Silkworm missile
The Shang Yo or SY-series , and the Hai Ying or HY-series were early Chinese
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 anti-ship missile
Anti-ship missile
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea-skimming type, many use a combination of inertial guidance and radar homing...

s. They were derived from the Soviet P-15 Termit
P-15 Termit
The P-15 Termit is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. Its GRAU designation was 4K40, its NATO reporting name was Styx or SS-N-2. In Russian service today it also seems to be called the Rubezh...


The HY-1 and HY-2 received the NATO reporting name
NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...

 Silkworm. However, to confuse matters, Western media also referred to the SY-series, and its export derivatives, the Fei Long or FL-series , as Silkworms.


The SY-series were developed from the Soviet P-15 Termit. They were used on small missile boats with limited electronics. The Chinese encountered difficulties making the missile compatible with the more complex systems of larger warships. This could have resulted in premature launches or detonations when the electronics were placed on full power. In response, the HY-series was designed for warships and to replace the SY-series.

The SY-series was initially produced concurrently with the HY-series to arm missile boats and to provide an inexpensive alternative for export.


This is the original Chinese version of Soviet P-15 Termit missile, and the first was SY-1, produced at Factory 320 (the Nanchang Aircraft Factory [南昌飞机制造厂]);; Chinese sources identify the designers as Li Tongli and Lu Lin. The main difference between P-15 Termit and SY-1 missiles is that the unreliable aneroid altimeter of P-15 Termit was replaced by a much more reliable radar altimeter
Radar altimeter
A radar altimeter, radio altimeter, low range radio altimeter or simply RA measures altitude above the terrain presently beneath an aircraft or spacecraft...

 in SY-1. The successor of SY-1, designed by Peng Lisheng (彭历生) and designated as SY-1A, had a mono-pulse terminal guidance radar seeker replacing the original conical scanning radar seeker. The missile received a NATO reporting name
NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...

 CSS-N-1 Scrubbrush.

The missile has been upgraded to be air-launched, and the air-launched version is known as C-601, which is the first air-launched anti-ship missile in China. The missile received a NATO reporting name
NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...

 CAS-1 Kraken. It was used by Iraqi H-6
Xian H-6
The Xian H-6 is a license-built version of the Soviet Tupolev Tu-16 twin-engine jet bomber, built for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force....

 during Iran-Iraq War
Iran-Iraq War
The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran, lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the longest conventional war of the twentieth century...


  • Length: 6.55 metre
  • Diameter: 0.76 metre
  • Wingspan: 2.4 metre
  • Weight: 2,095 kg
  • Warhead: 513 kg shaped charge
    Shaped charge
    A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy. Various types are used to cut and form metal, to initiate nuclear weapons, to penetrate armor, and in the oil and gas industry...

     high explosive
  • Propulsion: One liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
  • Speed: Mach
    Mach number
    Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

  • Range: 150 km
  • Cruising altitude: < 20 meters
  • Guidance: Inertial + active conical scanning terminal guidance radar (SY-1); or inertial + monopulse active radar (SY-1A)
  • Single-shot kill probability: 70%


The liquid fuel engine was rather hazardous and unreliable, so a solid fuel rocket engine was developed. This engine also made it possible to reduce the size and weight of the missile while providing greater range. The warhead weight is also reduced, but its effectiveness was actually increased when a time-delayed semi-armour-piercing high-explosive design was adopted. The extended version developed is designated SY-2A.

  • Length: 6 metre
  • Diameter: 0.54 metre
  • Wingspan: 1.7 metre
  • Weight: 1,720 kg
  • Warhead: 365 kg shape charged high-explosive
  • Propulsion: A solid rocket engine and a solid booster
  • Speed: Mach
    Mach number
    Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

  • Range: 130 km
  • Cruising altitude: 20 metre
  • Guidance: Inertial + active radar
  • Single-shot kill probability: 70%


The HY-1 received two separate NATO reporting name
NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...

, the CSS-N-2 Safflower for the ship to ship version and the CSSC-2 Silkworm for the land based coastal defense variant.

The HY-1J was intended for use on the Type 051 destroyers. However, the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 prolonged development into the 1980s. As a result, the Type 051s deployed into the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 to support ballistic missile tests without anti-ship missiles.

