before continuing into Manitoba, Canada...

 and Assiniboine
Assiniboine River
The Assiniboine River is a river that runs through the prairies of Western Canada in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. It is a tributary of the Red River. The Assiniboine is a typical meandering river with a single main channel embanked within a flat, shallow valley in some places and a steep valley in...

 Rivers (a point commonly known as The Forks).

The name "Winnipeg" comes from the Cree
Cree
The Cree are one of the largest groups of First Nations / Native Americans in North America, with 200,000 members living in Canada. In Canada, the major proportion of Cree live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories, although...

 for "muddy waters". The Winnipeg area was a trading centre for Aboriginal peoples
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

 prior to the arrival of Europeans.
Quotations

"Sweet guinea pig of Winnipeg!"

Hermes, from the TV series Futurama

"If you kids can't keep your hands to yourself, I'm gonna turn this car around, and there'll be no Cape Canaveral for anybody. (Nelson smacks the back of his head). THATS IT! BACK TO WINNIPEG!" ~ A father warning his kids who are fooling around in the back of the car.

The Simpsons 3F17 - "Bart On The Road"

"Every salvage mission that's been to this system has disappeared. Even those old pirates out at Winnipeg Drift say it's cursed."

The character Harper making a remark in EPISODE 112: The Mathematics of Tears in the TV series Andromeda (TV series)|Andromeda

"I could, remember when we were in Winnipeg? Six hours, I couldn’t go." Paul talking to Jamie about their dog who has to hold it in for hours while trapped in their apartment.

"An Angel For Murray" (406) Mad About You

"With the thermometer at 30 below zero and the wind behind him, a man walking on Main Street in Winnipeg knows which side of him is which."

Stephen Leacock Source: My Discovery of the West, 1937

“I wouldn't say it's cold, but every year Winnipeg's athlete of the year is an ice fisherman.”

Dale Tallon, ThinkExist.com

“You could live in Winnipeg a thousand years and not meet Ringo, Paul McCartney, or Bob Dylan.”

Burton Cummings, ThinkExist.com

“Winnipeg is like Fargo, North Dakota, without the action”

Billy Jay, ThinkExist.com

Encyclopedia
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of Manitoba
Manitoba
Manitoba is a Canadian prairie province with an area of . The province has over 110,000 lakes and has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal
Longitude
Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds, and denoted by the Greek letter lambda ....

 centre of North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

, at the confluence
Confluence
Confluence, in geography, describes the meeting of two or more bodies of water.Confluence may also refer to:* Confluence , a property of term rewriting systems...

 of the Red
Red River of the North
The Red River is a North American river. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States, it flows northward through the Red River Valley and forms the border between the U.S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota before continuing into Manitoba, Canada...

 and Assiniboine
Assiniboine River
The Assiniboine River is a river that runs through the prairies of Western Canada in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. It is a tributary of the Red River. The Assiniboine is a typical meandering river with a single main channel embanked within a flat, shallow valley in some places and a steep valley in...

 Rivers (a point commonly known as The Forks).

The name "Winnipeg" comes from the Cree
Cree
The Cree are one of the largest groups of First Nations / Native Americans in North America, with 200,000 members living in Canada. In Canada, the major proportion of Cree live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories, although...

 for "muddy waters". The Winnipeg area was a trading centre for Aboriginal peoples
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

 prior to the arrival of Europeans. The first fort was built there in 1738 by French traders. A settlement was later founded by the Selkirk settlers
Red River Colony
The Red River Colony was a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on of land granted to him by the Hudson's Bay Company under what is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. The colony along the Red River of the North was never very successful...

 in 1812, the nucleus of which was incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873. During the late 19th century and early 20th century, Winnipeg was one of the fastest growing cities in North America. The University of Manitoba
University of Manitoba
The University of Manitoba , in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is the largest university in the province of Manitoba. It is Manitoba's most comprehensive and only research-intensive post-secondary educational institution. It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada’s first university. It placed...

, founded during this period, was the first university in Western Canada.

Winnipeg has a diversified economy, with sectors in finance, manufacturing, food and beverage production, culture, retail and tourism. Winnipeg is a major transportation hub, served by Richardson International Airport. The city has railway connections to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Eastern and Western Canada through three Class I rail carriers.

Winnipeg is the seventh-largest municipality in Canada, with a population of 633,451 in the Canada 2006 Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

. The city's census metropolitan area—consisting of the city of Winnipeg, ten nearby rural municipalities and the First Nations
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

 reserve of Brokenhead 4, Manitoba
Brokenhead Ojibway Nation
Brokenhead Ojibway Nation is an Anishinaabe First Nation located approximately northeast of Winnipeg, Manitoba. As of May 2010, the First Nation had a registered population of 1,733 people, of which their own on-reserve population was 598. The main reserve of Brokenhead 4 is surrounded by the...

—is Canada's eighth-largest, with 694,668 inhabitants. As of July 2009, the population of the city of Winnipeg was estimated at 675,100, and that of the census metropolitan area at 742,400. Winnipeg's cultural organizations and festivals include the Royal Winnipeg Ballet
Royal Winnipeg Ballet
The Royal Winnipeg Ballet, based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is Canada's oldest ballet company and the longest continuously operating ballet company in North America....

, Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra
Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra
The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra is a Canadian orchestra based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Its primary concert venue is the Centennial Concert Hall, and the orchestra also performs throughout the province of Manitoba.-History:...

, Manitoba Opera
Manitoba Opera
Manitoba Opera is an opera company in Winnipeg, Manitoba that was founded in 1969. Its first production was a concert of Giuseppe Verdi's Il Trovatore in 1972. Manitoba Opera is one of several western Canadian opera companies that flourished under the inspired leadership of Irving Guttman,...

, Le Cercle Molière
Le Cercle Molière
Le Cercle Molière is the oldest running theatre in Canada. It is located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and was founded in 1925. In 2005, it began to raise funds to build a new venue in its historic home of St. Boniface.-History:...

, Festival du Voyageur
Festival du Voyageur
The Festival du Voyageur is an annual 10-day winter festival which takes place in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada during February. "Voyageur" refers to those who worked for a fur trading company and usually travelled by canoe.This event is held in Winnipeg's French Quarter, Saint-Boniface, and is...

 and Folklorama
Folklorama
Folklorama is an event that runs for two weeks each August in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Folklorama is the largest and longest-running festival of its kind in the world...

. Professional sports organizations based in the city include the Winnipeg Blue Bombers
Winnipeg Blue Bombers
The Winnipeg Blue Bombers are a Canadian football team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. They are currently members of the East Division of the Canadian Football League . They play their home games at Canad Inns Stadium, and plan to move to a new stadium for the 2012 season.The Blue Bombers were founded...

, the Winnipeg Jets
Winnipeg Jets
The Winnipeg Jets were a professional ice hockey team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. They began play in the World Hockey Association in 1972, moving to the National Hockey League in 1979 following the collapse of the WHA...

, and the Winnipeg Goldeyes
Winnipeg Goldeyes
The Winnipeg Goldeyes are a professional baseball team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in Canada. The Goldeyes play in the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball, which is not affiliated with Major League Baseball. From 1994 to 2010, the team was a member of the Northern League.The...

.

History

Winnipeg lies at the confluence
Confluence
Confluence, in geography, describes the meeting of two or more bodies of water.Confluence may also refer to:* Confluence , a property of term rewriting systems...

 of the Assiniboine
Assiniboine River
The Assiniboine River is a river that runs through the prairies of Western Canada in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. It is a tributary of the Red River. The Assiniboine is a typical meandering river with a single main channel embanked within a flat, shallow valley in some places and a steep valley in...

 and the Red River of the North
Red River Valley
The Red River Valley is a region in central North America that is drained by the Red River of the North. It is significant in the geography of North Dakota, Minnesota, and Manitoba for its relatively fertile lands and the population centers of Fargo, Moorhead, Grand Forks, and Winnipeg...

, a location currently known as "The Forks". This point was at the crossroads of canoe
Canoe
A canoe or Canadian canoe is a small narrow boat, typically human-powered, though it may also be powered by sails or small electric or gas motors. Canoes are usually pointed at both bow and stern and are normally open on top, but can be decked over A canoe (North American English) or Canadian...

 routes travelled by Aboriginal peoples
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

 prior to European contact. The name Winnipeg is a transcription of the western Cree
Cree
The Cree are one of the largest groups of First Nations / Native Americans in North America, with 200,000 members living in Canada. In Canada, the major proportion of Cree live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories, although...

 word wi-nipe-k meaning "muddy waters"; the general area was populated for thousands of years by First Nations
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

. Through archaeology
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

, petroglyph
Petroglyph
Petroglyphs are pictogram and logogram images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, and abrading. Outside North America, scholars often use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of the technique to refer to such images...

s, rock art
Rock art
Rock art is a term used in archaeology for any human-made markings made on natural stone. They can be divided into:*Petroglyphs - carvings into stone surfaces*Pictographs - rock and cave paintings...

 and oral history, scholars have learned that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, fishing, trading and, further north, for agriculture.

Before the first European encounter, First Nations peoples appear to have been engaged in farming activity along the Red River, near present-day Lockport
Lockport, Manitoba
Lockport is a small unincorporated community in Manitoba, Canada located just north of the city of Winnipeg. It is the site of ancient agricultural inhabitation, a migratory bird feeding area as well as a dam and lock of the Red River. The Red River Floodway joins the Red River just down river...

, where corn
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

 and other seed crops were planted. The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking many indigenous peoples, including the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe or Anishinabe—or more properly Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek, which is the plural form of the word—is the autonym often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonquin peoples. They all speak closely related Anishinaabemowin/Anishinaabe languages, of the Algonquian language family.The meaning...

, Assiniboine, Ojibway, Sioux
Sioux
The Sioux are Native American and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation's many language dialects...

, and Cree
Cree
The Cree are one of the largest groups of First Nations / Native Americans in North America, with 200,000 members living in Canada. In Canada, the major proportion of Cree live north and west of Lake Superior, in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories, although...

. The Red River linked ancient northern peoples with those to the south along the Missouri
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

 and Mississippi
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 rivers. The Ojibway made some of the first maps on birch bark
Birch bark
Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula.The strong and water-resistant cardboard-like bark can be easily cut, bent, and sewn, which made it a valuable building, crafting, and writing material, since pre-historic times...

, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area.

Settlement

The first French officer arrived in the area in 1738. Sieur de La Vérendrye
Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye
Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye was a French Canadian military officer, fur trader and explorer. In the 1730s he and his four sons opened up the area west of Lake Superior and thus began the process that added Western Canada to the original New France in the Saint Lawrence basin...

 built the first fur trading post
Trading post
A trading post was a place or establishment in historic Northern America where the trading of goods took place. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route....

 on the site, called Fort Rouge
Fort Rouge (fortification)
Fort Rouge was a fort located on the Assiniboine River in Manitoba, Canada, on the site of what is now the city of Winnipeg. Its exact location is unknown. Its name in English means "red fort"....

. Francophone trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
The Hudson's Bay Company , abbreviated HBC, or "The Bay" is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and one of the oldest in the world. A fur trading business for much of its existence, today Hudson's Bay Company owns and operates retail stores throughout Canada...

. Many French and later British men who were trappers married First Nations women; their mixed-race children, the Métis
Métis people (Canada)
The Métis are one of the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who trace their descent to mixed First Nations parentage. The term was historically a catch-all describing the offspring of any such union, but within generations the culture syncretised into what is today a distinct aboriginal group, with...

, hunted, traded, and lived in the area.

Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement (known as the Red River Colony
Red River Colony
The Red River Colony was a colonization project set up by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk in 1811 on of land granted to him by the Hudson's Bay Company under what is referred to as the Selkirk Concession. The colony along the Red River of the North was never very successful...

), the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, and a survey of river lots in the early 19th century. The North West Company
North West Company
The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821. It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what was to become Western Canada...

 built Fort Gibraltar
Fort Gibraltar
In the early 19th century fur-trading was the main industry of Western Canada. Two companies had an intense competition over the trade. The first, the Hudson's Bay Company was a London, England-based organization. The second, the North West Company was based in Montreal...

 in 1809, and the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas
Fort Douglas (Canada)
Fort Douglas was a fort of the Hudson's Bay Company that was built by Scottish and Irish settlers in 1812 in what is today Winnipeg, Manitoba. It was in the immediate vicinity of the North West Company establishment, Fort Gibraltar...

 in 1812. The two companies competed fiercely over trade in the area. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks
Battle of Seven Oaks (1816)
The Battle of Seven Oaks took place on June 19, 1816, during the long dispute between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, rival fur-trading companies in western Canada.-Background:Miles Macdonell had issued the Pemmican Proclamation...

 in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged, ending their long-standing rivalry. Fort Gibraltar, at the site of present-day Winnipeg, was renamed Fort Garry
Fort Garry
Fort Garry, also known as Upper Fort Garry, was a Hudson's Bay Company trading post at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers in what is now downtown Winnipeg. It was established in 1822 on or near the site of the North West Company's Fort Gibraltar. Fort Garry was named after Nicholas...

 in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson’s Bay Company. The fort was destroyed by a flood in 1826 and was not rebuilt until 1835. The fort was the residence of the Governor of the company for many years. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, can be found near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg.

In 1869–70, Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion
Red River Rebellion
The Red River Rebellion or Red River Resistance was the sequence of events related to the 1869 establishment of a provisional government by the Métis leader Louis Riel and his followers at the Red River Settlement, in what is now the Canadian province of Manitoba.The Rebellion was the first crisis...

, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel
Louis Riel
Louis David Riel was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political and spiritual leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies. He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government and its first post-Confederation Prime Minister, Sir John A....

, and newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley
Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley
Field Marshal Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, KP, GCB, OM, GCMG, VD, PC was an Anglo-Irish officer in the British Army. He served in Burma, the Crimean War, the Indian Mutiny, China, Canada, and widely throughout Africa—including his Ashanti campaign and the Nile Expedition...

 was sent to put down the Métis rebellion. As a consequence of this rebellion, the Manitoba Act
Manitoba Act
The Manitoba Act, originally titled An Act to amend and continue the Act 32 and 33 Victoria, chapter 3; and to establish and provide for the Government of the Province of Manitoba, is an act of the Parliament of Canada that is defined by the Constitution Act, 1982 as forming a part of the...

 of 1870 paved the way for Manitoba's entry into the Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867. On that day, three British colonies were formed into four Canadian provinces...

 as Canada's fifth province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

. On November 8, 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated as a city. Manitoba and Northwest Territories legislator James McKay named the settlement.

Winnipeg developed rapidly after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 in 1881; Canada was eager to settle the west before American interests and railways interfered. The Manitoba Legislative Building
Manitoba Legislative Building
The Manitoba Legislative Building is the meeting place of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, in central Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was originally named the Manitoba Parliament Building, not Legislative. The neoclassical building was completed in 1920 and stands seventy-seven meters tall...

