Philippine Airlines
Overview
 
Philippine Airlines, Inc. (abbreviated as PAL and also known historically as Philippine Air Lines) operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank
Philippine National Bank
The Philippine National Bank is one of the largest banks in the Philippines, ranking fourth in terms of assets...

 Financial Center in Pasay City
Pasay City
The City of Pasay is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is bordered on the north by the country's capital, Manila, to the northeast by Makati City, to the east by Taguig City, and Parañaque City to the south.Pasay City was one of the original four...

, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 operating under its original name. Out of its hubs at Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA , also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area...

 of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 and Mactan-Cebu International Airport
Mactan-Cebu International Airport
Mactan-Cebu International Airport is a major international airport in the Visayas region of the Philippines. It is located in Lapu-Lapu City, Mactan Island, Metro Cebu and is the country's second primary gateway...

 of Cebu City
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

, Philippine Airlines serves nineteen destinations in the Philippines and 24 destinations in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

, Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, East Asia
East Asia
East Asia or Eastern Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms...

, Oceania
Oceania
Oceania is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Conceptions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago...

 and North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

.

Formerly one of the largest Asian airlines, PAL was severely affected by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis.
Encyclopedia
Philippine Airlines, Inc. (abbreviated as PAL and also known historically as Philippine Air Lines) operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank
Philippine National Bank
The Philippine National Bank is one of the largest banks in the Philippines, ranking fourth in terms of assets...

 Financial Center in Pasay City
Pasay City
The City of Pasay is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is bordered on the north by the country's capital, Manila, to the northeast by Makati City, to the east by Taguig City, and Parañaque City to the south.Pasay City was one of the original four...

, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 operating under its original name. Out of its hubs at Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA , also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area...

 of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 and Mactan-Cebu International Airport
Mactan-Cebu International Airport
Mactan-Cebu International Airport is a major international airport in the Visayas region of the Philippines. It is located in Lapu-Lapu City, Mactan Island, Metro Cebu and is the country's second primary gateway...

 of Cebu City
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

, Philippine Airlines serves nineteen destinations in the Philippines and 24 destinations in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

, Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, East Asia
East Asia
East Asia or Eastern Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms...

, Oceania
Oceania
Oceania is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Conceptions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago...

 and North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

.

Formerly one of the largest Asian airlines, PAL was severely affected by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. In what was believed to be one of the Philippines' biggest corporate failures, PAL was forced to downsize its international operations by completely cutting operations to Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 and eventually Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, cutting virtually all domestic services excluding routes operated from Manila, reducing the size of its fleet and terminating the jobs of thousands of employees. The airline was placed under receivership
Receivership
In law, receivership is the situation in which an institution or enterprise is being held by a receiver, a person "placed in the custodial responsibility for the property of others, including tangible and intangible assets and rights." The receivership remedy is an equitable remedy that emerged in...

 in 1998, gradually restoring operations to many of the destinations it formerly serviced. PAL exited receivership in 2007 with ambitious plans to further its previously serviced destinations, as well as diversify its fleet.

Philippine Airlines is the only airline in the Philippines to be accredited with the IATA Operational Safety Audit
IATA Operational Safety Audit
The IATA Operational Safety Audit programme is an internationally recognised and accepted evaluation system designed to assess the operational management and control systems of an airline. IOSA uses internationally recognised quality audit principles and is designed to conduct audits in a...

 (IOSA) by the International Air Transport Association
International Air Transport Association
The International Air Transport Association is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. The executive offices are at the Geneva Airport in SwitzerlandIATA's mission is to...

 (IATA) and has been awarded a 3-star rating by the independent research consultancy firm Skytrax
Skytrax
Skytrax is a United Kingdom-based consultancy, the public face of Inflight Research Services, which has the largest airline and airport review and ranking site. It conducts research for commercial airlines...

. Philippine Airlines carried more than 9 million passengers during the 2010-2011 period.