  • HY-1: Basic developmental version developed from the SY missiles, used only in very small numbers as land-to-ship missile for evaluation purposes. Did not enter series production and was replaced by HY-1J.
  • HY-1J: Ship-to-ship variant for Type 051 DDG
  • HY-1JA: Improved ship-to-ship variant with a new radar seeker for better anti-jamming capability and accuracy
  • HY-1A: Land-to-ship variant based on the HY-1JA
  • HY-1B: Low level target drone for the test of HQ-2A SAM
  • HJ-1YB Target drone for the test of HQ-61 SAM

  • Length: 6.60 metre
  • Diameter: 0.76 metre
  • Wingspan: 2.4 metre
  • Weight: 2,300 kg
  • Warhead: 513 kg shaped charge high explosive
  • Propulsion: One liquid rocket engine and one solid rocket booster
  • Speed: Mach
    Mach number
    Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

  • Range: 85 km
  • Cruising altitude: 100~300m (early models); <20m (later models)
  • Guidance: Inertial + active conical scanning terminal guidance radar (early models); or inertial + monopulse active radar (later models)
  • Single-shot kill probability: 70%


The HY-2 is identical to the HY-1 but with a further stretched body. The missile features a round nose accommodating the radar seeker, a pair of mid-mounted delta wings on the middle section of missile body, and three tail control surfaces. The missile is powered by a liquid-fuel rocket motor, with a solid rocket booster attached under the missile fuselage.

The HY-2 is launched from land-based launcher and flies at an altitude of 1,000m during the initial stage of the flight. After the missile switched to the cruising mode, the flight altitude was reduced to 100~300m. During the final stage of the flight, the missile switched on its radar seeker and dives to an altitude of 8m until it hits the target. The single-shot hit probability is estimated to be 90%. Due to its oversized body, the HY-2 did not develop a ship-to-ship variant. The missile is obsolete and will be replaced by the YJ-8 series in the future.

The HY-2 was widely exported to the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, and was the missile most associated with the silkworm nickname.

  • HY-2: Basic variant radar-guidance land-to-ship missile *developed from the HY-1 missile
  • HY-2A: IR-guidance variant
  • HY-2AII: Improved variant of the HY-2A
  • HY-2B: Improved radar-guidance variant with a mono-pulse radar seeker replacing the original conical scanning radar
  • HY-2BII: Improved variant of the HY-2B with a newly designed radar seeker
  • C-201: Export designation for air-launched version.
  • C-201W Extended-range variant powered by a turbojet engine replacing the original liquid-fuel rocket motor. Export only



The HaiYing-3 (HY-3, also known as C-301 in its export name; NATO codename: CSS-C-6 Sawhorse) is the active radar-homing, ramjet-powered supersonic land-to-ship missile developed by China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy (CHETA, also known as 3rd Space Academy). The missile was developed in the 1980s based on the design of the HY-2 (C-201) and the ramjet technology of the cancelled YJ-1 (C-101). The development was completed in the early 1990s but the missile did not enter service.

The HY-3 is a large-size missile with a slim forward body and sharp nose, and a fatter rear half with four solid rocket boosters and two ramjet engines located aft of the missile body. There are a pair of front-canards on the front fuselage, four control surfaces on the rear fuselage, and four smaller stabilising fins attached on the solid rocket boosters. The booster motors accelerate the missile to past Mach 1.8 and the kerosene-fuelled ramjet engines accelerate the missile to a cruise speed of Mach 2.0. Its range is variously reported as up to 130 km, and it can fly as low as 50 m in its terminal attack phase. The missile is programmed to dive from cruising altitude to under 30m before the active-radar terminal phase begins, then dive onto the target just prior to impact.

The 3.5t missile is launched from a land-based launcher. Each firing unit consists of four launchers, a target acquisition radar, a fire-control unit, a power unit, and 8~12 missile reloading vehicle (each with one missile).

  • Length: 9.85m
  • Diameter: 0.76 m
  • Wingspan: 2.24 m
  • Weight: 3,400 kg
  • Warhead: 300~500 kg time-delayed semi-armour-piercing high-explosive
  • Propulsion: Two side-mounted ramjet engines; four solid propellant boost motors
  • Speed: Mach 2.5
  • Range: 180 km
  • Flight altitude: 50 m
  • Guidance: Inertial and terminal active radar


The HY-4 development of the C-201 is a mid-range ground-, air-, and ship-launched cruise missile. Development of the C-201 HY-4 is believed to have started in the mid-1970s, replacing the C-201 HY-2 liquid propellant sustainer motor with a small turbojet engine, and adding a monopulse active radar seeker. Apart from the substitution of the turbojet engine, the overall configuration of the HY-4 variant of the C-201 missile is similar to the HY-2 variants of the C-201, with two delta wings and tri-form rudder and tail. The missile has a radio altimeter which allows the cruise height to be varied between 70 and 200 m altitude, followed by a steep dive onto the target. The air-launched version is designated as C-401