, constructed mainly of Tyndall Stone
Tyndall Stone
Tyndall stone is a dolomitic limestone quarried from the Selkirk member of the Ordovician Red River Formation, in the vicinity of Tyndall, Manitoba, Canada. It was first used in 1832 for building Lower Fort Garry, and has since become popular for building purposes throughout Canada and the United...

, opened in 1920; its dome supports a bronze statue finished in gold leaf, titled "Eternal Youth and the Spirit of Enterprise" (commonly known as the "Golden Boy
Golden Boy (Manitoba)
The Golden Boy statue is 5.25 metres tall from the toe to the top of the torch and 4.27 metres from head to toe. It weighs 1650 kg , and the top of his torch is 77 metres above ground...

"). Many new lots of land were sold and prices increased quickly due to high demand. Winnipeg faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

 opened in 1914. The canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade; the real estate market slowed down, and the increase in shipping traffic helped Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

 in British Columbia
British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost of Canada's provinces and is known for its natural beauty, as reflected in its Latin motto, Splendor sine occasu . Its name was chosen by Queen Victoria in 1858...

 eventually to surpass Winnipeg and become Canada's third-largest city in 1920.

Strike to present

Following World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, more than 30,000 workers walked off their jobs in May 1919 in what came to be known as the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. The strike was a product of postwar recession, labour conditions, the activity of union organizers and a large influx of returning discharged soldiers seeking work. After many arrests, deportations, and incidents of violence, the strike ended on June 21, 1919, when the Riot Act
Riot Act
The Riot Act was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that authorised local authorities to declare any group of twelve or more people to be unlawfully assembled, and thus have to disperse or face punitive action...

 was read and a group of Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police , literally ‘Royal Gendarmerie of Canada’; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as ‘The Force’) is the national police force of Canada, and one of the most recognized of its kind in the world. It is unique in the world as a national, federal,...

 officers charged a group of strikers. Two strikers were killed and at least thirty others were injured, resulting in the day being known as Bloody Saturday; the event polarized the population. One of the leaders of the strike, J. S. Woodsworth
J. S. Woodsworth
James Shaver Woodsworth was a pioneer in the Canadian social democratic movement. Following more than two decades ministering to the poor and the working class, J. S...

, went on to found Canada's first major socialist party, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
Co-operative Commonwealth Federation
The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction...

 (CCF), which later became the New Democratic Party
New Democratic Party
The New Democratic Party , commonly referred to as the NDP, is a federal social-democratic political party in Canada. The interim leader of the NDP is Nycole Turmel who was appointed to the position due to the illness of Jack Layton, who died on August 22, 2011. The provincial wings of the NDP in...

.

The stock market crash of 1929 aggravated an already severe decline in Winnipeg; the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 resulted in massive unemployment, which was worsened by drought
Drought
A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region...

 and depressed agricultural prices. The Depression ended after the start of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 in 1939. War requirements stimulated the economies of Western nations.

In the Battle of Hong Kong
Battle of Hong Kong
The Battle of Hong Kong took place during the Pacific campaign of World War II. It began on 8 December 1941 and ended on 25 December 1941 with Hong Kong, then a Crown colony, surrendering to the Empire of Japan.-Background:...

, The Winnipeg Grenadiers
The Winnipeg Grenadiers
The Winnipeg Grenadiers was an infantry regiment of the Canadian Army formed on 1st April 1908 under General Order No. 20. Initially it was raised with Headquarters at Morden, Manitoba and companies at: ‘A’ Company at Morden, ‘B’ Company at Morden, ‘C’ Company at Manitou, ‘D’ Company at Carmen,‘E’...

 were among the first Canadians to engage in combat against Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. Battalion members who survived combat were taken prisoner and endured brutal treatment in prisoner of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 camps. In 1942, the Government of Canada's Victory Loan Campaign staged a mock Nazi invasion
If Day
If Day was a simulated Nazi invasion of the Canadian city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and surrounding areas on February 19, 1942, during the Second World War. It was organized by the Greater Winnipeg Victory Loan organization, which was led by prominent Winnipeg businessman J. D. Perrin...

 of Winnipeg to promote awareness of the stakes of the war in Europe.

When the war ended, pent-up demand generated a boom in housing development, although building activity was checked by the 1950 Red River Flood, the largest flood to hit Winnipeg since 1861. The disaster held waters above flood stage for 51 days. On May 8, 1950, eight dikes collapsed, four of the city's eleven bridges were destroyed, and nearly 100,000 people had to be evacuated. This evacuation was Canada's largest ever. The federal government estimated damages at over $26 million, although the province insisted that it was at least double that. In 1953, Manitoba was hit with the worst outbreak of polio in Canada. There were 2,357 cases and 80 deaths.

Prior to 1972, Winnipeg was the largest of thirteen cities and towns in a metropolitan area around the Red and Assiniboine rivers. A consolidated metropolitan "Unicity
Unicity
The term Unicity refers to reforms in the structure of the metropolitan government of Winnipeg in 1972. Unicity, an ambitious experiment in local government reform, established the City of Winnipeg as one unified city; until that point, the greater Winnipeg area had been composed of several...

" government was established on July 27, 1971, taking effect in 1972. The City of Winnipeg Act
City of Winnipeg Act
The City of Winnipeg Act was enacted on July 21, 1971 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The act incorporated the municipalities of Charleswood, Fort Garry, North Kildonan, Old Kildonan, Tuxedo, East Kildonan, West Kildonan, St. Vital, Transcona, St. Boniface, St. James-Assiniboia, Winnipeg and the...

 incorporated the current city of Winnipeg: the cities of Transcona, St. Boniface
Saint Boniface, Manitoba
Saint Boniface is a city ward of Winnipeg, home to much of the Franco-Manitoban community. It features such landmarks as the Cathédrale de Saint Boniface , Boulevard Provencher, the Provencher Bridge, Esplanade Riel, St. Boniface Hospital, the Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface and the Royal...

, St. Vital, West Kildonan
West Kildonan
West Kildonan is a residential suburb of Winnipeg, Manitoba, lying on the west side of the Red River, and immediately north of the old City of Winnipeg in the north-central part of the city...

, East Kildonan, Tuxedo, Old Kildonan
Old Kildonan
Old Kildonan is a city ward of Winnipeg, Manitoba, represented by a member of Winnipeg City Council. Before the City of Winnipeg Act of 1972, it was an independent rural municipality...

, North Kildonan
North Kildonan
-History:Originally there was only one large rural municipality known as Kildonan. In 1914, it was divided into the Rural Municipality of West Kildonan and the R.M. of East Kildonan. A petition to the provincial government led to a further division of East Kildonan.On January 1, 1925, the...

, Fort Garry, Charleswood, and St. James
St. James-Assiniboia
St. James-Assiniboia is a major district in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Located in the far western part of the city, it is bounded on the north by the Rural Municipality of Rosser and the Canadian National Railway's Oak Point line, on the south by the Assiniboine River, on the west by the Rural...

 were amalgamated with the Old City of Winnipeg. Winnipeg's was the first large North American urban area to consolidate its multiple municipal governments in a single administration.

Immediately following the 1979 energy crisis
1979 energy crisis
The 1979 oil crisis in the United States occurred in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. Amid massive protests, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, fled his country in early 1979 and the Ayatollah Khomeini soon became the new leader of Iran. Protests severely disrupted the Iranian oil...

, Winnipeg experienced a severe economic downturn in advance of the early 1980s recession
Early 1980s recession
The early 1980s recession describes the severe global economic recession affecting much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The United States and Japan exited recession relatively early, but high unemployment would continue to affect other OECD nations through at least 1985...

. Throughout the recession, the city incurred closures of prominent businesses, including the Winnipeg Tribune
Winnipeg Tribune
The Winnipeg Tribune was a metropolitan daily newspaper serving Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from January 28, 1890 to August 27, 1980. The paper was founded by R.L. Richardson and D.L. McIntyre who acquired the press and premises of the old Winnipeg Sun newspaper. It was often viewed as a liberal...

, as well as the Swift's
Swift & Company
Swift & Company is an American food procession company a wholly owned subsidiary of JBS S.A. , a Brazilian company that is the world's largest processor of fresh beef and pork, with more than US$30 billion in annual sales as of 2010. It is also the largest beef processor in Australia.Swift &...

 and Canada Packers
Canada Packers
Canada Packers was the largest meat packing and meat processing company in Canada, located in Ontario. It is now part of Maple Leaf Foods through a merger with Maple Leaf Mills....

 meat packing plants
Meat packing industry
The meat packing industry handles the slaughtering, processing, packaging, and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep and other livestock...

. In 1981, Winnipeg was one of the first cities in Canada to sign a tripartite agreement with the province and federal government to redevelop its downtown area. The three levels of government—federal, provincial and municipal—contributed over $271 million to the development needs of downtown Winnipeg. In 1989, the reclamation and redevelopment of the CNR
Canadian National Railway
The Canadian National Railway Company is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. CN's slogan is "North America's Railroad"....

 rail yard
Rail yard
A rail yard, or railroad yard, is a complex series of railroad tracks for storing, sorting, or loading/unloading, railroad cars and/or locomotives. Railroad yards have many tracks in parallel for keeping rolling stock stored off the mainline, so that they do not obstruct the flow of traffic....

s turned The Forks into Winnipeg's most popular tourist attraction.

Geography

Winnipeg lies at the bottom of the Red River Valley
Red River Valley
The Red River Valley is a region in central North America that is drained by the Red River of the North. It is significant in the geography of North Dakota, Minnesota, and Manitoba for its relatively fertile lands and the population centers of Fargo, Moorhead, Grand Forks, and Winnipeg...

, a low-lying flood plain with an extremely flat topography. There are no substantial hills in the city or its vicinity. Winnipeg is on the eastern edge of the Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
The Canadian Prairies is a region of Canada, specifically in western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political. Notably, the Prairie provinces or simply the Prairies comprise the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, as they are largely covered...

. It is relatively close to many large Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
The Canadian Shield, also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier Canadien , is a vast geological shield covered by a thin layer of soil that forms the nucleus of the North American or Laurentia craton. It is an area mostly composed of igneous rock which relates to its long volcanic history...

 lakes and parks, as well as Lake Winnipeg
Lake Winnipeg
Lake Winnipeg is a large, lake in central North America, in the province of Manitoba, Canada, with its southern tip about north of the city of Winnipeg...

 (the Earth's 11th largest freshwater lake). According to the Census geographic units of Canada, the city has a total area of 464.01 km² (179.2 sq mi) and an elevation of 240 m (786 ft). Winnipeg has four major rivers: the Red River
Red River of the North
The Red River is a North American river. Originating at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States, it flows northward through the Red River Valley and forms the border between the U.S. states of Minnesota and North Dakota before continuing into Manitoba, Canada...

, the Assiniboine River
Assiniboine River
The Assiniboine River is a river that runs through the prairies of Western Canada in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. It is a tributary of the Red River. The Assiniboine is a typical meandering river with a single main channel embanked within a flat, shallow valley in some places and a steep valley in...

, the La Salle River
La Salle River
The La Salle is a river in Manitoba, with its source near Portage La Prairie and terminating in the Red River in Saint Norbert . The La Salle River flows mainly through agricultural land. It is a slow-moving, meandering prairie river with variable depth...

, and the Seine River
Seine River (Manitoba)
The Seine is a river that runs through the southeastern section of the province of Manitoba, Canada. It is one of the four rivers of the city of Winnipeg, and a tributary of the Red River....

. The Red River is a Canadian heritage river
Canadian Heritage Rivers System
The Canadian Heritage Rivers System was established in 1984 by the federal, provincial and territorial governments to conserve and protect the best examples of Canada's river heritage, to give them national recognition, and to encourage the public to enjoy and appreciate them. It is a cooperative...

.

Climate

Winnipeg experiences a humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfb, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone
Hardiness zone
A hardiness zone is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone...

 2b) with warm to hot summers and cold windy winters. According to Environment Canada
Environment Canada
Environment Canada , legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act Environment Canada (EC) (French: Environnement Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act Environment...

, Winnipeg is the coldest city in the world with a population of over 600,000 based on the average night-time temperature during December, January and February, inclusive. Winnipeg is ranked as Canada's second sunniest city year-round, second for clearest skies year-round, and second for sunniest city in Canada in spring and winter.

Normal July averages in Winnipeg range from 18 °C (64 °F) to 21 °C (70 °F). Nearby Carman
Carman, Manitoba
Carman is a small Agricultural town of about 2,900 people that lies in the Pembina Valley Region of southern Manitoba. Carman is located at the junction of Highways 3 and 13, just 40 minutes southwest of Winnipeg . It is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Dufferin...

 reached 53 with the humidex, breaking Canada's old humidex record, in 2007. The highest temperature ever recorded in Winnipeg was 42.2 °C (108 °F) on July 11, 1936. A normal year will see temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) 14 times a year and temperatures above 35 °C (95 °F) at least once per year. Average highs of 20 °C (68 °F) or more occur from May 19 to September 9.

Winters in Winnipeg are usually dry, and taking the windchill into consideration Whitehorse, Yukon
Whitehorse, Yukon
Whitehorse is Yukon's capital and largest city . It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1476 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which originates in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in...

 has a slightly milder January high than Winnipeg. Normal January averages in Winnipeg range from -21.7 C to -13.9 C. The coldest temperature recorded in Winnipeg was -47.8 C on December 24, 1879.
A normal year will see temperatures below -20 C 58 times a year and temperatures below -30 C 14 times each year. Average highs of 0 °C (32 °F) or less occur from November 13 to March 20.

Winnipeg's spring and autumn tend to be contracted seasons, each averaging a little over six weeks. In general, the weather during these seasons is highly variable; temperatures in Winnipeg in April have ranged from -26.3 C to 34.3 °C (93.7 °F), and in October from -20.6 C to 31.1 °C (88 °F). Late heat waves and Indian summer
Indian summer
An Indian summer is a meteorological phenomenon that occurs in the autumn. It refers to a period of considerably above normal temperatures, accompanied by dry and hazy conditions, usually after there has been a killing frost...

s are a regular feature of the climate, as are spring or autumn snowfalls.

Winnipeg is known as a windy city; however, Regina
Regina, Saskatchewan
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council. Regina is the cathedral city of the Roman Catholic and Romanian Orthodox...

, Hamilton
Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Conceived by George Hamilton when he purchased the Durand farm shortly after the War of 1812, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe...

 and St. John's are windier. Although tornadoes are not common near Winnipeg, a Fujita scale
Fujita scale
The Fujita scale , or Fujita-Pearson scale, is a scale for rating tornado intensity, based primarily on the damage tornadoes inflict on human-built structures and vegetation...

