Simon Lake
Overview
 
Simon Lake was a Quaker American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 mechanical engineer and naval architect who obtained over two hundred patent
Patent
A patent is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention....

s for advances in naval design and competed with John Philip Holland
John Philip Holland
John Philip Holland was an Irish engineer who developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S...

 to build the first submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

s for the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

.

Born in Pleasantville, New Jersey
Pleasantville, New Jersey
-Local government:Pleasantville operates under the City form of New Jersey municipal government, led by a Mayor and a seven-member City Council. The City Council consists of two members elected from wards to three-year terms, and five members elected at-large to four-year terms in office, all of...

, Lake joined his father's foundry business after attending public schools in New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

 and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

. Lake had a strong interest in undersea travel.

He built his first submarine, Argonaut Junior
Argonaut Junior
The Argonaut Junior was the first successful submarine built by engineer Simon Lake. Her main attribute like that of the sub in built by Lake in 1897 Argonaut ; was an air lock. Her dimensions were length 14ft, beam 4 ft, depth 5 ft. Different sources incorrectly identify "Argonaut No 1", and...

, in 1894 in response to an 1893 request from the Navy for a submarine torpedo boat.
Encyclopedia
Simon Lake was a Quaker American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 mechanical engineer and naval architect who obtained over two hundred patent
Patent
A patent is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention....

s for advances in naval design and competed with John Philip Holland
John Philip Holland
John Philip Holland was an Irish engineer who developed the first submarine to be formally commissioned by the U.S...

 to build the first submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

s for the United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

.

Born in Pleasantville, New Jersey
Pleasantville, New Jersey
-Local government:Pleasantville operates under the City form of New Jersey municipal government, led by a Mayor and a seven-member City Council. The City Council consists of two members elected from wards to three-year terms, and five members elected at-large to four-year terms in office, all of...

, Lake joined his father's foundry business after attending public schools in New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

 and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

. Lake had a strong interest in undersea travel.

He built his first submarine, Argonaut Junior
Argonaut Junior
The Argonaut Junior was the first successful submarine built by engineer Simon Lake. Her main attribute like that of the sub in built by Lake in 1897 Argonaut ; was an air lock. Her dimensions were length 14ft, beam 4 ft, depth 5 ft. Different sources incorrectly identify "Argonaut No 1", and...

, in 1894 in response to an 1893 request from the Navy for a submarine torpedo boat. Neither Argonaut nor Lake's following submarine, Protector, built in 1901, were accepted by the Navy. Protector was the first submarine to have diving plane
Diving plane
A diving plane, also known as a hydroplane, is a control surface found on submarines which allow the vessel to pitch its bow and stern up or down to assist in the process of submerging or surfacing the boat, as well as controlling depth when submerged....

s mounted forward of the conning tower
Conning tower
A conning tower is a raised platform on a ship or submarine, often armored, from which an officer can con the vessel; i.e., give directions to the helmsman. It is usually located as high on the ship as practical, to give the conning team good visibility....

 and a flat keel. Four diving planes allowed Protector to maintain depth without changing ballast levels. Protector also had a lock-out chamber for divers to leave the submarine. Lake, lacking Holland's financial backing, was unable to continue building submarines in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. He sold Protector to Imperial Russia
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 in 1904 and spent the next seven years in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 designing submarines for the Austro-Hungarian Navy
Austro-Hungarian Navy
The Austro-Hungarian Navy was the naval force of Austria-Hungary. Its official name in German was Kaiserliche und Königliche Kriegsmarine , abbreviated as k.u.k. Kriegsmarine....

, the Kaiserliche Marine
Kaiserliche Marine
The Imperial German Navy was the German Navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy and Norddeutsche Bundesmarine, which primarily had the mission of coastal defense. Kaiser Wilhelm II greatly expanded...

, and Imperial Russian Navy
Imperial Russian Navy
The Imperial Russian Navy refers to the Tsarist fleets prior to the February Revolution.-First Romanovs:Under Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich, construction of the first three-masted ship, actually built within Russia, was completed in 1636. It was built in Balakhna by Danish shipbuilders from Holstein...

 (Osetr class submarine
Osetr class submarine
The Osetr class were a group of submarines built for the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo Japanese War. The boats were ordered in the 1904 emergency programme. The boats were designed by American Engineer Simon Lake and had wheels fitted for moving around on the sea bed as well as wet/dry...

s and Kaiman class submarine
Kaiman class submarine
The Kaiman class were a group of submarines built for the Imperial Russian Navy before World War I. They were designed by Simon Lake and built by the Chrichton Yard in Saint Petersburg. The boats had numerous defects resulting in a legal battle between Lake and the Russian Government. The boats...

s).

He lived in Milford, Connecticut
Milford, Connecticut
Milford is a coastal city in southwestern New Haven County, Connecticut, United States, located between Bridgeport and New Haven. The population was 52,759 at the 2010 census...

 from 1907 until his death in 1945. A grammar school named in his honor closed in June 2010. In 1912, he founded the Lake Torpedo Boat
Lake Torpedo Boat
The Lake Torpedo Boat Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut was an early maker of submarines for the U.S. Navy. Founded by Simon Lake in 1912, the firm competed with John Philip Holland's Electric Boat Company until financial difficulties led to the company's demise in 1924.-External links:**...

 Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut
Bridgeport, Connecticut
Bridgeport is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. Located in Fairfield County, the city had an estimated population of 144,229 at the 2010 United States Census and is the core of the Greater Bridgeport area...

, which built 24 submarines for the United States Navy during and after World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. Lake's first submarine for the U.S. Navy, , set a depth record of 256 feet (78m) in November 1912.

In 1922 the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and other countries signed treaties
Washington Naval Conference
The Washington Naval Conference also called the Washington Arms Conference, was a military conference called by President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations...

 limiting the size of their navies. This led to financial difficulties which forced the Lake Torpedo Boat
Lake Torpedo Boat
The Lake Torpedo Boat Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut was an early maker of submarines for the U.S. Navy. Founded by Simon Lake in 1912, the firm competed with John Philip Holland's Electric Boat Company until financial difficulties led to the company's demise in 1924.-External links:**...

 to close in the mid-1920s. Following company closure, Lake continued designing maritime salvage systems including obtaining permission to partially salvage the Lusitania of the south Irish coast and then later a failed attempt to salvage gold from , a British frigate that sank in 1780 in New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

's East River
East River
The East River is a tidal strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates Long Island from the island of Manhattan and the Bronx on the North American mainland...

 with his submarine, the Explorer. He advised the United States Navy on submarine technology and maritime salvage during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. By his death, Lake had witnessed the submarine's arrival as a front-line weapon in the US Navy.

The US Navy built a class of vessels for use as submarine tender
Submarine tender
A submarine tender is a type of ship that supplies and supports submarines.Submarines are small compared to most oceangoing vessels, and generally do not have the ability to carry large amounts of food, fuel, torpedoes, and other supplies, nor to carry a full array of maintenance equipment and...

s named in his honor the
Simon Lake class; was in service between 1964 and 1999.

In 1989 Simon Lake was inducted into the Toms River Schools Hall of Fame.

Books

  • John J. Poluhowich, Argonaut: The Submarine Legacy of Simon Lake. Texas A&M University Press, November 1999, ISBN 0-89096-894-2

External links





The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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