Ujung Kulon National Park
Ujung Kulon National Park (means : Western Tip) is located at the western-most tip of Java, Banten
Banten is a province of Indonesia in Java. Formerly part of the Province of West Java, it was made a separate province in 2000.The administrative center is Serang. Preliminary results from the 2010 census counted some 10.6 million people.-Geography:...

, Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

. It includes the volcanic island group of Krakatoa
Krakatoa is a volcanic island made of a'a lava in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. The name is used for the island group, the main island , and the volcano as a whole. The island exploded in 1883, killing approximately 40,000 people, although some estimates...

 and other islands including Panaitan
Panaitan is an island in the Sunda Strait, between Java and Sumatra. It is the largest island in the strait, and is located near the westernmost tip of Java . Like the nearby Krakatoa, it too is volcanic in origin, although there are no known historic eruptions...

, Handeuleum and Peucang on the Sunda Strait
Sunda Strait
The Sunda Strait is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra. It connects the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean...



The park encompasses an area of 1,206 km² (443 km² marine), most of which lies on a peninsula
A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland. In many Germanic and Celtic languages and also in Baltic, Slavic and Hungarian, peninsulas are called "half-islands"....

 reaching into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

. The explosion of nearby Krakatau in 1883
1883 eruption of Krakatoa
The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa began in May 1883 and culminated with the destruction of Krakatoa on 27 August 1883. Minor seismic activity continued to be reported until February 1884, though reports after October 1883 were later dismissed by Rogier Verbeek's investigation.-Early phase:In the years...

 produced a tsunami
A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake...

 (giant wave) that eliminated the villages and crops of the coastal areas on the western peninsula, and covered the entire area in a layer of ash
Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash consists of small tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions, less than in diameter. There are three mechanisms of volcanic ash formation: gas release under decompression causing magmatic eruptions; thermal contraction from chilling on contact...

 averaging 30 cm thick. This caused the total evacuation of the peninsula by humans, thereby allowing it to become a repository
Involuntary park
Involuntary park is a neologism coined by science fiction author and environmentalist Bruce Sterling to describe previously inhabited areas that for environmental, economic or political reasons have, in Sterling's words, "lost their value for technological instrumentalism" and been allowed to...

 for much of Java’s flora and fauna, and most of the remaining lowland forest on the island.


It is Indonesia's first proposed national park and was declared a UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 in 1991 for containing the largest remaining lowland rainforest
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests , also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome....

 in Java.

It is, as of October of 2011, the last wild refuge of the critically endangered (and nearly extinct in the wild) Javan Rhinoceros
Javan Rhinoceros
The Javan Rhinoceros or Lesser One-horned Rhinoceros is a member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses...

. A population of about forty to fifty live in Ujung Kulon; a smaller population of possibly 10 or less lived in Cat Tien National Park
Cat Tien National Park
Cát Tiên National Park is an important national park located in the south of Vietnam, approximately 150 km north of Ho Chi Minh City. It has an area of about 720 km² and protects one of the largest areas of lowland tropical rainforests left in Vietnam.-History:Cát Tiên national park was...

, Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

, until poachers killed the last one there in 2011 (some Vietnamese believe that if their horns are ground into a powder and consumed, they offer a protection against cancer or typhoid fever).

Within the last 10 years there have been 14 rhino births identified using camera and video traps. After several male calves were born, there was a documented female birth which will allow the population to remain viable. After February 2011, video and camera trap management will be fully conducted by Ujung Kulon National Park Authority.

The park protects 57 rare species of plant. The 35 species of mammal include Banteng
The banteng , also known as tembadau, is a species of wild cattle found in Southeast Asia.Banteng have been domesticated in several places in Southeast Asia, and there are around 1.5 million domestic banteng, which are called Bali cattle. These animals are used as working animals and for their meat...

, Silvery Gibbon
Silvery Gibbon
The silvery gibbon is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. Its coat is bluish-grey in colour, with a dark grey or black cap. Like all gibbons, Silvery Gibbons lack external tails, have dorsally-placed scapula and reduced flexibility in the lumbar region. They have long, curved fingers...

, Javan Lutung
Javan Lutung
The Javan lutung, Trachypithecus auratus also known as the ebony lutung and Javan langur, is an Old World monkey from the Colobinae subfamily. It is most commonly glossy black with a brownish tinge to its legs, sides, and "sideburns". It is found on and endemic to the island of Java, as well as on...

, Crab-eating Macaque
Crab-eating Macaque
The Crab-eating macaque is a cercopithecine primate native to Southeast Asia. It is also called the "long-tailed macaque", and is referred to as the "cynomolgus monkey" in laboratories.-Etymology:...

, Leopard
Javan leopard
The Javan leopard is a leopard subspecies confined to the Indonesian island of Java and classified as critically endangered by IUCN since 2008. The population is estimated at less than 250 mature individuals, with a decreasing population trend...

, Java Mouse-deer
Java Mouse-deer
The Java Mouse-deer is a species of even-toed ungulate in the Tragulidae family. At maturity it is about the size of a rabbit, making it one of the smallest ungulates. It is found in forests in Java and perhaps Bali. It formerly included the more widespread T. kanchil and the poorly known T....

 and Rusa Deer. There are also 72 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 240 species of birds.

The status of crocodilians within the park is largely unknown- sightings are rare, but do occasionally occur. There are reports of the false gharial
False gharial
The false gharial , also known as the Malayan gharial, false gavial, or Tomistoma is a freshwater crocodile of the Crocodylidae family with a very thin and elongated snout...

 within the park, but these are not confirmed. In addition, the saltwater crocodile
Saltwater Crocodile
The saltwater crocodile, also known as estuarine or Indo-Pacific crocodile, is the largest of all living reptiles...

 was historically present throughout Java's coastal river systems but is currently extinct within these regions. Small, isolated populations of the saltwater crocodile are reported to exist within Ujung Kulon but confirmation is needed.


Parts of today's national park and World Heritage site have been protected since the early 20th century. Karakatoa Island was declared a Nature Reserve in 1921, followed by Pulau Panaitan and Pulau Peucang Nature Reserve in 1937, the Ujung Kulon Nature Reserve in 1958, the Gunung Honje Nature Reserve in 1967, and most recently Ujung Kulon National Park in 1992. In 2005 the park was designated as an ASEAN Heritage Park.

See also

  • Andries Hoogerwerf
    Andries Hoogerwerf
    Andries Hoogerwerf was a Dutch athlete, naturalist, ornithologist and conservationist who spent much of his working life in the Dutch East Indies and Dutch New Guinea....

    , naturalist active in the conservation of Ujung Kulon in the 1930s-40s.

External links

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