 F5
Elie, Manitoba Tornado
The Elie, Manitoba Tornado was an F5 tornado that struck the town of Elie, Manitoba, Canada, on June 22, 2007. While several houses were leveled, no one was injured or killed by the tornado. Two well-built homes in the town were swept clean off of their foundations, justifying the F5...

 tornado struck Elie
Elie, Manitoba
Elie is the largest community in the Rural Municipality of Cartier in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The town of approximately 550 people is located approximately west of Winnipeg along the Trans-Canada Highway. The Assiniboine River forms the northern boundary of the municipality of...

 (just 40 km (24.9 mi) west of Winnipeg) in 2007
Tornadoes of 2007
This page documents the tornadoes and tornado outbreaks that occurred in 2007, primarily in the United States. Most tornadoes form in the U.S., although some events may take place internationally, particularly in parts of neighboring southern Canada during the summer season. Some tornadoes also...

; this was the strongest tornado ever recorded in Canada. Winnipeg is also prone to flooding in the spring, with the Red River suffering major floods in 1826, 1852, 1861, 1892, 1897, 1904, 1916, 1948, 1950, 1956, 1960, 1966, 1969, 1970, 1974, 1979, 1987, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2009
2009 Red River flood
The 2009 Red River flood along the Red River of the North in North Dakota and Minnesota in the United States and Manitoba in Canada brought record flood levels to the Fargo-Moorhead area. The flood was a result of saturated and frozen ground, Spring snowmelt exacerbated by additional rain and snow...

, and 2011
2011 Red River flood
The 2011 Red River flood took place along the Red River of the North in Manitoba in Canada and North Dakota and Minnesota in the United States beginning in April 2011. The flood was, in part, due to high moisture levels in the soil from the previous year which meant that further accumulation would...

. These major floods led to the 1968 construction and subsequent expansion of the Red River Floodway
Red River Floodway
The Red River Floodway is an artificial flood control waterway in Western Canada, first used in 1969. It is a long channel which, during flood periods, takes part of the Red River's flow around the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba to the east and discharges it back into the Red River below the dam at...

, designed to protect Winnipeg from floods.

Cityscape

According to the 2001 Census
Canada 2001 Census
The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 15, 2001. On that day, Statistics Canada attempted to count every person in Canada. The total population count of Canada was 30,007,094. This was a 4% increase over 1996 Census of 28,846,761. In...

, there are 230 neighbourhoods in Winnipeg.
Downtown Winnipeg
Downtown Winnipeg
Downtown Winnipeg is centred around Portage Avenue and Main Street, and is bounded by the Assiniboine River on the south, Colony and Balmoral Streets on the west, Notre Dame Avenue, Princess Street, and Logan Avenue on the north, and the Red River on the east. It includes the Exchange District,...

, the city's economic core, is centred on the intersection of Portage Avenue and Main Street
Portage and Main
Portage and Main is an intersection in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is located in the heart of downtown Winnipeg at the place where Portage Avenue and Main Street intersect. Together these two streets create the most iconic and famous street corner in Canada.Portage and Main is the hub of some...

 (reputed to be one of the windiest in Canada). Downtown Winnipeg covers an area of about one square mile (2.5 km2) and is the fastest growing high-income neighbourhood in the city. More than 72,000 people work downtown, and over 40,000 students attend classes at its universities and colleges. The past few decades have seen downtown undergo major revitalization efforts; since 1999, over $1.2 billion has been invested.

Downtown Winnipeg's Exchange District
Exchange District
The Exchange District is a National Historic Site of Canada in the downtown area of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Just one block north of Canada's most famous intersection, Portage and Main, the Exchange District comprises approximately twenty city blocks and nearly 150 buildings.- History :The...

 is named after the area's original grain exchange from 1880 to 1913. The 30-block district received National Historic Site of Canada status in 1997; it includes North America's most extensive collection of early 20th-century terracotta and cut stone architecture, 62 of downtown Winnipeg's 86 heritage structures, Stephen Juba
Stephen Juba
Stephen Juba, OC was a Canadian politician. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1953 to 1959, and served as the 37th Mayor of Winnipeg from 1957 to 1977. He was the first Ukrainian Canadian to hold high political office in the city.Juba left school at age fifteen, when...

 Park, and Old Market Square
Old Market Square
The Old Market Square is an open, pedestrianised city square in Nottingham, England. It is the largest such surviving square in the United Kingdom, forming the heart of the city, and covering an area of approximately 22,000 m²....

, home to Winnipeg Jazz
Jazz Winnipeg Festival
Winnipeg International Jazz Festival is a jazz festival in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is generally held in the month of June. A variety of Canadian and major international artists attend and perform in several related jazz genres...

 and Fringe Festivals
Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival
The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is an annual alternative theatre festival held in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is the currently the second-largest North American festival of its kind, and since 2003, has been the longest at twelve days , and it is common for a small number of shows to be held over...

. Other major downtown areas include The Forks, Central Park
Central Park (Winnipeg)
Central Park is a large urban park located in Downtown Winnipeg, and forms the heart of the neighbourhood of the same name. The area is bound by Notre Dame Ave. to the north, Ellice Ave. to the south, Donald St. to the east and Balmoral St. to the west...

, Broadway-Assiniboine and Chinatown
Chinatown, Winnipeg
The Chinatown of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada was formed in 1909. It is on King Street between James and Higgins Avenues, and was officially recognized in 1968. Some 20,000 Chinese live in the Winnipeg area....

. Much of Downtown Winnipeg's major buildings are linked with the Winnipeg Walkway
Winnipeg Walkway
The Winnipeg Walkway System, popularly known as the Winnipeg Skywalk, is a network of pedestrian skyways and tunnels connecting a significant portion of the city centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada....

 skywalk.
Various residential neighbourhoods surround downtown in all directions, but expansion is greatest to the south and west, and has tended to follow the course of the two major rivers. The urbanized area in Winnipeg is about 25 km (15.5 mi) from east to west and 20 km (12.4 mi) from north to south, although several areas remain underdeveloped. The largest park in the city, Assiniboine Park
Assiniboine Park
Assiniboine Park is a park in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It was established in 1904 and is located north of the Assiniboine Forest. Today, it covers , of these are designed in the English landscape style....

 next to the affluent neighbourhood of Tuxedo, houses the Assiniboine Park Zoo and the Leo Mol
Leo Mol
Leo Mol, OC, OM was a Ukrainian Canadian artist and sculptor.Born Leonid Molodozhanyn in Polonne, Ukraine, Mol studied sculpture at the Leningrad Academy of Arts from 1936 to 1940. Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union he moved to Germany where he was influenced by Arno Breker...

 Sculpture Garden, Other large city parks include Kildonan Park
Kildonan Park
Kildonan Park is a park in north Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, established in 1909 by a Polish Canadian. It features the Peguis Pavilion, Rainbow Stage, the Witches' Hut - a house that shows the story of Hansel and Gretel - a full-size outdoor swimming pool, and a fun-sized wading pool...

, St. Vital Park
St. Vital Park
St. Vital Park is a park in southern Winnipeg, Manitoba, located on a bend of the Red River. In winter months, a skating pond is situated near the pathways which cover the area. St. Vital Park is also a popular area chosen to have events such as weddings and picnics. It is one of the largest parks...

, and Fort Whyte Centre. The major commercial areas in the city are Polo Park
Polo Park
Polo Park is Winnipeg's largest retail and entertainment district. It is the largest mall out of the eight malls in the city. Situated on the former Polo Park Racetrack, the Polo Park Mall was built in 1959. It was the first enclosed shopping mall in Winnipeg when a roof was added in 1963...

 (West End and St. James), Kildonan Crossing (Transcona and East Kildonan), South St. Vital, Garden City (West Kildonan) and the Corydon strip. Osborne Village
Osborne Village
Osborne Village is a neighbourhood of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It derives its name from Osborne Street , which runs through the centre of the village area.-History:...

 is Winnipeg's most densely populated neighbourhood.

Demographics

Ethnic Origins
Population Percentage
English
English people
The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity is of early mediaeval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn. England is now a country of the United Kingdom, and the majority of English people in England are British Citizens...

141,480 22.6
Scottish
Scottish people
The Scottish people , or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically they emerged from an amalgamation of the Picts and Gaels, incorporating neighbouring Britons to the south as well as invading Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse.In modern use,...

114,960 18.4
German
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

106,260 17.0
Canadian
Demographics of Canada
This article about the demographic features of the population of Canada, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population, the People of Canada....

104,130 16.6
Ukrainian
Ukrainians
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens...

96,255 15.4
French
French people
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

87,165 13.9
Irish
Irish people
The Irish people are an ethnic group who originate in Ireland, an island in northwestern Europe. Ireland has been populated for around 9,000 years , with the Irish people's earliest ancestors recorded having legends of being descended from groups such as the Nemedians, Fomorians, Fir Bolg, Tuatha...

86,580 13.9
Polish 50,555 8.1
Ethnicities
Population Percentage
Total 625,700 100.0
White / Aboriginal
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

523,790 83.7
Filipino
Filipino Canadian
Filipino Canadians are Canadians of Filipino ancestry. Filipino-Canadians are the fourth-largest subgroup of the Overseas Filipinos.Canada only had a small population of Filipinos until the late 20th century. To date, there are currently around 400,000 Filipino Canadians in Canada, most of them...

36,820 5.9
South Asian 15,080 2.4
Black
Black people
The term black people is used in systems of racial classification for humans of a dark skinned phenotype, relative to other racial groups.Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and often social variables such as class, socio-economic status also plays a...

14,200 2.3
Chinese
Chinese people
The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following:*People with Han Chinese ethnicity ....

12,660 2.0
Latin American 5,390 0.9
Southeast Asian
Asian people
Asian people or Asiatic people is a term with multiple meanings that refers to people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.- Central Asia :...

5,325 0.9
Multiple 3,060 0.5
Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

2,115 0.3
Korean 2,065 0.3
West Asian
Asian people
Asian people or Asiatic people is a term with multiple meanings that refers to people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.- Central Asia :...

1,885 0.3
Japanese
Japanese people
The are an ethnic group originating in the Japanese archipelago and are the predominant ethnic group of Japan. Worldwide, approximately 130 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 127 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live in other countries...

1,725 0.3
Other 1,585 0.3
Aboriginal identity
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

Population Percentage
Total 63,745 10.2
North American Indian
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

24,950 4.0
Métis
Métis people (Canada)
The Métis are one of the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who trace their descent to mixed First Nations parentage. The term was historically a catch-all describing the offspring of any such union, but within generations the culture syncretised into what is today a distinct aboriginal group, with...

37,385 6.0
Inuit
Inuit
The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada , Denmark , Russia and the United States . Inuit means “the people” in the Inuktitut language...

280 0.04

As of the 2006 Census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

, there were 633,451 inhabitants in Winnipeg itself, 694,668 inhabitants in the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), and 711,455 in the Winnipeg Capital Region. Thus, Winnipeg is Manitoba’s largest city and Canada's eighth largest CMA.
Apart from Winnipeg, the Winnipeg CMA includes the Rural municipalities
Rural municipality
A rural municipality, often abbreviated RM, is a form of municipality in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, perhaps best comparable to counties or townships in the western United States...

 of Springfield
Springfield, Manitoba
Springfield is Manitoba's oldest and largest rural municipality. Established in 1873, Springfield stretches from urban industrial development on the eastern boundary of the City of Winnipeg, through urban, rural residential, agricultural and natural landscapes, to the Agassiz Provincial Forest on...

, St. Clements
St. Clements, Manitoba
St. Clements is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada. It is located to the north-east of Winnipeg, stretching from East St. Paul and Birds Hill Provincial Park in the south to Lake Winnipeg and Grand Beach Provincial Park to the north. The Red River demarcates the western boundary of the...

, Taché
Taché, Manitoba
Incorporated in 1880, Taché is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada. Named after the Bishop Taché , it is located to the south-east of Winnipeg, stretching from the Red River Floodway in the west to the beginning of the Canadian Shield in the east...

, East St. Paul
East St. Paul, Manitoba
East St. Paul is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada. It is located north-east of and adjacent to the city of Winnipeg, and is part of the Winnipeg Metropolitan Area. The municipality encompasses and is bounded by the Red River to the west; the municipality of St. Clements to the north; the...

, Macdonald
Macdonald, Manitoba
Macdonald is a rural municipality lying adjacent to the southwest side of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is part of the Winnipeg Capital Region, but is not part of the smaller Winnipeg census metropolitan area. Macdonald's population as of the 2006 census was 5,653.-External links:**...

, Ritchot
Ritchot, Manitoba
Ritchot is a rural municipality lying adjacent to the south side of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is part of the Winnipeg Capital Region and had a population of 4,958 as of the 2001 census. The separately administered town of Niverville lies adjacent to its southeastern part, between it and the...

, West St. Paul
West St. Paul, Manitoba
West St. Paul is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada. It lies adjacent to the north side of Winnipeg, and directly west of the Red River. It is part of the Winnipeg Capital Region, and had a population of 4,357 as of the 2006 census...

, Headingley
Headingley, Manitoba
Headingley is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada. It is located directly west of Winnipeg and has a population of 2,726 people as of the 2006 census. The Trans-Canada Highway and the Assiniboine River run through the municipality. The portion located on the south bank of the Assiniboine is...

, Rosser
Rosser, Manitoba
Rosser, Manitoba is a rural municipality lying adjacent to the northwest side of Winnipeg at . It is part of the Winnipeg Capital Region. Its population as of the 2001 census was 1,412....

 and St. François Xavier
St. François Xavier, Manitoba
St. François Xavier is a rural municipality lying west-northwest of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is part of the Winnipeg Capital Region and had a 2001 census population of 1,024....

 and the First Nations
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

 reserve of Brokenhead 4.

Of the city population, 48.3% were male and 51.7% were female. 24.3% were 19 years old or younger, 27.4% were between 20 and 30 years old, and 34.0% were between 40 and 64 years old. The average age of a Winnipegger in May 2006 was 38.7, compared to an average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole. Between the censuses of 2001
Canada 2001 Census
The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 15, 2001. On that day, Statistics Canada attempted to count every person in Canada. The total population count of Canada was 30,007,094. This was a 4% increase over 1996 Census of 28,846,761. In...

 and 2006, Winnipeg's population increased by 2.2%, compared to the average of 2.6% for Manitoba and 5.4% for Canada. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 of the city of Winnipeg averaged 1,365.2 people per km2, compared with an average of 3.5 for Manitoba. As of July 2009, the population of the city of Winnipeg was estimated at 675,100, and that of the census metropolitan area at 742,400.

Most Winnipeggers are of European descent, and/or classify themselves as Canadian. Over 8% of Winnipeg's population is Aboriginal
Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada and are commonly considered pejorative....