Early beginnings (1935-1959)

  • As Philippine Aerial Taxi Company

On November 14, 1935, Philippine Congress approved the franchise of Philippine Aerial Taxi Company, Incorporated to provide mail, cargo and passenger service particularly in the island of Luzon. The company became dormant for six years on its scheduled passenger operation under its assigned routes.
  • As Philippine Air Lines

On February 26, 1941, Philippine Air Lines, Inc. by a group of businessmen led by Andres Soriano - hailed as one of the Philippines' leading industrialists at the time, who served as its general manager, and former Senator Ramon Fernandez, who served as its chairman and president. Philippine Air Lines, Inc. acquired the franchise of Philippine Aerial Taxi Company, Incorporated, thus the birth of Philippine Airlines.

The airline’s first flight took place on March 15, 1941 with a single Beechcraft Model 18
Beechcraft Model 18
The Beechcraft Model 18, or "Twin Beech", as it is better known, is a 6-11 seat, twin-engine, low-wing, conventional-gear aircraft that was manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas...

 NPC-54 on daily services between Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 (from Nielson Field
Nielson Field
Nielson Field was the location of the Far East Air Force headquarters. Most of the aircraft of the FEAF were based at either Clark Field or Nichols Field.- Laurie Reuben Nielson :...

) and Baguio
Baguio City
The City of Baguio is a highly urbanized city in northern Luzon in the Philippines. Baguio City was established by Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway...

. On July 22, the airline acquired the franchise of the Philippine Aerial Taxi Company. Government investment in September paved the way for its nationalization.

PAL services were interrupted during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, which lasted in the Philippines from late 1941 to 1945. Upon the outbreak of the Pacific War on December 8, 1941, the two Model 18s and their pilots were pressed into military service. They were used to evacuate American fighter pilots to Australia until one was shot down over Mindanao and the other was destroyed on the ground in an air raid in Surabaya
Surabaya
Surabaya is Indonesia's second-largest city with a population of over 2.7 million , and the capital of the province of East Java...

, Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

.

On February 14, 1946, PAL resumed operations after a five-year hiatus with service to 15 domestic points with five Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting impact on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made...

s and a payroll of 108 names. Philippine Airlines returned to its original home, the Nielson Airport in Makati. The airport, heavily damaged during the war, was refurbished and modernized by PAL at a hefty cost of over one million pesos
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

, quickly becoming the official port of entry for air passengers into the Philippines. The airport was operated by Manila International Air Terminal, Inc., a wholly owned PAL subsidiary.

On July 31, 1946, PAL became the first Asian airline to cross the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 when a chartered Douglas DC-4
Douglas DC-4
The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engined propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company. It served during World War II, in the Berlin Airlift and into the 1960s in a military role...

 ferried 40 American servicemen to Oakland
Oakland, California
Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 from Nielson Airport with stops in Guam
Guam
Guam is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is one of five U.S. territories with an established civilian government. Guam is listed as one of 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories by the Special Committee on Decolonization of the United...

, Wake Island
Wake Island
Wake Island is a coral atoll having a coastline of in the North Pacific Ocean, located about two-thirds of the way from Honolulu west to Guam east. It is an unorganized, unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior...

, Johnston Atoll
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Atoll is a atoll in the North Pacific Ocean about west of Hawaii. There are four islands located on the coral reef platform, two natural islands, Johnston Island and Sand Island, which have been expanded by coral dredging, as well as North Island and East Island , an additional two...

 and Honolulu
Honolulu, Hawaii
Honolulu is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Hawaii. Honolulu is the southernmost major U.S. city. Although the name "Honolulu" refers to the urban area on the southeastern shore of the island of Oahu, the city and county government are consolidated as the City and...

. A regular service between Manila and San Francisco
San Francisco, California
San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

 was started in December the same year. It was during this time that the airline was designated as the country’s flag carrier.