  • Developer: China Sea Eagle Electro-Mechanical Technology Co.
  • Length: 7.36 m
  • Diameter: 0.76 m
  • Wingspan: 2.4 m
  • Weight: 1,740 kg
  • Speed: Mach 0.8 – 0.85
  • Range: 300–500 km
  • Cruising altitude: 8 m
  • Propulsion: one turbojet engine and one solid rocket booster


The FL-series was designed as land-based counterparts to the SY-series, and had a much longer production run than the SY-series. The FL-series was less expensive since it did not have to deal with more demanding conditions at sea. An added benefit was the ability to locate the missiles separately from the targeting and control systems
In military usage, a number of abbreviations in the format C followed by additional letters are used, based on expanded versions of the abbreviation C2 - command and control.C2I stands for command, control, and intelligence....

, which improved survivability and flexibility. The SY-, HY-, and FL-series all shared the same systems.

A supersonic version, the FL-7
In addition to developing the C-101 and C-301 supersonic anti-ship missiles which are fairly large in size, China has developed FL-7 supersonic anti-ship missile which can be carried on airplanes and warships. The Feilong-7 has an effective range of 32 kilometers and a speed of Mach 1.4...

, was also developed but differed significantly from the SY-series and its immediate derivatives.


The FL-1 (NATO designation CSS-NX-1) was a SY-1 with a high-frequency monopulse seeker. It used a radar altimeter to cruise at 30 metres.


The FL-2 anti-ship missiles was the land-based derivative of the SY-2. It was produced at the Nanchang Aircraft Factory (南昌飞机制造厂).


SFQ-1 was an unarmed test vehicle deriative of the Silkworm missile family. The test vehicle was used in the Chinese development of small turbojets that were designed to improve the range of the Chinese anti-ship cruise missiles, as well as powering the experimental versions of land attack YJ-4 cruise missiles. The entire project was reportedly named as Kunpeng (鲲鹏) Project, which first started in the early 1970s. SFQ-1 was specifically developed to test mini turbojet engines WP-11 and FW-41, the Chinese reverse engineered western turojet engines for UAVs and missiles.


YJ-4 is a family of experimental land-attack cruise missiles developed by China in the 1970s and early 1980s. Due to the limitation of Chinese industrial and technological bottleneck at the time, the YJ-4 only entered the Chinese services in extremely limited numbers, mainly serving as a foundation for more successful Chinese cruise missiles developed later, such as Changfeng missile
Changfeng missile
The Chang Feng, or "Long Wind" is a turbojet powered land-attack cruise missile, indigenously developed by China. It is the first domestically produced Chinese land-attack cruise missile, and it is the first land-attack cruise missile to enter service with the People's Liberation Army...

. Two versions of YJ-4 family were developed: YJ-4I, which is also frequently but erroneously referred as YJ-41, and YJ-4II, which is also frequently but erroneously referred as YJ-42. The two missiles only differed in their respective powerplant, YJ-4I was equipped with WP-11, the Chinese version of Turbomeca Marboré
Turbomeca Marboré
|-See also:-References:* Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, England. Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9-External links:* *...

, while the longer ranged YJ-4II was equipped with an engine that was twice powerful, FW-41, the Chinese version of Teledyne CAE J69
Teledyne CAE J69
|-See also:-External links:*...

, reversed engineered from downed American Ryan Firebee
Ryan Firebee
The Ryan Firebee was a series of target drones or unmanned aerial vehicles developed by the Ryan Aeronautical Company beginning in 1951. It was one of the first jet-propelled drones, and one of the most widely-used target drones ever built....



A developed version based on HY-4, known as the XW-41, has been developed. This latest version of the C-201 missile family is said to have a 300 km range with additional GPS/GLONASS
GLONASS , acronym for Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema or Global Navigation Satellite System, is a radio-based satellite navigation system operated for the Russian government by the Russian Space Forces...

 guidance. However, due to the availability of more advanced anti-ship missile with similar range, such as the C-602, the future of XW-41, like others in the Silkworm missile family, is uncertain despite its successful trials. Although still a member of Silkworm missile, the developer considers the missile was different enough to be a listed as a separate category of its own due to the amount of new technologies adopted. After the Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

 ordered 30 of these shore-based version for coastal defense, and accordingly to Jane's Defence Weekly
Jane's Defence Weekly
Jane's Defence Weekly is a weekly magazine reporting on military and corporate affairs, edited by Peter Felstead. It is one of a number of military-related publications named after John F. T. Jane, an Englishman who first published Jane's All the World's Fighting Ships in 1898...