; it is the city's second fastest-growing ethnic group. Non-aboriginal visible minorities
Visible minority
A visible minority is a person who is visibly not one of the majority race in a given population.The term is used as a demographic category by Statistics Canada in connection with that country's Employment Equity policies. The qualifier "visible" is important in the Canadian context where...

 make up 16.3% of Winnipeg's population. Winnipeg is home to 38,155 people of Filipino descent, or roughly 6% of the total population. This is the city's fastest-growing minority group, with Winnipeg having the highest concentration of persons of Filipino origin in Canada, and the second largest Filipino population in Canada after Toronto.
More than a hundred languages are spoken in Winnipeg, of which the most common is English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

. 99.0% of Winnipeggers are fluent
Fluency
Fluency is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.-Speech:...

 English speakers. In terms of Canada's official language
Official language
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a nation's official language will be the one used in that nation's courts, parliament and administration. However, official status can also be used to give a...

s, 88.0% of Winnipeggers speak only English, and 0.1% speak only French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

. 11% speak both English and French, while 0.9% speak neither. Other languages spoken in Winnipeg include German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 (4.1% of the population), Tagalog
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

 (3.4%), Ukrainian
Ukrainian language
Ukrainian is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. It is the official state language of Ukraine. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic alphabet....

 (3.1%), Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

, Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

 and Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

 (all three spoken by 1.7% of the population). Several Aboriginal languages are also spoken, including Ojibway (0.6%), Cree
Cree language
Cree is an Algonquian language spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories and Alberta to Labrador, making it the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada. It is also spoken in the U.S. state of Montana...

 (0.5%), Inuktitut
Inuktitut
Inuktitut or Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian Inuit language is the name of some of the Inuit languages spoken in Canada...

 and Mi'kmaq
Mi'kmaq language
The Mi'kmaq language is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 9,100 Mi'kmaq in Canada and the United States out of a total ethnic Mi'kmaq population of roughly 20,000. The word Mi'kmaq is a plural word meaning 'my friends' ; the adjectival form is Míkmaw...

 (both less than 0.1%). Other languages include Dutch
Dutch language
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in the European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second...

, Hungarian
Hungarian language
Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

, Non-verbal languages
Sign language
A sign language is a language which, instead of acoustically conveyed sound patterns, uses visually transmitted sign patterns to convey meaning—simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to fluidly express a speaker's...

, Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

, Vietnamese
Vietnamese language
Vietnamese is the national and official language of Vietnam. It is the mother tongue of 86% of Vietnam's population, and of about three million overseas Vietnamese. It is also spoken as a second language by many ethnic minorities of Vietnam...

, Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

, Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

, Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

, Icelandic
Icelandic language
Icelandic is a North Germanic language, the main language of Iceland. Its closest relative is Faroese.Icelandic is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic or Nordic branch of the Germanic languages. Historically, it was the westernmost of the Indo-European languages prior to the...

, Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

, Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

, Croatian
Croatian language
Croatian is the collective name for the standard language and dialects spoken by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries...

, Serbian
Serbian language
Serbian is a form of Serbo-Croatian, a South Slavic language, spoken by Serbs in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia and neighbouring countries....

, and Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 (all of which are spoken by roughly 1% or less of the population).

The 2001 census
Canada 2001 Census
The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 15, 2001. On that day, Statistics Canada attempted to count every person in Canada. The total population count of Canada was 30,007,094. This was a 4% increase over 1996 Census of 28,846,761. In...

 recorded that 72.9% of Winnipeggers belonged to a Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 denomination: 35% were Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

, 33% were Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

, and 5% belonged to other Christian denominations. 6% of the population followed a religion other than Christianity—followers of Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 made up 2% of the population, those of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 and Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

 made up 0.9% of the population each, and Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s made up 0.8%. Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s accounted for 0.6% of the population, and members of other religions made up less than 0.5%. 22% of Winnipeggers did not follow a religion.
Census Population
1971 535,100
1976 560,875
1981 564,475
1986 594,555
1991 615,215
1996 618,477
2001 619,544
2006 633,451


Economy

Winnipeg is an economic base and regional centre. It has a diversified economy, covering finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

, manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

, transportation, food and beverage production, industry, culture, government, retail, and tourism. According to the Conference Board of Canada, Winnipeg has the third-fastest growing economy among Canada's major cities in 2009 projections, with a real GDP growth of 2.5%.

, approximately 409,500 people are employed in Winnipeg and the surrounding area. Some of Winnipeg's largest employers are government and government-funded institutions, including: The Province of Manitoba, the City of Winnipeg, the University of Manitoba, the Health Sciences Centre
Health Sciences Centre (Winnipeg)
The Health Sciences Centre is the largest hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It serves the residents of Northwest Ontario and Nunavut as both a teaching hospital and as a research centre. The Health Sciences Center is a tertiary care hospital, encompassing many different specialty medical...

, and Manitoba Hydro
Manitoba Hydro
Manitoba Hydro is the electric power and natural gas utility in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Founded in 1961, it is a provincial Crown Corporation, governed by the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board and the Manitoba Hydro Act. Today the company operates 15 interconnected generating stations. It has...

. Approximately 54,000 people (14% of the work force) are employed in the public sector. Large private sector employers include: Shaw Cablesystems, Manitoba Telecom Services
Manitoba Telecom Services
Manitoba Telecom Services Inc. , or MTS , formerly Manitoba Telephone System, is the primary telecommunications carrier in the Canadian province of Manitoba and the fourth largest telecommunications provider in Canada with 7000 employees...

, Ipsos Reid, Palliser Furniture
Palliser Furniture
Palliser Furniture is a family-owned home furnishings manufacturer based in Canada. Palliser employs approximately 3,000 people in facilities in Canada, the United States, Mexico and Indonesia....

, Great-West Life Assurance, Motor Coach Industries
Motor Coach Industries
Motor Coach Industries International Inc. is an American bus manufacturer based in Schaumburg, Illinois, and is a leading participant in the North American coach bus industry. It has various operating subsidiaries:...

, New Flyer Industries
New Flyer Industries
New Flyer Industries Inc. is a bus manufacturer in North America, headquartered in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It also has factories in Crookston and St. Cloud, Minnesota, USA.-History:...

, Boeing Canada Technology
Boeing Canada Technology
Boeing Canada is the Canadian subsidiary of Boeing, with operations in Winnipeg, Richmond, British Columbia, Montreal and Ottawa. Boeing employs more than 1,600 people in Canada....

, Bristol Aerospace
Bristol Aerospace
Bristol Aerospace is a Canadian aerospace firm located in Winnipeg, Manitoba and is an operating division of Magellan Aerospace.-History:Bristol Aerospace began in 1930 as the MacDonald Brothers Aircraft Company. Brothers Jim and Grant MacDonald moved to Winnipeg from Nova Scotia in 1904 to start a...

, Nygård International
Peter Nygård
Peter J. Nygård , is a Finnish-Canadian fashion executive of Finland-Swedish origin. He is the chairman of Nygård International of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, a company that makes women's wear...

, Canad Inns
Canad Inns
Canad Inns is a chain of hotels headquartered in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The company operates nine hotel properties in the province of Manitoba and one in the U.S. state of North Dakota. In 2000, Canad Inns was named one of "Canada's 50 Best Managed Companies". In 2010 Canad Inns was named one...

 and Investors Group
IGM Financial
IGM Financial Inc. is a Canadian financial services company, with $133.5 billion in total assets under management as at May 31, 2011.Its activities are carried out principally by Investors Group, through a network of approximately 4,600 Consultants, by Mackenzie Financial Corporation through a...

.

The Royal Canadian Mint
Royal Canadian Mint
The Royal Canadian Mint produces all of Canada's circulation coins, and manufactures circulation coins on behalf of other nations. The Mint also designs and manufactures: precious and base metal collector coins; gold, silver, palladium, and platinum bullion coins; medals, as well as medallions and...

, established in 1976, is where all circulating coinage in Canada is produced. The plant, located in southeastern Winnipeg, also produces coins for many other countries.

In 2006, Winnipeg was ranked by KPMG
KPMG
KPMG is one of the largest professional services networks in the world and one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young and PwC. Its global headquarters is located in Amstelveen, Netherlands....

 as one of the least expensive locations to do business in Canada. As with much of Western Canada, in 2007, Winnipeg experienced both a building and real estate boom. In May 2007, the Canadian Real Estate Association reported a record-breaking month in Winnipeg in terms of sales and volume.

Arts, culture, and tourism

The Winnipeg Public Library
Winnipeg Public Library
The Winnipeg Public Library is a public library service that is provided by the municipality of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Most branches provide programming for children, teens, and some to adults. The Library also contains an Outreach Department which works with the community, as well as people...

 is a public library
Public library
A public library is a library that is accessible by the public and is generally funded from public sources and operated by civil servants. There are five fundamental characteristics shared by public libraries...

 network with 20 branches throughout the city, including the Millennium Library
Millennium Library (Winnipeg)
The Millennium Library is the main branch of the Winnipeg Public Library located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was previously known as the Centennial Library ....

. Winnipeg has a large independent film
Film
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still or moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects...

 community. It has also hosted a number of Hollywood
Cinema of the United States
The cinema of the United States, also known as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. Its history is sometimes separated into four main periods: the silent film era, classical Hollywood cinema, New Hollywood, and the contemporary period...

 productions: Shall We Dance?
Shall We Dance? (2004 film)
Shall We Dance? is a 2004 American film. It is a remake of the award-winning Masayuki Suo 1996 Japanese film, Shall We Dance?. The film made its US premier at the Hawaii International Film Festival.-Plot:...

 (2004), the Oscar nominated film Capote
Capote (film)
Capote is a 2005 biographical film about Truman Capote, following the events during the writing of Capote's non-fiction book In Cold Blood. Philip Seymour Hoffman won several awards, including the Academy Award for Best Actor, for his critically acclaimed portrayal of the title role. The movie was...

(2005), The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford
The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford
The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford is a 2007 American Western drama film. The film is directed by Andrew Dominik, with Brad Pitt portraying Jesse James and Casey Affleck as his killer, Robert Ford.Filming took place in rural Alberta and Winnipeg, Manitoba...

(2007), and Horsemen (2009) had parts filmed in the province. The National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
The National Film Board of Canada is Canada's twelve-time Academy Award-winning public film producer and distributor. An agency of the Government of Canada, the NFB produces and distributes documentary, animation, alternative drama and digital media productions...

 and the Winnipeg Film Group
Winnipeg Film Group
The Winnipeg Film Group is an artist-run film education, production, distribution and exhibition centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba, committed to promoting the art of cinema...

 have produced numerous award-winning films. There are several TV and film production companies in Winnipeg: the most prominent areFarpoint Films
Farpoint Films
Farpoint Films is a television and film production company that is based out of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Their main office is located on Erin Street in Winnipeg's West End district.-History:...

, Frantic Films
Frantic Films
Frantic Films Corporation is a Canadian branded content and live action production company based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Frantic Films is known for producing live action reality shows, documentaries and for its past work in feature film visual effects....

, Buffalo Gal Pictures
Buffalo Gal Pictures
Buffalo Gal Pictures is an independent TV and film production company based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In 2004, it premiered the Isabella Rossellini film The Saddest Music in the World at the Sundance Film Festival....

, Les Productions Rivard
Les Productions Rivard
Les Productions Rivard is an independent film and television production company based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was founded in 1995 by Louis Paquin and Charles Lavack...

 and Eagle Vision
Eagle Vision (company)
Eagle Vision is a Canadian independent film and television production company based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is an Aboriginally-owned production company founded in 1999 by Lisa Meeches, President of Meeches Video Productions Inc...

. Guy Maddin's My Winnipeg
My Winnipeg
My Winnipeg is a feature film directed by Guy Maddin. Starring Ann Savage, the film is a surrealist-inflected pseudo-documentary about Winnipeg, Maddin's home town...

, an independent film released in 2008, is a comedic rumination on the city's history.

Winnipeg Bear, (also known as Winnie-the-Pooh
Winnie-the-Pooh
Winnie-the-Pooh, also called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic bear created by A. A. Milne. The first collection of stories about the character was the book Winnie-the-Pooh , and this was followed by The House at Pooh Corner...

) was purchased in Ontario, by Lieutenant Harry Colebourn
Harry Colebourn
Harry Colebourn was a Canadian veterinarian and soldier with the Royal Canadian Army Veterinary Corps best known for donating a bear cub named "Winnie" to the London Zoo. Winnie later inspired the creation of A.A...

 of The Fort Garry Horse
The Fort Garry Horse
The Fort Garry Horse is a Canadian Army Reserve Armoured Regiment based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is currently part of Land Force Western Area's 38 Canadian Brigade Group.- History :...

. He named the bear after the regiment's home town of Winnipeg. A.A. Milne later wrote a series of books featuring Winnie-the-Pooh. An Ernest H. Shepard
E. H. Shepard
Ernest Howard Shepard was an English artist and book illustrator. He was known especially for his human-like animals in illustrations for The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame and Winnie-the-Pooh by A. A. Milne....

 painting of "Winnie the Pooh" is the only known oil painting of Winnipeg’s famous bear cub. It was purchased at an auction for $285,000 in London, England, in 2000. The painting is displayed in Assiniboine Park.

The Forks (a National Historic Site of Canada) attracts four million visitors a year. It is home to the City TV television studio, Manitoba Theatre for Young People
Manitoba Theatre for Young People
Manitoba Theatre for Young People is a theatre for children and young adults in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was originally founded in 1965 as Actors' Showcase and incorporated in 1977. In 1982, it became a professional theatre devoted to young people...

, the Winnipeg International Children's Festival
Winnipeg International Children's Festival
The Winnipeg International Children's Festival is a children's festival in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was founded by Bill Merritt, Mitch Podolak, Colin Jackson and Gord Osland in 1983 and was held at Kildonan Park for many years before moving to The Forks. It is held every June...

, and the Manitoba Children's Museum
Manitoba Children's Museum
- History :The Manitoba Children's Museum is a non-profit, charitable Children's museum located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The museum was founded in 1983. It opened its first exhibit at a Pacific Avenue warehouse in 1986 and expanded there in 1988. In 1994, the museum moved to its permanent...

. It also features a 30000 square feet (2,787.1 m²) skate plaza, a 8500 square feet (789.7 m²) bowl complex, the Esplanade Riel
Esplanade Riel
The Esplanade Riel is a pedestrian bridge located in Winnipeg, Manitoba designed by Colin Douglas Stewart of Wardrop Engineering and Étienne Gaboury, Architect and completed in 2003. It spans the Red River connecting downtown Winnipeg with St. Boniface. It is paired with a vehicular bridge,...

 bridge, a river walkway, Shaw Park (home to the Winnipeg Goldeyes
Winnipeg Goldeyes
The Winnipeg Goldeyes are a professional baseball team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in Canada. The Goldeyes play in the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball, which is not affiliated with Major League Baseball. From 1994 to 2010, the team was a member of the Northern League.The...

), and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (scheduled to open in 2012).