PAL commenced service to Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 in 1947 with the acquisition of more Douglas DC-4s. By 1948 PAL had absorbed the only other scheduled airlines in the Philippines, Far Eastern Air Transport and Commercial Air Lines. Following the government's decision to convert Nichols Field
Nichols Field
Nichols Field was a U.S. military airfield located south of Manila in Pasay City and Parañaque City, Metro Manila, Luzon, the Philippines. During the World War II era, it was the location of the Far East Air Force's U.S. 20th Air Base Group. Also, based here was Troop F of the U.S. 26th Cavalry...

 in Pasay City
Pasay City
The City of Pasay is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is bordered on the north by the country's capital, Manila, to the northeast by Makati City, to the east by Taguig City, and Parañaque City to the south.Pasay City was one of the original four...

, the site of a former U.S. Air Force base, into a new international airport for Manila, PAL was required to move its base of operations and passenger terminal there from Nielsen Airport. The transfer was accomplished over a five-month period from January 31 to June 28, 1948, with PAL investing an additional P600,000 in ground installations and improvements to Nichols Field.

In 1951, PAL leased a DC-3 named "Kinsei" to Japan Airlines
Japan Airlines
is an airline headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan. It is the flag carrier of Japan and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport , as well as Nagoya's Chūbu Centrair International Airport and Osaka's Kansai International Airport...

, which led to the founding of the country's own national airline. In 1954, the Philippine government suspended all long-haul international flights, only to resume five years later, when the government decided that it was a matter of national policy. In three years, PAL started services to Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

, and Taipei
Taipei
Taipei City is the capital of the Republic of China and the central city of the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Situated at the northern tip of the island, Taipei is located on the Tamsui River, and is about 25 km southwest of Keelung, its port on the Pacific Ocean...

 using Convair 340s that would later be replaced by the Vickers Viscount 784
Vickers Viscount
The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...

, which brought the airline into the turboprop age.

First expansion and modernization (1960-1989)

In the 1960s, PAL entered the jet age, initially with a lone Boeing 707
Boeing 707
The Boeing 707 is a four-engine narrow-body commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. Its name is most commonly pronounced as "Seven Oh Seven". The first airline to operate the 707 was Pan American World Airways, inaugurating the type's first commercial flight on...

, later replaced with Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

 aircraft leased from KLM Royal Dutch Airlines., used for long-haul international flights to Europe and the United States. The DC-3 remained the mainstay of domestic services as it expanded to a total of 72 points as airports were improved or opened, but most of the airline's rural air service was later stopped in May 1964. Two years later, PAL commenced its first turbojet services to Cebu
Cebu City
The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

, Bacolod
Bacolod City
The City of Bacolod , is a highly urbanized midsize Philippine city. It is the capital of the Negros Occidental province. Having a total of 499,497 inhabitants as of August 1, 2007, it is the most populous city in the Western Visayas Region. It is currently ranked as the 17th most populous city in...

, and Davao
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

 using the BAC1-11
BAC One-Eleven
The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111, BAC-1-11 or BAC 1-11, was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s...

. In addition, PAL was also privatized, as the Philippine government relinquished its share in PAL after Benigno Toda, Jr., then-PAL chairman, acquired a majority stake in the airline.

When President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. was a Filipino leader and an authoritarian President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives and a member of the Philippine Senate...

 declared martial law in 1972, he implemented a one-airline policy. PAL was the lone surviving airline, absorbing Air Manila
Air Manila
Air Manila was a domestic airline in the Philippines. It was based out of Manila and operated propeller aircraft including the Fokker F-27 and Lockheed L-188 Electra....

 and Filipinas Orient Airways
Filipinas Orient Airways
Filipinas Orient Airways Inc. was founded by originally Lebanese refugee family Karam in the Philippines in 1964. Under Republic Act No. 4147 . FOA was granted the franchise to provide air transport service in the Philippines and between the Philippines and other countries on June 20, 1964...

. On March 10, 1973 PAL was re-designated as the national flag carrier. PAL continued its expansion with the arrival of its first Douglas DC-10 in July 1974. Three years later, the Philippine government re-nationalized PAL, with the Government Service Insurance System holding a majority of PAL shares. In 1979, the Boeing 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

, the Boeing 747-200B and the Airbus A300
Airbus A300
The Airbus A300 is a short- to medium-range widebody jet airliner. Launched in 1972 as the world's first twin-engined widebody, it was the first product of Airbus Industrie, a consortium of European aerospace companies, wholly owned today by EADS...