, these missiles are referred by the general name Silkworm missiles, but domestic Chinese sources have claimed that these were XW-41s, though there are reports claiming these missiles are other models of Silkworm series.

YJ-63 (C-603)

XW-41 and its predecessor HY-4 lost their intended market when the wars in middle east ended, so XW-41 was converted to the first indigenously developed air-to-surface precision strike missile. The developmental work begun in the mid-1990s when Sea Eagle Mechanical-Electrical Research Academy (海鹰机电技术研究院) received support of Chinese military and the project was completed in 2002. The resulting new missile was named as YJ-63, also known as C-603. In comparison to XW-41, the original radar guidance was changed to TV guidance. The original inverted Y-configuration of tail control surfaces was changed to X-configuration. Like its predecessor, XW-41, turbojet engine was adopted instead of liquid fuel rocket engine used on HY-2.


Newest version of YJ-63 series that entered service in 2004 - 2005. This land attack version is almost identical to C-603 in appearance, except it has a solid nose instead of a window for TV guidance optronics. The solid nose indicates that the guidance of this air-to-surface missile adopts other means of guidance such as radar, but the exact type remain unknown.


Upgraded version of C-601 and other earlier models of the air-to-surface missiles of Silkworm family. Not all upgrades are necessarily the same due to difference between various versions, but electronics for all versions are upgraded to the latest standard. The seeker of the missile is modernized to include semi-active and passive homing capability, and the missile can be used against coastal ground targets. Cruise altitude is decreased while the range is increased.
  • Range: 200 km
  • Minimum cruise altitude: 20 meter
  • Guidance: active / passive / semi-active homing
  • Seeker: monopulse radar

Operational History

The Silkworm was developed at the Institute of Mechanics under Tsien Hsue-shen
Tsien Hsue-shen
Qian Xuesen was a scientist who made important contributions to the missile and space programs of both the United States and People's Republic of China. Historical documents in the U. S. commonly refer to him with the earlier family-name last spelling, Hsue-Shen Tsien or H.S...

, a Chinese scientist who did his graduate studies at MIT
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research.Founded in 1861 in...

 and Caltech
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering...

, before being deported by the United States in 1955 after being suspected of Communist
Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

 ties. A book about this scientist's life was written by Iris Chang
Iris Chang
Iris Shun-Ru Chang was an American historian and journalist. She is best known for her best-selling 1997 account of the Nanking Massacre, The Rape of Nanking. She committed suicide on November 9, 2004...

, entitled Thread of the Silkworm.

The Silkworm gained fame in the 1980s when it was used by both sides in the Iran–Iraq War; both countries were supplied by China. During 1987, Iran launched a number of Silkworm missiles from the Faw Peninsula vicinity striking the Liberian-flagged tanker Sungari and US flagged tanker Sea Isle City
MV Sea Isle City
MV Sea Isle City, ex-Umm al Maradem, was a Kuwait Oil Company oil tanker that reflagged during Operation Earnest Will. The ship was completed in 1981 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan, as hull number 1867, for the Kuwait Oil Tanker Company....

 in October 1987 and 5 other missiles struck areas in Kuwait earlier in the year. In October 1987, Kuwait's Sea Island off shore oil terminal was hit by an Iranian Silkworm which was observed to have originated from the Faw peninsula. The attack prompted Kuwait to deploy a Hawk missile
MIM-23 Hawk
The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk is a U.S. medium range surface-to-air missile. The Hawk was initially designed to destroy aircraft and was later adapted to destroy other missiles in flight. The missile entered service in 1960, and a program of extensive upgrades has kept it from becoming obsolete. It was...

 battery on Failaka Island
Failaka Island
Failaka Island is an island that belongs to Kuwait in the Persian Gulf. The island is 20 km off the coast of Kuwait City in the Persian Gulf. The name 'Failaka' is thought to be derived from the ancient Greek φυλάκιο - fylakio "outpost"....

 to protect the terminal. In December 1987, another Iranian Silkworm was fired at the terminal, but it struck a decoy barge instead. Prior to these attacks the missile's range was thought to be less than 80 kilometres (49.7 mi), but these attacks proved that the range exceeded 100 kilometres (62.1 mi) with Kuwaiti military observers seeing that the missiles originated from the area and tracking them on radar along with US satellite imagery of the launch sites.

In March 1988, China agreed to stop supplying Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 with HY-2 missiles, though it is reported that supply continued into 1989. Iran has since developed the capability to manufacture these missiles itself.