Museums

The Manitoba Museum
Manitoba Museum
The Manitoba Museum, previously the Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature is the largest museum in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.The museum is the largest heritage centre in Manitoba and the world and focuses on human and natural heritage. It has planetarium shows and a Science Gallery hall...

 is the largest museum in the city, and depicts the history of the city and province. The full-size replica of the ship Nonsuch
Nonsuch (ship)
The Nonsuch was the ketch that sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668-1669 under Zachariah Gillam, in the first trading voyage for what was to become the Hudson's Bay Company two years later. Originally built as a merchant ship in 1650, and later the Royal Navy ketch HMS Nonsuch, the vessel was sold to Sir...

 is the museum's showcase piece. The Winnipeg Art Gallery
Winnipeg Art Gallery
The Winnipeg Art Gallery is a public art gallery that was founded in 1912. It is Western Canada's oldest civic gallery and the 6th largest in the country...

 is Canada's oldest public art gallery, founded in 1912. It is the sixth-largest in the country and includes the world's largest public collection of contemporary Inuit art.
The Western Canada Aviation Museum
Western Canada Aviation Museum
The Western Canada Aviation Museum is a museum in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is the second largest aviation museum in Canada. The collection is housed in an original Trans-Canada Air Lines hangar dating from the 1930s....

, located in a hangar at Winnipeg’s James Richardson International airport, features military jets, commercial aircraft, Canada’s first helicopter, the ‘flying saucer’ Avrocar, flight simulators, and a Black Brant (rocket)
Black Brant (rocket)
The Black Brant is a Canadian-designed sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Over 800 Black Brants of various versions have been launched since they were first produced in 1961, and the type remains one of the most popular sounding rockets ever built...

 built in Manitoba by Bristol Aerospace
Bristol Aerospace
Bristol Aerospace is a Canadian aerospace firm located in Winnipeg, Manitoba and is an operating division of Magellan Aerospace.-History:Bristol Aerospace began in 1930 as the MacDonald Brothers Aircraft Company. Brothers Jim and Grant MacDonald moved to Winnipeg from Nova Scotia in 1904 to start a...

. The Winnipeg Railway Museum
Winnipeg Railway Museum
The Winnipeg Railway Museum is a non-profit organization operated by volunteers from the Midwestern Rail Association. The museum is located on tracks 1 and 2 within Winnipeg's Via Rail operated Union Station in Manitoba, Canada.- Overview :...

 is located at Via Rail Station and contains various locomotives, including the Countess of Dufferin
Countess of Dufferin
The Countess of Dufferin was the first steam locomotive to operate in the Canadian prairie provinces and is named after Hariot Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, Countess of Dufferin , the wife of the Earl of Dufferin, a Governor General of Canada. The locomotive was built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works...

, the first steam locomotive
Steam locomotive
A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning some combustible material, usually coal, wood or oil, to produce steam in a boiler, which drives the steam engine...

 in Western Canada
Western Canada
Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and commonly as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces west of the province of Ontario.- Provinces :...

.

Winnipeg is also the future home of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights
Canadian Museum for Human Rights
The Canadian Museum for Human Rights is a national museum currently under construction in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada at the historic Forks where the Assiniboine and Red Rivers meet...

, which will be the first Canadian national museum
National museum
A national museum is a museum maintained by a nation.The following is a list of national museums:-Australia:*Australian National Aviation Museum*Australian National Maritime Museum*, Sydney*Australian War Memorial*Museum Victoria...

 outside of the National Capital Region
National Capital Region (Canada)
The National Capital Region, also referred to as Canada's Capital Region, is an official federal designation for the Canadian capital of Ottawa, Ontario, the neighbouring city of Gatineau, Quebec, and surrounding urban and rural communities....

. The museum, designed by American architect Antoine Predock
Antoine Predock
Antoine Predock is an American architect based in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Antoine Predock is the Principal of Antoine Predock Architect PC. The studio was established in 1967...

, will be located at The Forks. The federal government has contributed $100 million towards the estimated $311-million project. Construction of the museum began on April 1, 2008, and is expected to be completed in late 2012.

Theatres and theatre companies

Winnipeg’s three largest performing arts venues, the Centennial Concert Hall
Centennial Concert Hall
The Centennial Concert Hall, as part of the Manitoba Centennial Centre, was built as a Canadian Centennial project. With seating for over 2,300 people, the Concert Hall is the performing home of the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, the Manitoba Opera and the Royal Winnipeg Ballet.The concert hall cost...

, Manitoba Theatre Centre
Manitoba Theatre Centre
Royal Manitoba Theatre Centre is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre. Next to the Stratford and Shaw Festivals, MTC has a higher annual attendance than any other theatre in the country...

 (MTC) and the Pantages Playhouse, are located downtown. MTC is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre, with over 250 performances yearly. The Pantages Playhouse Theatre opened as a vaudeville house in 1913. Le Cercle Molière
Le Cercle Molière
Le Cercle Molière is the oldest running theatre in Canada. It is located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and was founded in 1925. In 2005, it began to raise funds to build a new venue in its historic home of St. Boniface.-History:...

, based in St Boniface, is the oldest theatre company in Canada. This French-language theatre, founded in 1925, moved to a new $2-million theatre in 2010. Rainbow Stage
Rainbow Stage
Rainbow Stage is Canada's longest-surviving outdoor theatre, located in the natural setting of Kildonan Park in north Winnipeg, Manitoba.-History:It opened 7 July 1954 presenting operettas and musicals using local performers...

 is a musical theatre production company based in Kildonan Park
Kildonan Park
Kildonan Park is a park in north Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, established in 1909 by a Polish Canadian. It features the Peguis Pavilion, Rainbow Stage, the Witches' Hut - a house that shows the story of Hansel and Gretel - a full-size outdoor swimming pool, and a fun-sized wading pool...

 which produces professional, live Broadway musical shows and is Canada's longest-surviving outdoor theatre.

Other city theatres include the Burton Cummings
Burton Cummings
Burton L. Cummings, OC, OM is a Canadian musician and songwriter.He was the lead singer and frequent keyboardist for the Canadian rock band The Guess Who...

 Theatre (a National Historic Site of Canada built in 1906 currently named after the lead singer of The Guess Who
The Guess Who
The Guess Who are a Canadian rock band from Winnipeg, Manitoba. Initially gaining recognition in Canada, they also found international success from the late 1960s through the mid-1970s with numerous hit singles, including "American Woman", "These Eyes" and "Share the Land"...

), and Prairie Theatre Exchange
Prairie Theatre Exchange
The Prairie Theatre Exchange is a professional theatre in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It has its origins with the Manitoba Theatre School started by the Manitoba Theatre Centre in 1960....

 (PTE), Winnipeg’s second-largest live theatre. The Manitoba Theatre for Young People (MTYP) at The Forks is one of only two Theatres for Young Audiences in Canada with a permanent residence, and is the only Theatre for Young Audiences that offers a full season of plays for teenagers. The Winnipeg Jewish Theatre
Winnipeg Jewish Theatre
Winnipeg Jewish Theatre is a theatre based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was founded in 1987 and is the only professional theatre in Canada dedicated to Jewish themes....

 (WJT) is the only professional theatre in Canada dedicated to Jewish themes. Shakespeare in the Ruins
Shakespeare in the Ruins
Shakespeare in the Ruins is a theatre company in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. They perform their plays in a variety of settings, mostly outdoors. In 2006, they performed Midsummer Night's Dream in the Assiniboine Park Conservatory. On May 26, they will be performing a western styled rendition of...

 (SIR) presents adaptations of Shakespeare plays.

Festivals

Festival du Voyageur
Festival du Voyageur
The Festival du Voyageur is an annual 10-day winter festival which takes place in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada during February. "Voyageur" refers to those who worked for a fur trading company and usually travelled by canoe.This event is held in Winnipeg's French Quarter, Saint-Boniface, and is...

, western Canada's largest winter festival, celebrates the early French explorers of the Red River Valley. Folklorama
Folklorama
Folklorama is an event that runs for two weeks each August in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Folklorama is the largest and longest-running festival of its kind in the world...

 is the largest and longest-running cultural celebration festival in the world. The Jazz Winnipeg Festival
Jazz Winnipeg Festival
Winnipeg International Jazz Festival is a jazz festival in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is generally held in the month of June. A variety of Canadian and major international artists attend and perform in several related jazz genres...

 and the Winnipeg Folk Festival
Winnipeg Folk Festival
The Winnipeg Folk Festival is a summer folk music festival held in Birds Hill Provincial Park, near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It features a variety of folk artists from all around the world, as well as a number of local folk performers....

 both celebrate Winnipeg's music community. The Winnipeg Music Festival
Winnipeg Music Festival
The Winnipeg Music Festival or Winnipeg Music Competition Festival Inc as it is formally known as was founded in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada in 1919 by the Men's Musical Club ....

 offers a competition venue to amateur musicians. The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival
Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival
The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is an annual alternative theatre festival held in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is the currently the second-largest North American festival of its kind, and since 2003, has been the longest at twelve days , and it is common for a small number of shows to be held over...

 is the second-largest alternative theatre
Alternative theatre
Alternative theatre is a term used to describe fringe theatre, or entertainment not of the mainstream. The term comes from the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, which name comes from Robert Kemp, who described the unofficial companies performing at the same time as the second Edinburgh International...

 festival in North America. The Winnipeg International Writers Festival
Winnipeg International Writers Festival
The Winnipeg International Writers Festival is a Winnipeg, Manitoba based organization that puts together an annual literary festival known as THIN AIR. The festival program runs for a week each fall, and there are also several off-season events regularly occurring throughout the year. Programming...

 (THIN AIR) brings writers from all over the world to Winnipeg for workshops and readings.
Reel Pride
Reel Pride
Reel Pride is an annual gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and two-spirit film and video festival produced by the Winnipeg Gay and Lesbian Film Society in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada....

 is an annual gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and two-spirit film and video festival produced by the Winnipeg Gay and Lesbian Film Society.

Music and dance

The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra
Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra
The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra is a Canadian orchestra based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Its primary concert venue is the Centennial Concert Hall, and the orchestra also performs throughout the province of Manitoba.-History:...

 (WSO) is the largest and oldest professional musical ensemble in Winnipeg. The Manitoba Chamber Orchestra
Manitoba Chamber Orchestra
The Manitoba Chamber Orchestra is a chamber orchestra based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Founded in 1972 by Ruben Gurevich, the ensemble's first music director, the MCO presents nine concerts annually at Westminster United Church and tours in rural Manitoba, Canada and elsewhere.The MCO...

 (MCO) runs a series of chamber orchestral concerts each year. Manitoba Opera
Manitoba Opera
Manitoba Opera is an opera company in Winnipeg, Manitoba that was founded in 1969. Its first production was a concert of Giuseppe Verdi's Il Trovatore in 1972. Manitoba Opera is one of several western Canadian opera companies that flourished under the inspired leadership of Irving Guttman,...

 is Manitoba's only full-time professional opera
Opera
Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance...

 company. Among the most notable musical acts associated with Winnipeg are Neil Young
Neil Young
Neil Percival Young, OC, OM is a Canadian singer-songwriter who is widely regarded as one of the most influential musicians of his generation...

, The Guess Who
The Guess Who
The Guess Who are a Canadian rock band from Winnipeg, Manitoba. Initially gaining recognition in Canada, they also found international success from the late 1960s through the mid-1970s with numerous hit singles, including "American Woman", "These Eyes" and "Share the Land"...

, Bachman–Turner Overdrive, Streetheart
Streetheart (band)
Streetheart is a Canadian rock band, from Winnipeg, Manitoba that got its start in Regina, Saskatchewan. Their best known songs include "Action", "Hollywood", "Teenage Rage", "One More Time", "Tin Soldier", "What Kind of Love is This", and their disco remake of "Under My Thumb".-Biography:Keyboard...

, Harlequin
Harlequin (band)
Harlequin is a Canadian rock band that formed in Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1975 and lasted until the mid-1980s. The band is best known for their hit singles "I Did It For Love," "Thinking of You," "Superstitious Feeling," and "Innocence."...

, Chantal Kreviazuk
Chantal Kreviazuk
Chantal Jennifer Kreviazuk is a Canadian singer-songwriter of the adult contemporary music genre. She is also a classically trained pianist, and can play the guitar.-Albums:...

, Fresh IE, Bif Naked
Bif Naked
Bif Naked is a Juno Award-winning, Indian-born American-Canadian multi-platinum record selling, rock singer, writer, poet, motivational speaker and actress.-Personal life:...

, Sierra Noble, Econoline Crush
Econoline Crush
Econoline Crush is a band from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada formed in 1992. Originally formed in Seattle, they eventually moved back to Vancouver...

, Brent Fitz
Brent Fitz
Brent Fitz is a Canadian-born musician and recording artist known best known as a drummer, but also a multi-instrumentalist having worked with Slash, Theory of a Deadman, Alice Cooper, Vince Neil, Union, The Guess Who, Lamya, Streetheart, Harlequin, Econoline Crush, Eagle & Hawk and Indigenous.-...

, Venetian Snares
Venetian Snares
Venetian Snares is the main performing alias of Canadian electronic musician Aaron Funk .From Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Funk is known for making electronic music often in odd numbered time signatures...

, Propagandhi
Propagandhi
Propagandhi is a Canadian punk band formed in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba in 1986 by Chris Hannah and Jord Samolesky. The band is currently located in Winnipeg, Manitoba....

, The Weakerthans
The Weakerthans
The Weakerthans are a four-piece Canadian indie rock band.-History:The band was formed in 1997 in Winnipeg, Manitoba by John K. Samson, after he left the punk band Propagandhi to start a publishing company. Samson joined forces with bassist John P...

, The Paperbacks
The Paperbacks
The Paperbacks are an indie rock band from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The band formed in 2000 after the disbanding of popular local Winnipeg punk-rock act The Bonaduces. The band is heavily involved with the local Winnipeg music scene with close ties to such bands as The Weakerthans and Novillero....

, The Details
The Details
The Details are an indie rock band formed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The band, formed in late 2005, features vocalist and guitarist Jon Plett , bassist Keli Martin , guitarist Sean Vidal and drummer Shaun Gibson . Sean and Jon were previously in the band The Home Team...

, Crash Test Dummies
Crash Test Dummies
The Crash Test Dummies is a Canadian folk rock/alternative rock band from Winnipeg, Manitoba, widely known for their 1993 single "Mmm Mmm Mmm Mmm".The band is most identifiable through Brad Roberts and his distinctive bass-baritone voice...

, The Watchmen
The Watchmen
The Watchmen is a Canadian rock band. They were one of the most commercially successful Canadian alternative rock groups of the mid to late 1990s. During their peak years the band had three gold records and one platinum record...

, Comeback Kid
Comeback Kid
Comeback Kid is a Canadian hardcore band from Winnipeg, Manitoba. Formed in 2002, the band is currently signed to Facedown Records. Their name comes from a headline in a newspaper about hockey player, Mario Lemieux coming back to the NHL. The band was formed in 2002 by Andrew Neufeld and Jeremy...