B4, dubbed the "Love Bus", joined the PAL fleet, while the PAL DC-8 fleet was retired.

In 1975 Philippine Airlines was headquartered in the PAL Building in Makati City
Makati City
The City of Makati is one of the 17 cities that make up Metro Manila, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. Makati is the financial center of the Philippines and one of the major financial, commercial and economic hubs in Asia...

.

Between 1979 and 1981, as part of a comprehensive modernization program led by then-PAL President Roman A. Cruz, PAL built a series of mammoth aviation-related facilities around the periphery of the MIA. These included the PAL Technical Center, the PAL Inflight Center, the PAL Data Center and the PAL Aviation School.
On April 2, 1982, a PAL Boeing 747-200B arriving from San Francisco via Honolulu became the first aircraft to dock at the new 800-million peso Terminal 1 of Manila International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA , also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area...

. PAL would later strengthen its cargo-handling capability by building a dedicated cargo terminal building adjacent to the MIA passenger terminal and installing cargo-refrigeration equipment in 1983. The new facilities, which catered mainly to international cargo services, enabled PAL to become a fully equipped cargo handler. Services to Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 and Zürich
Zürich
Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zurich. It is located in central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zurich...

 began in November 1982.

After Cruz's resignation to President Cory Aquino on the last day of the 1986 EDSA Revolution
1986 EDSA Revolution
The People Power Revolution was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines that occurred in 1983-86. The methods used amounted to a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and electoral fraud...

, Dante G. Santos became PAL president. He launched a massive modernization of the domestic fleet with the acquisition of the Short 360, nicknamed the "Sunriser", in May 1987, the Fokker 50 in August 1988 and the Boeing 737-300
Boeing 737 Classic
The Boeing 737 Classic is the name given to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737 following the introduction of the -600/-700/-800/-900 series. They are short- to medium- range, narrow-body jet airliners produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The Classic series was introduced as the 'new...

 jet in August 1989.

As the Manila domestic passenger terminal outgrew its capacity and ramp aircraft parking space became more scarce, PAL leased the hangar of the Philippine Aerospace Development Corporation and converted it into the PAL Domestic Terminal 2. The terminal, which opened in October 1998, exclusively served passengers flying to destinations serviced by PAL's Airbus A300s: namely, Cebu and Davao, with General Santos
General Santos City
The City of General Santos is the southernmost port city of the Philippines. Being a highly urbanized first class city, GenSan is one of the most populous urban centers in the country with a population of 679,588 as per census data of 2010...

 and Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa City
The City of Puerto Princesa is a city located on the western provincial island of Palawan, one of 80 provinces which make up the Philippines...

 added later on. At the same time, PAL also expanded and improved the existing terminal. The opening of the new facility cleared out the old terminal and provided greater convenience to passengers.

Re-privatization and second expansion (1990-1997)

PAL was privatized again in January 1992, when the government sold a 67% share of PAL to a holding company called PR Holdings. However, a conflict as to who would lead PAL led to a compromise in 1993, when former Agriculture Secretary Carlos G. Dominguez was elected PAL president by the airline's board of directors. The fleet of BAC1-11s were retired in May 1992, following completion of the deliveries of Boeing 737s, and the Short 360s in September. In November 1993, PAL acquired its first Boeing 747-400
Boeing 747-400
The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

. The new aircraft arrived at Subic Bay International Airport
Subic Bay International Airport
-Cargo airlines:As of October 2010, there are no cargo airlines operating in Subic Bay International Airport.FedEx Express closed its hub at Subic Bay on February 6, 2009, this was the first hub to be closed in FedEx's history...

 and was carrying then-President Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos , popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.Prior to his election as...