On February 25, 1991 a shore-based launcher fired two Silkworm missiles at the USS Missouri (BB-63)
USS Missouri (BB-63)
|USS Missouri is a United States Navy Iowa-class battleship, and was the fourth ship of the U.S. Navy to be named in honor of the U.S. state of Missouri...

 which was in company with the USS Jarrett (FFG-33)
USS Jarrett (FFG-33)
, was the twenty-fifth ship of the Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile frigates, was named for Vice Admiral Harry B. Jarrett ....

 and HMS Gloucester
HMS Gloucester (D96)
HMS Gloucester was a Batch 3 Type 42 destroyer of the Royal Navy. The ship was built by Vosper Thorneycroft at Woolston, Southampton and launched on 2 November 1982 by The Duchess of Gloucester. HMS Gloucester was one of the modified last four of the class to be built, having a lengthened hull...

. A Sea Dart missile
Sea Dart missile
Sea Dart or Guided Weapon System 30 is a British surface-to-air missile system designed by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics and built by British Aerospace from 1977...

 from HMS Gloucester shot down one Silkworm and the other missed, crashing into the ocean.

During the 2003 Gulf War, Iraq used the Silkworm as a surface to surface missile by firing at least two of them at the coalition positions in Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...


During the 2006 Lebanon War, it was initially reported that Hezbollah guerillas fired a Silkworm missile at an Israeli warship off the shores of Lebanon. Israeli sources later said that the missile used instead was a more sophisticated Chinese C-701
The C-701 is a Chinese missile that is roughly comparable to the American AGM-65 A/B/D/H Maverick air-to-surface missile. However, the C-701 is smaller and has less than half the weight of the AGM-65 A/B/D/H Maverick.-Design:...

. Notably, Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 and Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 employed Soviet Styx
P-15 Termit
The P-15 Termit is an anti-ship missile developed by the Soviet Union's Raduga design bureau in the 1950s. Its GRAU designation was 4K40, its NATO reporting name was Styx or SS-N-2. In Russian service today it also seems to be called the Rubezh...

 missiles—the Russian-made precursors to the Silkworm—against Israeli warships in both the 1967 War of Attrition
War of Attrition
The international community and both countries attempted to find a diplomatic solution to the conflict. The Jarring Mission of the United Nations was supposed to ensure that the terms of UN Security Council Resolution 242 would be observed, but by late 1970 it was clear that this mission had been...

 following the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
The Six-Day War , also known as the June War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, or Third Arab-Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt , Jordan, and Syria...

 and the 1973 Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

. While the missiles were ineffective during the Battle of Latakia
Battle of Latakia
The Battle of Latakia was a small but revolutionary naval battle of the Yom Kippur War, fought on 7 October 1973, between Israel and Syria. It was the first naval battle in history to see combat between surface-to-surface missile-equipped missile boats and the use of electronic deception.At the...

 in 1973, four Styx missiles sank the Israeli destroyer Eilat
HMS Zealous (R39)
HMS Zealous was a Z-class destroyer of the Royal Navy built in 1944 by Cammell Laird. She served during the Second World War, participating in operations in the North Sea and off the Norwegian coast, before taking part in some of the Arctic convoys...

 in October 1967, marking the first time that ship-to-ship missiles were successfully used in combat.

While it is not a particularly sophisticated missile when compared to newer generations of Anti-Ship missiles such as the French Exocet
The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed wing aircraft. Hundreds were fired in combat during the 1980s.-Etymology:...

, the Silkworm's unusually large warhead ensures that a single hit will inflict very serious damage.


Chinese industrial designation Export type designation NATO reporting name NATO/U.S DOD code Remarks
Shang You (SY-1) FL-1 SCRUBBRUSH CSS-N-1 tbd
Shang You (SY-2) FL-2 SABBOT CSS-N-5 tbd
Hai Ying (HY-1) tbd SAFFLOWER CSS-N-2 ship-launched
Hai Ying (HY-1) tbd SILKWORM CSSC-2/CSS-N-2 land-launched
Hai Ying (HY-2) C-201 SEERSUCKER CSSC-3 land-launched
Hai Ying (HY-3) C-301 SAWHOUSE CSSC-6 land-launched
Hai Ying (HY-4) C-401 SADSACK CSSC-7 land/air-launched
Ying Ji (YJ-4I) not applicable none none land/air-launched
Ying Ji (YJ-4II) not applicable none none land/air-launched


(made under license) (as of Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War , also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and the Fourth Arab-Israeli War, was fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria...

) (as of Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini was an Iranian religious leader and politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran...

's Era) (as of Saddam
Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003...

's Era)

External links

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