, Lenny Breau
Lenny Breau
Leonard Harold "Lenny" Breau was a musician, guitar player, and music educator. He was known for blending many styles of music including: jazz, country, classical and flamenco guitar...

, The Wailin' Jennys
The Wailin' Jennys
The Wailin' Jennys are a Juno Award-winning Canadian folk trio from Winnipeg, Manitoba, and New York, and they consist of soprano Ruth Moody, mezzo Nicky Mehta and alto Heather Masse. In previous years, the Jennys have also toured with fiddler and mandolinist Jeremy Penner, who is from Ruth's...

, Remy Shand
Remy Shand
Remy David Shand is a Canadian R&B/soul singer, who released his debut album, The Way I Feel, on Motown Records in 2002.- Early years :...

, Les Surveillantes and The Duhks
The Duhks
The Duhks is a band from Winnipeg, Canada.The members play a blend of Canadian soul, gospel, North American folk, Brazilian samba, old time country string band, zydeco, and Irish dance music. Hailing from Winnipeg, Manitoba, their music draws heavily on all of the North American musical traditions,...

.

The Royal Winnipeg Ballet
Royal Winnipeg Ballet
The Royal Winnipeg Ballet, based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is Canada's oldest ballet company and the longest continuously operating ballet company in North America....

 (RWB) is Canada's oldest ballet company
Ballet company
A ballet company is a group of dancers who perform ballet, plus managerial and support staff. Most major ballet companies employ dancers on a year-round basis, except in the United States, where contracts for part of the year are the norm...

 and the longest continuously operating ballet company in North America. It was the first organization to be granted a royal title
Royal Charter
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organizations such as cities or universities. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and...

 under the reign of Queen Elizabeth II, and has included notable dancers such as Evelyn Hart
Evelyn Hart
Evelyn Anne Hart, CC, OM, FRSC is a Canadian ballerina and former principal dancer with the Royal Winnipeg Ballet.Born in Toronto, Ontario, she studied dance at the Dorothy Carter School of Dance in London, Ontario and later on at the Royal Winnipeg Ballet School...

 and Mikhail Baryshnikov
Mikhail Baryshnikov
Mikhail Nikolaevich Baryshnikov is a Soviet and American dancer, choreographer, and actor, often cited alongside Vaslav Nijinsky and Rudolf Nureyev as one of the greatest ballet dancers of the 20th century. After a promising start in the Kirov Ballet in Leningrad, he defected to Canada in 1974...

. The RWB also runs a full-time classical dance school, which is recognized internationally for excellence in dance training.

Sports

Winnipeg has been home to several professional hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

, football
Canadian football
Canadian football is a form of gridiron football played exclusively in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed prolate spheroid ball into the opposing team's scoring area...

, and baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

 franchises. Winnipeg is once again home to the Winnipeg Jets
Winnipeg Jets
The Winnipeg Jets were a professional ice hockey team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. They began play in the World Hockey Association in 1972, moving to the National Hockey League in 1979 following the collapse of the WHA...

, formerly the Atlanta Thrashers
Atlanta Thrashers
The Atlanta Thrashers were a professional ice hockey team based in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Atlanta was granted a franchise in the National Hockey League on June 25, 1997, and became the league's 28th franchise when it began play in the 1999–2000 NHL season...

. The original Winnipeg Jets, the city's former National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 team, was lost during the 1995-96 season to Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix is the capital, and largest city, of the U.S. state of Arizona, as well as the sixth most populated city in the United States. Phoenix is home to 1,445,632 people according to the official 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data...

 due to mounting financial troubles, despite a campaign effort to "Save the Jets". In 2011 True North Sports and Entertainment moved the former Thrashers franchise to Winnipeg and renamed the team Winnipeg Jets.

The Jets play at MTS Centre
MTS Centre
The MTS Centre is an indoor sports arena and entertainment venue in downtown Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and home of the Winnipeg Jets of the National Hockey League. It is located on the former Eaton's site and is owned and operated by True North Sports & Entertainment. The 440,000 square feet ...

, which is currently ranked the world's 19th-busiest arena among non-sporting touring events, 13th-busiest among facilities in North America, and 3rd-busiest in Canada. A new football stadium to replace Canad Inns Stadium
Canad Inns Stadium
Canad Inns Stadium is a Canadian football stadium located north of Polo Park Shopping Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The Stadium, named for hotel chain Canad Inns, and originally completed in 1953, seats 29,533 for football...

 is currently under construction at the University of Manitoba. The $115-million facility will be the new home of the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

’s Winnipeg Blue Bombers
Winnipeg Blue Bombers
The Winnipeg Blue Bombers are a Canadian football team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. They are currently members of the East Division of the Canadian Football League . They play their home games at Canad Inns Stadium, and plan to move to a new stadium for the 2012 season.The Blue Bombers were founded...

 and the CIS’ University of Manitoba Bisons. Construction began in May 2010 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Opened in 1999, Shaw Park was built for Winnipeg’s American Association of Independent Professional Baseball's Winnipeg Goldeyes
Winnipeg Goldeyes
The Winnipeg Goldeyes are a professional baseball team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in Canada. The Goldeyes play in the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball, which is not affiliated with Major League Baseball. From 1994 to 2010, the team was a member of the Northern League.The...

 baseball team. The Goldeyes led the Northern League for ten straight years in average attendance as of 2010, with 300,000+ annual fan visits, until they left to join the American Association.

The University of Manitoba Bisons
Manitoba Bisons
The Manitoba Bisons are the athletic teams that represent the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The football and soccer teams play their games at University Stadium, which also serves as the location of track & field events...

 and the University of Winnipeg Wesmen
Winnipeg Wesmen
The Winnipeg Wesmen are the athletic teams that represent the University of Winnipeg in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. As an undergraduate school, currently the University of Winnipeg's Wesmen participate only in the sports of Basketball, Volleyball and Soccer in both the men's and women's side...

 represent the city in interuniversity sport
Canadian Interuniversity Sport
Canadian Interuniversity Sport is the national governing body of university sport in Canada, comprising the majority of degree granting universities in the country. Its equivalent body for organized sports at colleges in Canada is The Canadian Colleges Athletic Association...

. Winnipeg has two Manitoba Junior Hockey League
Manitoba Junior Hockey League
The Manitoba Junior Hockey League is a Junior 'A' ice hockey league operating in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The MJHL is one of eleven Junior 'A' Hockey Leagues in Canada and is a member of the Canadian Junior Hockey League ....

 teams, the Winnipeg Saints
Winnipeg Saints
The Winnipeg Saints are a Manitoba Junior Hockey League team playing out of the Centre. They played out of Dakota Community Centre in Winnipeg until the end of 2009-10 season. The team played out of St. Adolphe during the 2010-11 season, but played their home playoff games at the MTS Iceplex in...

 and the Winnipeg South Blues
Winnipeg South Blues
The Winnipeg Blues are a Manitoba Junior Hockey League team playing out of the MTS Iceplex in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. They were formerly known as the Fort Garry Blues, Winnipeg South Blues, and the Winnipeg Monarchs...

. The city is represented in the Canadian Junior Football League
Canadian Junior Football League
The Canadian Junior Football League is a national amateur Canadian football league consisting of 19 teams playing in six provinces across Canada. The teams compete annually for the Canadian Bowl...

 by the Winnipeg Rifles
Winnipeg Rifles
Winnipeg Rifles are a Canadian football team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. They began playing in the Canadian Junior Football League in 2002. They play at Canad Inns Stadium, home of the CFL's Winnipeg Blue Bombers.-History:...

, and in soccer it's represented by the Winnipeg Alliance FC
Winnipeg Alliance FC
Winnipeg Alliance FC are a professional soccer team that plays in the Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League.-2007 Season:The Winnipeg Alliance was one of 4 founding teams of the CMISL. In 2007 the league played a Showcase season consisting of exhibition games the Alliance played 2 double headers...

 in the Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League
Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League
The Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League or CMISL is a professional indoor soccer league that began full league play in January 2008. The league's president is Mel Kowalchuk...

 and the WSA Winnipeg
WSA Winnipeg
WSA Winnipeg is a Canadian soccer team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Founded in 2010, the team plays in the USL Premier Development League , the fourth tier of the Canadian Soccer Pyramid, in the Heartland Division of the Central Conference....

 in the USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League
The USL Premier Development League is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid...

 .

Winnipeg was the first Canadian city to ever host the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
The Pan-American or Pan American Games are a major event in the Americas featuring summer and formerly winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Pan American Games are the second largest multi-sport event after the Summer Olympics...

, and the second city to host the event twice, once in 1967
1967 Pan American Games
The 5th Pan American Games were held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, from July 23 to August 6, 1967.Winnipeg was chosen as host of the Pan American Games on its second try. It first bid for the fourth Pan American Games at the 1959 PASO meeting in Chicago. It lost to São Paulo, Brazil...

 and once in 1999
1999 Pan American Games
The 1999 Pan American Games, officially the XIII Pan American Games or the 13th Pan American Games, was a major international multi-sport event that was held from July 23-August 8, 1999 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Approximately 5,000 athletes from 42 nations participated at the games. The 1999...

. The Pan Am Pool
Pan Am Pool
The Pan Am Pool is an indoor swimming facility in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada built for the 1967 Pan American Games. It is located in southwest Winnipeg and consists of three pools, two of them used for competitive swimming, and one is a children's "kiddie pool". The main tank is 25 yards wide. The...

, built for the 1967 Pan American Games
Pan American Games
The Pan-American or Pan American Games are a major event in the Americas featuring summer and formerly winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Pan American Games are the second largest multi-sport event after the Summer Olympics...

, hosts aquatic events, including diving
Diving
Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, sometimes while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime.Diving is one...

, speed swimming
Swimming (sport)
Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

, synchronized swimming
Synchronized swimming
Synchronized swImming is a hybrid form of swimming, dance and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers performing a synchronized routine of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music....

 and water polo
Water polo
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

.
Professional sports teams



Club
League
Venue
Established
Championships


Winnipeg Blue Bombers
Winnipeg Blue Bombers
The Winnipeg Blue Bombers are a Canadian football team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. They are currently members of the East Division of the Canadian Football League . They play their home games at Canad Inns Stadium, and plan to move to a new stadium for the 2012 season.The Blue Bombers were founded...


CFL
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....


Canad Inns Stadium
Canad Inns Stadium
Canad Inns Stadium is a Canadian football stadium located north of Polo Park Shopping Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The Stadium, named for hotel chain Canad Inns, and originally completed in 1953, seats 29,533 for football...


1930
10


Winnipeg Jets
Winnipeg Jets
The Winnipeg Jets were a professional ice hockey team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. They began play in the World Hockey Association in 1972, moving to the National Hockey League in 1979 following the collapse of the WHA...


NHL
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...


MTS Centre
MTS Centre
The MTS Centre is an indoor sports arena and entertainment venue in downtown Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and home of the Winnipeg Jets of the National Hockey League. It is located on the former Eaton's site and is owned and operated by True North Sports & Entertainment. The 440,000 square feet ...


2011
0


Winnipeg Goldeyes
Winnipeg Goldeyes
The Winnipeg Goldeyes are a professional baseball team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in Canada. The Goldeyes play in the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball, which is not affiliated with Major League Baseball. From 1994 to 2010, the team was a member of the Northern League.The...


American Association
Shaw Park
1994
1



Local media

Winnipeg has two daily newspapers: the Winnipeg Free Press
Winnipeg Free Press
The Winnipeg Free Press is a daily broadsheet newspaper in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Founded in 1872, as the Manitoba Free Press, it is the oldest newspaper in western Canada. It is the newspaper with the largest readership in the province....

and the Winnipeg Sun
Winnipeg Sun
The Winnipeg Sun is a daily tabloid-sized newspaper in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.It is owned by Sun Media, a subsidiary of Quebecor Media, and shares many characteristics typical of Sun Media tabloids, including an emphasis on local news stories, extensive sports coverage, a Canadian conservatism...

. There are five weekly newspapers delivered free to most Winnipeg households by region. There are several ethnic weekly newspapers, as well as regional and national magazines based in the city.

Television broadcasting in Winnipeg started in 1954, two years after it began in eastern Canada. The federal government refused to license any private broadcaster until the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly known as CBC and officially as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian crown corporation that serves as the national public radio and television broadcaster...

 had created a national network. In May 1954, CBWT
CBWT
CBWT is the CBC's television station in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is the only CBC station in Manitoba, since Brandon's CKX-TV closed on October 2, 2009....

 went on the air with four hours of broadcasting. The first local private station, CJAY
CKY-TV
CKY-DT is a television station based in Winnipeg, Manitoba and owned by Bell Media. It is part of the CTV Television Network....

, began broadcasting in 1960. There are presently five English-language stations and one French-language station based in Winnipeg. Additionally, some American network affiliates are available over-the-air.

Winnipeg is home to 24 AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 stations. CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. It is commercial free and offers both local and national programming...

 and CBC Radio 2 broadcast local and national programming in the city. NCI
Native Communications Inc
Native Communications Inc. is a public radio network in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The network provides programming by and for Canadian First Nations....

 is devoted to Aboriginal programming and CKJS is devoted to multilingual ethnic programming.

Law and government

Since 1992, the city of Winnipeg is represented by 15 city councillors and a mayor elected every four years. The present mayor, Sam Katz
Sam Katz
Samuel Michael Katz, OM is the 42nd mayor of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. He is also a businessperson and a member of the Order of Manitoba.- Life before mayorship :...

, was elected to office in 2004 and re-elected in 2006 and 2010. The city is a single-tier municipality, governed by a mayor-council system
Mayor-council government
The mayor–council government system, sometimes called the mayor–commission government system, is one of the two most common forms of local government for municipalities...

. The structure of the municipal government is set out by the province of Manitoba in the City of Winnipeg Charter Act, which replaced the old City of Winnipeg Act
City of Winnipeg Act
The City of Winnipeg Act was enacted on July 21, 1971 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The act incorporated the municipalities of Charleswood, Fort Garry, North Kildonan, Old Kildonan, Tuxedo, East Kildonan, West Kildonan, St. Vital, Transcona, St. Boniface, St. James-Assiniboia, Winnipeg and the...

 in 2003. The mayor is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive
Head of government
Head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. In a parliamentary system, the head of government is often styled prime minister, chief minister, premier, etc...

 of the city. At Council meetings, the mayor has one of 16 votes. The City Council is a unicameral
Unicameralism
In government, unicameralism is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house...

 legislative body, representing geographical wards throughout the city.
In provincial politics after the 2011 election
Manitoba general election, 2011
The 40th general election of Manitoba was held to elect Members of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. It took place on October 4, 2011, due to the new fixed-date election laws...

, Winnipeg is represented by 31 of the 57 provincial Members of the Legislative Assembly
Member of the Legislative Assembly
A Member of the Legislative Assembly or a Member of the Legislature , is a representative elected by the voters of a constituency to the legislature or legislative assembly of a sub-national jurisdiction....