, who was headed home from the United States after an official visit. The 200-ton
Short ton
The short ton is a unit of mass equal to . In the United States it is often called simply ton without distinguishing it from the metric ton or the long ton ; rather, the other two are specifically noted. There are, however, some U.S...

 aircraft, one of the world's largest and most popular long-range aircraft continues to be the mainstay of PAL's trans-Pacific services and its flagship aircraft. A new service between Manila and Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

, launched in 1994, brought to 34 the number of points in PAL's international route network.

The PAL Domestic Terminal 2 was refurbished in 1995, with a number of facilities being added or improved, including a renovated Mabuhay Lounge, an exclusive check-in counter for Mabuhay Class passengers, an Express Counter, refreshment bar, a medical clinic, an expansive waiting lounge and two baggage carousels in the arrival section. PAL facilities at NAIA were also renovated. The total cost for the renovation of the domestic terminal (1 and 2) reached P33.15 million while the NAIA renovation totaled P125 million.

In January 1995, Lucio C. Tan, the majority shareholder of PR Holdings, became the new chairman and CEO of the airline. The delivery of the carrier's fourth Boeing 747-400 in April 1996 signaled the start of an ambitious US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

4 billion modernization and re-fleeting program that aimed to make PAL one of Asia's best airlines within three years. The centerpiece of the program was the acquisition of 36 state-of-the-art aircraft from Airbus and Boeing between 1996 to 1999. The re-fleeting sought to give PAL the distinction of having the youngest fleet in Asia and allow the expansion of its domestic and international route network. The 36 orders of PAL during its re-fleeting program were for eight Boeing 747-400s, four Airbus A340-300s, two Airbus A340-200
Airbus A340
The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

s, eight Airbus A330-300s and twelve Airbus A320-200
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

s. The re-fleeting program enabled PAL to be dubbed the first airline in the world to operate the full range of new-generation Airbus aircraft.

Asian financial crisis (1997-1999)

In 1997, PAL rebranded itself as "Asia's sunniest airline" to cap its new marketing and advertising thrust. In addition to its re-fleeting program, PAL commenced service to New York City (using Newark Liberty International Airport
Newark Liberty International Airport
Newark Liberty International Airport , first named Newark Metropolitan Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international airport within the city limits of both Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey, United States...

) via Vancouver. However, this caused the airline to be financially unstable, having acquired too many aircraft while matching them with unprofitable routes. The re-fleeting program was about halfway through when the full impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis struck the airline industry early in 1998. By 31 March 1999, PAL dismantled its Cebu City hub. With massive lay-offs also taking place, disputes between the airline’s owners and the employee’s union led to a complete shutdown of PAL's operations on September 23, 1998, the first Asian airline to do so and one of the largest corporate failures in Philippine history. Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

 temporarily took over PAL's domestic and international operations during its fourteen-day shutdown, with Cathay Pacific also showing interest in acquiring a 40-percent stake in PAL during this period. However, no agreement was reached.

PAL flew once again on October 7, 1998 after an agreement between PAL employees and top management, reported to be facilitated by then-President Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in...

, was reached, with services to 15 domestic points out of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

. On October 29, the flag carrier resumed international services with flights to Los Angeles and San Francisco, with other international services being restored three weeks later. Asian services resumed on November 11 with flights to Tokyo and Hong Kong. PAL gradually expanded its network over the next two months, restoring services to Taipei, Osaka (via Cebu), Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, Fukuoka
Fukuoka, Fukuoka
is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture and is situated on the northern shore of the island of Kyushu in Japan.Voted number 14 in a 2010 poll of the World's Most Livable Cities, Fukuoka is praised for its green spaces in a metropolitan setting. It is the most populous city in Kyushu, followed by...

, Dhahran
Dhahran
Dhahran is a city located in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province, and is a major administrative center for the Saudi oil industry. Large oil reserves were first identified in the Dhahran area in 1931, and in 1935 Standard Oil of California drilled the first commercially viable oil well...

, Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

 and Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

. With the aviation industry still in the doldrums, PAL continued to search for a strategic partner but in the end, it submitted a "standalone" rehabilitation plan to the SEC on December 7, 1998. The plan provides a sound basis for the airline to undertake a recovery on its own while keeping the door open to the entry of a strategic partner in the future. PAL presented the new proposed rehabilitation plan to its major creditors during a two-week marathon meeting that started on February 15 in Washington D.C. and ended on March 1 in Hong Kong.

In 1999, PAL submitted its amended rehabilitation plan to the Securities and Exchange Commission that comprised a revised business plan and a revised financial restructuring plan. The plan also required the infusion of US$200 million in new equity, with 40% to 60% coming from financial investors and translating to no less than 90% ownership of PAL. That same year, with the unprecedented boom in air travel, PAL operations were moved to the new Centennial Terminal 2 of Ninoy Aquino International Airport, located at the site of the old MIA terminal building. On August 9, 1999, PAL moved selected domestic flights to the P5.3 billion terminal. Full domestic operations operated from the new terminal on August 10, while international services followed soon after, thus consolidating PAL's flight operations in one terminal for the first time.

Receivership and rehabilitation (2000-2008)

In 2000, PAL finally returned to profitability, making some ₱44.2 million in its first year of rehabilitation, breaking some six years of heavy losses. On September 1, 2000, PAL formally handed over its ownership of its maintenance and engineering division to German-led joint venture Lufthansa Technik Philippines (LTP), the world's largest provider of aircraft maintenance services in accordance with the provisions of its rehabilitation plan, which mandates the disposal of the airline's non-core assets. In August of the same year, PAL opened an e-mail booking facility. In 2001, PAL continued to gain a net profit of P419 million in its second year of rehabilitation. In this year alone, PAL restored services to Bangkok, Taipei, Sydney
Sydney
Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

, Busan
Busan
Busan , formerly spelled Pusan is South Korea's second largest metropolis after Seoul, with a population of around 3.6 million. The Metropolitan area population is 4,399,515 as of 2010. It is the largest port city in South Korea and the fifth largest port in the world...

, Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

, Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It is the hub of Greater Vancouver, which, with over 2.3 million residents, is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country,...

 and Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City , formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam...

, while launching new services to Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

 and Melbourne
Melbourne
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

. A year later, PAL restored services to Guam and Tagbilaran
Tagbilaran City
Tagbilaran City is a 2nd class component city in the island province of Bohol, Philippines and serves as its capital. Tagbilaran lies on the southwestern part of the province, and has a total land area of 32.7 km², with about 13 km of coastline...

.

The Mabuhay Miles frequent flyer program was launched in 2002, combining PAL's former frequent flyer programs, PALSmiles, Mabuhay Club, and the Flying Sportsman (now SportsPlus) all into one. The PAL RHUSH (Rapid Handling of Urgent Shipments) Cargo service was also re-launched during the same year. An online arrival and departure facility and a new booking system was then launched in 2003. In December, PAL also acquired a fifth Boeing 747-400.

In 2004, PAL launched services to Las Vegas
Las Vegas, Nevada
Las Vegas is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Nevada and is also the county seat of Clark County, Nevada. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city for gambling, shopping, and fine dining. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, and is famous...

 to mark its 63rd year of service. PAL also returned to Laoag and started services to Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

 on codeshare with Air Macau
Air Macau
Air Macau Company Limited is the flag carrier airline of and headquartered in Macau. The airline operates services to 12 destinations in Mainland China, as well as regional international services, from its hub at Macau International Airport.-History:...

. The airline also saw its return to Europe with the return of the airline to Paris and Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

 on agreements with Air France
Air France
Air France , stylised as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France, , and is one of the world's largest airlines. It is a subsidiary of the Air France-KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance...

 and KLM. Service to Paris, however, was inevitably cut due to the formation of Air France-KLM
Air France-KLM
Air France-KLM is a European airline holding company incorporated under French law with its headquarters at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport in Tremblay-en-France, Paris...

