Sham, a word found in Arabic, English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

, may refer to:

Arabic use

  • Sham, or Alsahm, the Arabic name for the star Alpha Sagittae
    Alpha Sagittae
    Alpha Sagittae is a star in the constellation Sagitta. It has the traditional name Sham or Alsahm which comes to us from Arabic سهم sahm and means Arrow, the name formerly having been applied to the whole constellation....

  • Sham, (Arabic: شام), al-Sham, or Bilad al-Sham, endonym of the region bordering the eastern Mediterranean Sea
    Mediterranean Sea
    The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant...

    , usually known as the Levant
    The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

     or Greater Syria
    Greater Syria
    Greater Syria , also known simply as Syria, is a term that denotes a region in the Near East bordering the Eastern Mediterranean Sea or the Levant....

    , comprising modern Syria
    Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

    , Lebanon
    Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

    , Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

    , the Palestinian Territories
    Palestinian territories
    The Palestinian territories comprise the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988, the region is today recognized by three-quarters of the world's countries as the State of Palestine or simply Palestine, although this status is not recognized by the...

     and Jordan
    Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

    • ash-Shām, or Sham (الشام), another name for Damascus
      Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

      , the largest city in the region
  • Sham el-Nessim, Egyptian holiday marking the beginning of spring
  • Jund al-Sham
    Jund al-Sham
    Jund al-Sham is a terrorist group believed to have first appeared in Afghanistan in 1999, the group was established by Syrians, Palestinians and Lebanese with links to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who went on to found al-Qaida in Iraq and was subsequently killed by a US airstrike...

    , terrorist group based in Afghanistan
    Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

English use

  • Sham 69
    Sham 69
    Sham 69 is an English punk band that formed in Hersham in 1976.Although not as commercially successful as many of their contemporaries, albeit with a greater number of chart entries, Sham 69 has been a huge musical and lyrical influence on the Oi! and streetpunk genres. The band allegedly derived...

    , English punk band
  • Sam the Sham
    Sam the Sham
    Sam the Sham is the stage name of the American rock and roll singer Domingo “Sam” Samudio . Sam the Sham was known for his camp robe and turban and hauling his equipment in a 1952 Packard hearse with maroon velvet curtains...

    , stage name of US rock singer Domingo “Sam” Samudio
  • Sham, a name for the cover of a pillow
  • Sham-operated group, a control group in laboratory experiments involving surgical procedures
  • Sham election, another name for a Show election
    Show election
    A show election, also known as a sham election or rubber stamp election, is an election that is held purely for show, that is, without any significant political purpose...

  • Sham marriage
    Sham marriage
    A sham marriage or fake marriage is a marriage of convenience entered into with the intent of deceiving public officials or society about its purpose. Arranging or entering into such a marriage to deceive public officials is itself a separate violation of the law of some countries...

    , a marriage entered into with intent to deceive
  • Sham surgery
    Sham surgery
    Sham surgery is a faked operative intervention that omits the step thought to be therapeutically necessary. In controlled studies sham surgery is performed in the control population to assess the effect of the intervention under study by neutralizing the placebo effect and reducing bias...

    , surgery omitting the therapeutic component
  • Sham peer review
    Sham peer review
    Sham peer review or malicious peer review is a name given to the abuse of a medical peer review process to attack a doctor for personal or other non-medical reasons...

    , a fraudulent or malicious form of peer review
  • Sham, a pillow covering similar to a pillowcase

Chinese use

  • Kohn–Sham equations, named after Walter Kohn and Lu Jeu Sham
  • Sham Chun River
    Sham Chun River
    Sham Chun River serves as the natural border between Hong Kong and Mainland China, together with the Sha Tau Kok River....

    , on the border of Hong Kong and mainland China
  • Sham Shui Po District
    Sham Shui Po District
    Sham Shui Po District is one of 18 districts of Hong Kong. It covers the Shek Kip Mei, Sham Shui Po, Cheung Sha Wan, Lai Chi Kok and Yau Yat Chuen areas of New Kowloon, and Stonecutter's Island of Kowloon...

    , a district of Hong Kong
  • Sham Kwok Fai
    Sham Kwok Fai
    Sham Kwok Fai is a Hong Kong international footballer currently playing for Citizen AA in Hong Kong First Division League.He is the elder brother of Sham Kwok Keung, who currently plays for Shatin.-Club: Happy Valley AA...

    , association football player from Hong Kong

Other uses

  • Sham (horse)
    Sham (horse)
    Sham , an American thoroughbred race horse, was one of the fastest horses of the 20th century, but was overshadowed by his larger-than-life peer and half-cousin, Secretariat. He was a dark seal brown in color. While racing, he wore green and yellow blinkers...

    , American Thoroughbred horse born in 1970 who won multiple graded stakes races (name origin unknown)
    • Sham Stakes
      Sham Stakes
      The Sham Stakes is an American Thoroughbred horse race held annually at Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California. The Sham Stakes is open to three-year-olds and is held at one and one-eighth miles on the dirt...

      , a race named for the horse
  • Sham, a character in the X-Men 2099 comic book series (name origin unknown)
  • The acronym SHAM, which is shorthand for Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode, a climate pattern
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