 (MLAs). 26 Winnipeg districts are represented by members of the New Democratic Party
New Democratic Party of Manitoba
The New Democratic Party of Manitoba is a social-democratic political party in Manitoba, Canada. It is the provincial wing of the federal New Democratic Party, and is a successor to the Manitoba Co-operative Commonwealth Federation...

 (NDP), 4 are members of the Progressive Conservative Party
Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba
The Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba is the only right wing political party in Manitoba, Canada. It is also the official opposition party in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba.-Origins and early years:...

, one is a member of the Liberal Party
Manitoba Liberal Party
The Manitoba Liberal Party is a political party in Manitoba, Canada. Its roots can be traced to the late nineteenth-century, following the province's creation in 1870.-Origins and early development :...

. All three leaders of the provincial parties represent Winnipeg districts in the legislature.

In federal politics, Winnipeg is represented by eight Members of Parliament
Canadian House of Commons
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 308 members known as Members of Parliament...

: six Conservatives
Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada , is a political party in Canada which was formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in 2003. It is positioned on the right of the Canadian political spectrum...

, one New Democrat
New Democratic Party
The New Democratic Party , commonly referred to as the NDP, is a federal social-democratic political party in Canada. The interim leader of the NDP is Nycole Turmel who was appointed to the position due to the illness of Jack Layton, who died on August 22, 2011. The provincial wings of the NDP in...

 and one Liberal
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada , colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federally registered party in Canada. In the conventional political spectrum, the party sits between the centre and the centre-left. Historically the Liberal Party has positioned itself to the left of the Conservative...

. There are six Senators representing Manitoba in Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

. Only two list Winnipeg as the division they represent, although all of them were residents of Winnipeg when appointed to the Senate. The political affiliation in the Senate is three Liberals, two Conservatives, and one Independent.

Crime

In 2004, Winnipeg had the fourth-highest overall crime rate among Canadian Census Metropolitan Areas listed, with 12,167 Criminal Code of Canada
Criminal Code of Canada
The Criminal Code or Code criminel is a law that codifies most criminal offences and procedures in Canada. Its official long title is "An Act respecting the criminal law"...

 offences per 100,000 inhabitants; only Regina
Regina, Saskatchewan
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province and a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan. It is governed by Regina City Council. Regina is the cathedral city of the Roman Catholic and Romanian Orthodox...

, Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Saskatoon is a city in central Saskatchewan, Canada, on the South Saskatchewan River. Residents of the city of Saskatoon are called Saskatonians. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Corman Park No. 344....

, and Abbotsford
Abbotsford, British Columbia
Abbotsford is a Canadian city located in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, adjacent to Greater Vancouver. It is the fifth largest municipality in British Columbia, home to 123,864 people . Its Census Metropolitan Area, which includes the District of Mission, is the 23rd largest in Canada,...

 had higher crime rates. Winnipeg had the highest rate among centres with populations greater than 500,000. The crime rate was 50% higher than that of Calgary
Calgary
Calgary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies...

, and more than double that of Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

.
Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. Its headquarters is in Ottawa....

 states that in 2005, Manitoba had the highest decline of overall crime in Canada at nearly 8%; however, in 2009 the province topped all others in violent crime rates. The statistics for the year 2010 were similar, with Winnipeg still topping the violent crime severity index, although for the overall total crime severity index, Winnipeg was in third place, behind Saskatoon and Regina, with an index of 122.3, down by 10 per cent from 2009. Law enforcement in Winnipeg is provided by the Winnipeg Police Service
Winnipeg Police Service
The Winnipeg Police Service is the police force of the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.-History:When Winnipeg became a city in 1873, an election was held to select the city's new Mayor and Aldermen. Those appointed decided to hire city officials, including a Chief Constable. On February 23,...

, which has 1418 members.

Manitoba has also had a continuing problem with auto thefts, most of which occur in Winnipeg. To combat auto theft, Manitoba Public Insurance
Manitoba Public Insurance
Manitoba Public Insurance is a non-profit Crown corporation based in Manitoba that has provided basic public auto insurance since 1971....

 (MPI) established financial incentives for motor vehicle owners to install ignition immobiliser
Immobiliser
An immobiliser or immobilizer is an electronic device fitted to an automobile which prevents the engine from running unless the correct key is present...

s in their vehicles. It now requires owners of high-risk vehicles to install immobilisers.

Education

Education is a responsibility of the provincial government in Canada. In Manitoba, public education is governed by the Public Schools Act, the Education Administration Act, and regulations made under both Acts. Rights and responsibilities of the Minister of Education, Citizenship and Youth, public school boards, principals, teachers, parents and students are set out in the legislation. There are seven school division
School division
-Canada:In Canada the term is used to the area controlled by a school board and is used interchangeably with school district, including in the formal name of the board. For example, see List of Alberta school boards.-United States:...

s in Winnipeg: Winnipeg School Division
Winnipeg School Division
The Winnipeg School Division is the largest of six public school divisions in Winnipeg, serving 77 schools and over 33,000 students and their families in the central part of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.The division was founded in 1871...

, St. James-Assiniboia School Division
St. James-Assiniboia School Division
St. James-Assiniboia School Division is a school division in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Currently, there are 15 elementary schools, 6 middle schools, and 4 high schools. Thus, in total, there are 25 schools...

, Pembina Trails School Division
Pembina Trails School Division
Pembina Trails School Division is a school division in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.It operates one technical college in cooperation with the Louis Riel School Division called Winnipeg Technical College....

, Seven Oaks School Division
Seven Oaks School Division
Seven Oaks School Division is a school division established on July 1959 in the north west area of Winnipeg, Manitoba. It takes in the neighbourhoods of West Kildonan, Garden City, the Maples, Riverbend, West St. Paul and St. Andrews....

, Division Scolaire Franco-Manitobaine
Division Scolaire Franco-Manitobaine
The Franco-manitoban School Division is a school division in Manitoba, Canada offering French-language education to its students. The right to French education was gained through Section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms...

, River East Transcona School Division
River East Transcona School Division
River East Transcona School Division is located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is the second largest school division in the province. It is composed of parts of what used to be two separate divisions the Transcona part of the Transcona-Springfield School Division and River East School Division, which...

, and Louis Riel School Division
Louis Riel School Division
The Louis Riel School Division is a school division in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada offering English-language, French immersion, and Français Partiel educations to its students. It was formed through the amalgamation of the St. Vital School Division and the St...

. Winnipeg is home to religious and secular private schools, which are not governed by school boards but must still adhere to regulations outlined by the province.

The University of Manitoba
University of Manitoba
The University of Manitoba , in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is the largest university in the province of Manitoba. It is Manitoba's most comprehensive and only research-intensive post-secondary educational institution. It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada’s first university. It placed...

 is the largest university in Manitoba; it is the most comprehensive post-secondary educational institution. It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada’s first university. In a typical year, the university has an enrolment of 22,500 undergraduate students and 3,500 graduate students. Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface
Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface
The Université de Saint-Boniface, or USB, is a university college affiliated with the University of Manitoba and located in the Saint Boniface district of Winnipeg, Manitoba , Canada....

, the city's only French Canadian
French Canadian
French Canadian or Francophone Canadian, , generally refers to the descendents of French colonists who arrived in New France in the 17th and 18th centuries...

 college, is affiliated with the University of Manitoba.

The University of Winnipeg
University of Winnipeg
The University of Winnipeg is a public university in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada that offers undergraduate faculties of art, business and economics, education, science and theology as well as graduate programs. The U of W's founding colleges were Manitoba College and Wesley College, which merged...

 received its charter in 1967, but its founding colleges date back more than 130 years. The founding colleges were Manitoba College
Manitoba College
Manitoba College was a college that existed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 1871 to 1967, when it became one of the University of Winnipeg's founding colleges. It was one of the first institutions of higher learning in the city of Winnipeg and the province of Manitoba...

 1871, and Wesley College
Wesley College, Winnipeg
Wesley College was a college that existed in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 1888 to 1967. It was one of the University of Winnipeg's founding colleges.-History:...

 1888, which merged to form United College
United College, Winnipeg
United College was a college in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was founded in 1938 with the merger of Manitoba College and Wesley College . The college was affiliated with the University of Manitoba. In 1967, United College received a charter and became the University of Winnipeg....

 in 1938. Until 2007, it was an undergraduate
Undergraduate education
Undergraduate education is an education level taken prior to gaining a first degree . Hence, in many subjects in many educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a bachelor's degree, such as in the United States, where a university entry level is...

 institution that offered some joint graduate studies programs. It now offers graduate programs
Graduate school
A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree...

 exclusive to the university. In 2008, the university created a new faculty of business consisting of economics and business programs hived off from the faculty of arts.

The Canadian Mennonite University
Canadian Mennonite University
Canadian Mennonite University is a Christian university located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada that awards three and four-year degrees in a variety of programs...

 (CMU) is a private Mennonite
Mennonite
The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after the Frisian Menno Simons , who, through his writings, articulated and thereby formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders...

 university established in 1999. It was formed through the amalgamation of three colleges: Canadian Mennonite Bible College (founded in 1947), Concord College (founded as Mennonite Brethren Bible College in 1944), and Menno Simons College
Menno Simons College
Menno Simons College is a Mennonite college in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is one of the three founding colleges of Canadian Mennonite University and is affiliated with the University of Winnipeg. MSC is located on the downtown campus of the University of Winnipeg.-History: The college is named...

 (founded in 1988). It is an undergraduate institution, and offers some programs jointly with the University of Winnipeg.

Winnipeg also has two independent colleges: Red River College
Red River College
Red River College of Applied Arts, Science and Technology is located in Winnipeg. The College offers degree, diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs in the applied arts, applied sciences, and various trades. The university press, The Projector, is a member of CUP.-Campus:It has a number...

 and Booth College
Booth College
Booth University College is a liberal arts university college affiliated with the Salvation Army located in Winnipeg, Manitoba.-History:Booth University College was established in 1982 as Catherine Booth Bible College. It was renamed William and Catherine Booth College in 1997 in honour of The...

. Red River College offers diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs and, starting in 2009, began offering a limited number of degree programs. In May 2009, the federal government of Canada pledged $9.5-million of funding to the college to help reconstruct the 104-year-old Union Bank Tower for a second urban campus in downtown Winnipeg. Booth College, a Christian Salvation Army
Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church known for its thrift stores and charity work. It is an international movement that currently works in over a hundred countries....

 college, is a private university college established in 1982. It offers mostly arts and seminary
Seminary
A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is an institution of secondary or post-secondary education for educating students in theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy or for other ministry...

 training.

Transportation

Winnipeg has had public transit since 1882, starting with horse-drawn streetcars
Horsecar
A horsecar or horse-drawn tram is an animal-powered streetcar or tram.These early forms of public transport developed out of industrial haulage routes that had long been in existence, and from the omnibus routes that first ran on public streets in the 1820s, using the newly improved iron or steel...

. They were replaced by electric trolley cars. The trolley cars ran from 1892 to 1955, supplemented by motor bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

es after 1918, and electric trolleybus
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

es from 1938 to 1970. Winnipeg Transit
Winnipeg Transit
Winnipeg Transit is the public transit agency in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is a bus-only operator.The Winnipeg Street Railway operated a horse car operation from 1882 to 1894...

 now runs diesel buses.

Winnipeg is a railway
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

 hub and is served by Via Rail
VIA Rail
Via Rail Canada is an independent crown corporation offering intercity passenger rail services in Canada. It is headquartered near Montreal Central Station at 3 Place Ville-Marie in Montreal, Quebec....

, Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
The Canadian National Railway Company is a Canadian Class I railway headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. CN's slogan is "North America's Railroad"....

 (CNR), Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
The Canadian Pacific Railway , formerly also known as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railway founded in 1881 and now operated by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001...

 (CPR), Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba
Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba
Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba is a Canadian subsidiary railroad of BNSF Railway.-History:The railway traces its history to the Midland Railway of Manitoba which was incorporated in 1903 and built various lines around Winnipeg...

, and the Central Manitoba Railway
Central Manitoba Railway
The Central Manitoba Railway is a Canadian shortline railway operating in the province of Manitoba.CEMR was created in 1999 by Cando Contracting Ltd to purchase the former CN Pine Falls and Carman subdivisions. They use three ex-CN GP9rm's locomotives, and run trains twice weekly on the Pine...

 (CEMR). It is the only city between Vancouver and Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
-In Canada:Thunder Bay is the name of three places in the province of Ontario, Canada along Lake Superior:*Thunder Bay District, Ontario, a district in Northwestern Ontario*Thunder Bay, a city in Thunder Bay District*Thunder Bay, Unorganized, Ontario...

 with direct U.S. connections by rail. The city is connected to the United States via Provincial Trunk Highway 75 (PTH 75) (a continuation of I-29
Interstate 29
Interstate 29 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern United States. I-29 runs from Kansas City, Missouri, at a junction with Interstate 35 and Interstate 70 to the Canadian border near Pembina, North Dakota, where it connects with Manitoba Highway 75 via the short Manitoba Highway 29.-Route...

 and US 75
U.S. Route 75
U.S. Route 75 is a north–south U.S. Highway. The highway's northern terminus is in Kittson County, Minnesota, at the Canadian border, where it continues as Manitoba Highway 75 on the other side of a closed border crossing. Its southern terminus is at Interstate 30 and Interstate 45 in Dallas,...

). The highway runs 107 km (66.5 mi) to Emerson, Manitoba
Emerson, Manitoba
Emerson is a town in south central Manitoba, Canada, with a population of 655. The town is named after writer Ralph Waldo Emerson.Emerson is located on the east bank of the Red River, just north of the border with the United States at the point where Manitoba, Minnesota, and North Dakota meet. ...

, and is the busiest Canada – United States border crossing between Vancouver and the Great Lakes. Much of the commercial traffic through Emerson either originates from or is destined for Winnipeg. Inside the city, the highway is locally known as Pembina Highway (Route 42
Winnipeg Route 42
Route 42 is a major arterial road located in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It connects the suburbs of North Kildonan, East Kildonan, Fort Rouge, Fort Garry, and St. Norbert with the city's downtown core...

).

The four-lane highway Perimeter Highway
Perimeter Highway (Winnipeg)
Provincial Trunk Highways 100 and 101 form a beltway around Winnipeg, Manitoba. The Perimeter is approximately long...

, built in 1969, serves as a Ring Road, with at-grade intersections and a few interchange
Interchange (road)
In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that typically uses grade separation, and one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without directly crossing any other traffic stream. It differs from a standard intersection, at which...

s. It allows travellers on the Trans-Canada Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins the ten provinces of Canada. It is, along with the Trans-Siberian Highway and Australia's Highway 1, one of the world's longest national highways, with the main route spanning 8,030 km...

 to by-pass the city. A recent study cited dangerous intersections and low efficiency as its primary shortfalls. The Trans-Canada Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins the ten provinces of Canada. It is, along with the Trans-Siberian Highway and Australia's Highway 1, one of the world's longest national highways, with the main route spanning 8,030 km...

 runs east to west through the city (city route), or circles around the city on the Perimeter Highway (beltway). The city is also the starting point on the Yellowhead highway
Yellowhead Highway
The Yellowhead Highway is a major east-west highway connecting the four western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Although part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, the highway should not be confused with the more southerly, originally-designated...

. Some of the city's major arterial roads include Route 80 (Waverley St.), Route 155 (McGillivray Blvd), Route 165 (Bishop Grandin Blvd.), Route 17 (Chief Peguis Trail), and Route 90 (Brookside Blvd., Oak Point Hwy., King Edward St., Century St., Kenaston Blvd.)
Winnipeg Route 90
Route 90 is a city route in Winnipeg, Manitoba, connecting the PTH 100 at PTH 7 and Route 165 .Route 90 is a north-south city route. It is a major arterial road. Route 90 starts as Brookside Blvd at the Perimeter Highway. Just south of Inkster Boulevard, Route 90 turns into Oak Point Hwy...

.

The Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport is currently undergoing a $585-million redevelopment. Scheduled for completion in late 2011, the development includes a new terminal, a four-level parking facility, and other infrastructure improvements. The field was Canada's first international airport when it opened in 1928 as Stevenson Aerodrome. The airport is the 8th busiest in Canada in terms of passenger traffic and, along with Winnipeg/St. Andrews Airport, is among the top 20 in terms of aircraft movements. Winnipeg Bus Terminal
Winnipeg Bus Terminal
The Winnipeg Bus Terminal is an intercity bus station, located beside the Winnipeg International Airport in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The terminal moved there in August 2009 from its downtown location at Portage Avenue and Balmoral Street, where it had been for 45 years...

, located at Winnipeg International Airport, offers domestic and international service by Greyhound Canada, Grey Goose Bus Lines
Grey Goose Bus Lines
Grey Goose Bus Lines is a subsidiary of Greyhound Canada operating in the Canadian province of Manitoba.-1924-1934:Brown Brothers Bus LineJohn Smith started a bus service between Winnipeg and Carman.-1934-1961:...

, Winnipeg Shuttle Service and Brandon Air Shuttle.

Approximately 20000 acres (80.9 km²) of land to the north and west of the airport has been designated as an inland port
Inland port
The term inland port is used in two different but related ways to mean either a port on an inland waterway or an inland site carrying out some functions of a seaport.- As a port on an inland waterway :...

, CentrePort Canada
CentrePort Canada
CentrePort Canada is an inland port located in Winnipeg and Rosser, Manitoba, Canada. It was created in 2008 by provincial legislation called the CentrePort Canada Act. The Act established the mandate of CentrePort Canada and designated 20,000 acres to the inland port, situated adjacent to the...

, and is Canada’s first Foreign Trade Zone
Foreign trade zone
A foreign-trade zone in the United States is a geographical area, in United States Ports of Entry Ports of Entry, where commercial merchandise, both domestic and foreign receives the same Customs treatment it would if it were outside the commerce of the United States...

 (FTZ). It is a private sector initiative to develop the infrastructure for Manitoba’s trucking, air, rail and sea industries. Still in its preliminary stages, construction has begun on a $212-million four-lane freeway that will connect CentrePort with the Perimeter Highway.

Medical centres and hospitals

Winnipeg's major hospitals include Health Sciences Centre
Health Sciences Centre (Winnipeg)
The Health Sciences Centre is the largest hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It serves the residents of Northwest Ontario and Nunavut as both a teaching hospital and as a research centre. The Health Sciences Center is a tertiary care hospital, encompassing many different specialty medical...

, Concordia Hospital
Concordia Hospital
Concordia Hospital is a regional hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada that was founded by Russian Mennonites in 1928. It had a number of locations before settling in northeastern Winnipeg in 1965....

, Deer Lodge Centre
Deer Lodge Centre
Deer Lodge Centre is a hospital specializing in treatment of Veterans in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The hospital began as a convalescent hospital for returning World War I soldiers in 1916 and was located in Silver Heights along west Portage Avenue...

, Grace Hospital
Grace Hospital (Winnipeg)
Grace Hospital is a regional hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Until 2008, it was a hospital run by the Salvation Army. The hospital, founded in 1890 was the first Salvation Army hospital in Canada. Originally located within old city of Winnipeg boundaries, the hospital moved west on Portage...

, Misericordia Health Centre
Misericordia Health Centre
Misercordia Health Centre is a hospital that was founded in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada by the Misericordia Sisters in 1898. Today, ownership of the hospital is the responsibility of the Misericordia Corporation within the Archdiocese of Winnipeg...

, Riverview Health Centre
Riverview Health Centre
Riverview Health Center is a community hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was founded in 1911 by the City of Winnipeg as the Winnipeg Municipal Hospital...

, Saint Boniface General Hospital
St. Boniface General Hospital (Winnipeg)
St. Boniface General Hospital is Manitoba's second-largest hospital, located in the St. Boniface neighbourhood of Winnipeg. It was founded by the Sisters of Charity of Montreal in 1871, and was the first hospital in Western Canada...

, Seven Oaks General Hospital
Seven Oaks General Hospital
Seven Oaks General Hospital is a community hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was founded in 1981 by community leaders and approved by the province of Manitoba to serve the needs of the northern part of Winnipeg and surrounding area....

, Victoria General Hospital
Victoria General Hospital (Winnipeg)
Victoria General Hospital is a general hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada founded in 1911. Originally it was located in the Osborne Village, but since 1971 it has been in its present location in south Winnipeg beside the University of Manitoba. Today, it is a community hospital with 231 beds...

, and The Children's Hospital of Winnipeg
The Children's Hospital of Winnipeg
The Children's Hospital of Winnipeg is a children's hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is located on the campus of the Health Sciences Centre near downtown Winnipeg and is the only hospital between Toronto and Calgary that is expressly devoted to the health care of children.The hospital was...

.

The National Microbiology Laboratory
National Microbiology Laboratory
The National Microbiology Laboratory is a division of the Public Health Agency of Canada that is located in the Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health in Winnipeg, Manitoba. This modern state-of-the-art facility houses the NML's Biological Safety Level 4 containment laboratory,...

 is Canada's front line in its response to infectious diseases and one of only a handful of Biosafety level
Biosafety level
A biosafety level is the level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 to the highest at level 4 . In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and...

 4 microbiology laboratories in the world. The National Research Council also has the Institute for Biodiagnostics
Institute for Biodiagnostics
The National Research Council Institute for Biodiagnostics is a research laboratory located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It was established in 1992 to develop noninvasive medical devices and techniques to increase prospects for prevention, earlier diagnosis, improved treatment and prognosis of...

 laboratory located in the downtown area.

Military

Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg
CFB Winnipeg
Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg , is a Canadian Forces Base located within the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Co-located at the Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, CFB Winnipeg is home to many flight operations support divisions, as well as several training schools...

, co-located at the airport, is home to many flight operations support divisions and several training schools. It is also the headquarters of 1 Canadian Air Division
1 Canadian Air Division
1 Canadian Air Division is the operational-level command and control formation of the Royal Canadian Air Force...

 and the Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command is a joint organization of Canada and the United States that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and defense for the two countries. Headquarters NORAD is located at Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado...

 (NORAD) Region. The base is supported by over 3,000 military personnel and civilian employees.

17 Wing of the Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
The Canadian Forces , officially the Canadian Armed Forces , are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."...

 is based at CFB Winnipeg. The Wing comprises three squadrons and six schools; it also provides support to the Central Flying School. Excluding the three levels of government, 17 Wing is the fourth largest employer in the city. The Wing supports 113 units, stretching from Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
-In Canada:Thunder Bay is the name of three places in the province of Ontario, Canada along Lake Superior:*Thunder Bay District, Ontario, a district in Northwestern Ontario*Thunder Bay, a city in Thunder Bay District*Thunder Bay, Unorganized, Ontario...

 to the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of . Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota....

/Alberta
Alberta
Alberta is a province of Canada. It had an estimated population of 3.7 million in 2010 making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces...

 border, and from the 49th parallel
49th parallel north
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean....

 to the high Arctic
Arctic
The Arctic is a region located at the northern-most part of the Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. The Arctic region consists of a vast, ice-covered ocean, surrounded by treeless permafrost...

. 17 Wing also acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet
CF-18 Hornet
The McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet is a Royal Canadian Air Force fighter aircraft, based on the American McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighter. In 1980, the F/A-18 was selected as the winner of the New Fighter Aircraft competition, and a production order was awarded...

 fighter-bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region.

There are two squadrons based in the city. The 402 "City of Winnipeg" Squadron
No. 402 Squadron RCAF
402 "City of Winnipeg" Squadron is about to be renamed , as a Royal Canadian Air Force squadron based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada-Pre-war history:...

 flies the Canadian-designed and -produced de Havilland CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer. The 435 "Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron flies the Lockheed CC-130 Hercules
C-130 Hercules
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed, now Lockheed Martin. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop, medical evacuation, and cargo transport...

 tanker/transport in airlift search and rescue
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, mostly based upon terrain considerations...

 roles. In addition, 435 Squadron is the only Canadian Forces Air Command
Canadian Forces Air Command
The Royal Canadian Air Force , formerly Canadian Forces Air Command, is one of three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces...

 squadron equipped and trained to conduct tactical air-to-air refueling
Aerial refueling
Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling , air-to-air refueling or tanking, is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight....

 of fighter aircraft
Fighter aircraft
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed primarily to attack ground targets...

.

Winnipeg is home to a number of reserve units:
  • The Royal Winnipeg Rifles
    The Royal Winnipeg Rifles
    The Royal Winnipeg Rifles are a Primary Reserve one-battalion infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. Nicknamed the "Little Black Devils", they are based at Minto Armouries in Winnipeg, Manitoba...

     at Minto Armoury
  • The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada
    The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada
    The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.-Formation:As early as 1905 the local Scottish community in Winnipeg, led by the St Andrew's Society, began lobbying the government to raise a Highland regiment...

     infantry (along with The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada Museum) at Minto Armoury
  • 735 Communications Squadron at Minto Armoury
  • 17 Service Battalion at Minto Armoury
  • 17 (Winnipeg) Field Ambulance at Minto Armoury
  • 13 Military Police Platoon at Minto Armouries
  • The Fort Garry Horse
    The Fort Garry Horse
    The Fort Garry Horse is a Canadian Army Reserve Armoured Regiment based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is currently part of Land Force Western Area's 38 Canadian Brigade Group.- History :...

     armoured reconnaissance regiment at McGregor Armoury Naval Reserve Division


For many years, Winnipeg was the home of the Second Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry is one of the three regular force infantry regiments of the Canadian Army. The regiment is composed of four battalions including a primary reserve battalion, for a total of 2,000 soldiers...

 (2 PPCLI). Initially, the battalion was based at the Fort Osborne Barracks near present-day Osborne Village
Osborne Village
Osborne Village is a neighbourhood of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It derives its name from Osborne Street , which runs through the centre of the village area.-History:...

. They eventually moved to the Kapyong Barracks located in River Heights/Tuxedo. Since 2004, the 550 men and women of the battalion have operated out of CFB Shilo
CFB Shilo
Canadian Forces Base Shilo is an Operations and Training base of the Canadian Forces, located east of Brandon, Manitoba. During the 1990s, Canadian Forces Base Shilo was also designated as an Area Support Unit, which acts as a local base of operations for south-west Manitoba in times of military...

 near Brandon
Brandon, Manitoba
Brandon is the second largest city in Manitoba, Canada, and is located in the southwestern area of the province. Brandon is the largest city in the Westman region of Manitoba. The city is located along the Assiniboine River. Spruce Woods Provincial Park and CFB Shilo are a relatively short distance...

.

Sister cities

Winnipeg maintains trade development programs, cultural and educational partnerships in sister city
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 agreements with these cities:
  • 1970: Setagaya
    Setagaya, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo in Japan. It is also the name of a neighborhood within the ward. The ward calls itself the City of Setagaya in English...

     (Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    )  
  • 1971: Reykjavík
    Reykjavík
    Reykjavík is the capital and largest city in Iceland.Its latitude at 64°08' N makes it the world's northernmost capital of a sovereign state. It is located in southwestern Iceland, on the southern shore of Faxaflói Bay...

     (Iceland
    Iceland
    Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

    )  
  • 1973: Lviv
    Lviv
    Lviv is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following...

     (Ukraine
    Ukraine
    Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

    )  
  • 1979: Manila
    Manila
    Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

     (Philippines
    Philippines
    The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

    )  
  • 1982: Taichung
    Taichung
    -Demographics:Taichung’s population was an estimated 1,040,725 in August 2006. There are slightly more females in the city than males.24.32% of residents are children, while 16.63% are young people, 52.68% are middle-age, and 6.73% are elderly....

     (Taiwan
    Republic of China
    The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

    )  
  • 1982: Kuopio
    Kuopio
    Kuopio is a city and a municipality located in the region of Northern Savonia, Finland. A population of makes it the ninth biggest city in the country. The city has a total area of , of which is water and half forest...

     (Finland
    Finland
    Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

    )  
  • 1984: Beersheba
    Beersheba
    Beersheba is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the seventh-largest city in Israel with a population of 194,300....

     (Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

    )  
  • 1988: Chengdu
    Chengdu
    Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

     (People's Republic of China
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

    )  
  • 1992: Jinju
    Jinju
    Jinju is a city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. It was the location of the first and second Sieges of Jinju by Japanese forces during the Imjin War...

     (South Korea
    South Korea
    The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

    )  
  • 1999: San Nicolás de los Garza
    San Nicolás de los Garza
    San Nicolás de los Garza, sometimes known only as San Nicolás, is a city and coextensive municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It has become primarily a city for residencies and family houses, although it still has several factories that...

     (Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

    )  


Winnipeg and Minneapolis (USA) were formerly sister cities.

See also

  • List of Winnipeg bus routes
  • Subdivisions of Winnipeg
    Subdivisions of Winnipeg
    Winnipeg, Manitoba, is subdivided in different ways for different purposes. The suburbs and neighbourhoods of Winnipeg take their names from former administrative districts, parishes, and geographic features.- City wards :...

  • Ukrainian Labour Temple
    Ukrainian Labour Temple
    The Ukrainian Labour Temple is a hall and cultural centre in Winnipeg's North End run by the Association of United Ukrainian Canadians. The Labour temple is one of the few left in a once large network of such halls and is one of the largest and oldest of its kind...

  • Valour Road
    Valour Road
    Valour Road is a street in the West End of Winnipeg, Manitoba. It was originally called Pine Street. In 1925, it was renamed as Valour Road in recognition of the courage of three young men who all lived on the 700 block of the street and all served in the First World War...


External links

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