. PAL also continued an overhaul of its fleet with the arrival of two new Airbus A320-214
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

s and continued modernizing its ticketing systems with the launch of electronic ticketing. For the first time in Philippine history, the airline flew President-elect Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

 and Vice-President-elect Noli de Castro
Noli de Castro
Manuel Leuterio de Castro, Jr. , better known as Noli de Castro or "Kabayan" Noli de Castro, was Vice President of the Philippines ....

 to their inauguration in Cebu City. Arroyo rode a chartered PAL Airbus A330-300, while de Castro was aboard a separate Airbus A320-200
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

.

In March 2005, PAL started services to Nagoya and restored scheduled flights to Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 after a 15-year hiatus. In response to rival Cebu Pacific's
Cebu Pacific
Cebu Air, Inc., operating as Cebu Pacific Air, is based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport , Pasay City, Metro Manila, the Philippines. It offers scheduled flights to both domestic and international destinations...

 increasing domestic market share, mainly due to its massive re-fleeting program and its own aging Boeing 737 fleet, PAL signed an agreement for the purchase and lease of up to 18 Airbus A319-112
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

s and A320-214s
Airbus A320
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

 from Airbus and GE Capital Aviation Services (GECAS) on December 6, 2005.

The first brand-new, GECAS-leased Airbus A319-112
Airbus A320 family
The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

s were delivered to and inaugurated by PAL and President Arroyo on October 20, 2006. It was the first aircraft in the airline's history to offer AVOD-capable inflight entertainment. In December, the airline initiated its wide-body re-fleeting program by signing a deal with Boeing for the purchase of two Boeing 777-300ER aircraft to be delivered in 2009, with an option for two more planes in 2011. PAL also signed a separate agreement with GECAS to lease another two Boeing 777-300ER aircraft for delivery in 2010. The purchase of the new 777-300ERs effectively canceled previous orders for new 747-400s, ending the production of said aircraft. PAL later signed a memorandum of understanding that opens the way for the introduction of flights to the southwestern Chinese city of Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

. Service to Chongqing began on March 14, 2008, while service to Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 commenced on March 18, though the routes have been terminated due to the Sichuan earthquake.

The Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities and Exchange Commission (Philippines)
The Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission is a Philippine state commission responsible for securities laws and regulating the securities industry. The SEC is an agency within the Philippine Department of Finance....

, on October 4, 2007, ordered the release of PAL from receivership. This move came nine years after coming within proximity of liquidation amid mounting bills due to the Asian financial crisis. Moments after PAL’s formal exit from rehabilitation, the airline announced plans to attract foreign investments through an international road show to tour around Asia, Europe and North America.

Philippine Airlines was named "Airline Turnaround of the Year" for 2006 and 2007 by the Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation for its "strategic contribution to the aviation industry through a significant transformation by successfully restructuring its operations through innovative cost-cutting measures resulting in operating profits".

Post-receivership and contemporary history (2008-present)

Despites PAL's successfuls exit from receivership, with the downgrading of the standard of Philippine aviation by the United States Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 from Category 1 to Category 2 in January 2008, PAL president Jaime Bautista stated that as a consequence of the downgrading, its 2008 growth targets would be lowered. The FAA decision prevents PAL from increasing its flights to the United States from 33 per week or from switching the type of aircraft used unless the airline undertakes a wet-lease agreement with a different carrier. This is in spite of PAL's efforts to expand its presence in the US market by opening new service to San Diego and Seattle and also restarting service to Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 and later New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, as well as Saipan. It has been announced that the inspection by the FAA will now be in 2010. The Philippine Civil Aviation Authority asked for the delay.

On March 31, 2008, PAL announced that it had ordered nine aircraft from Bombardier Aerospace
Bombardier Aerospace
Bombardier Aerospace is a division of Bombardier Inc. and is the third-largest airplane manufacturer in the world. It is headquartered in Dorval, Quebec, Canada.- History :...

: namely three 50-seater Bombardier Q300 and six 78-seater Bombardier Q400 aircraft at an estimated value of $150 million, all in preparation for the launch of PAL Express
PAL Express
PAL Express was the low-cost regional airline brand of Philippine Airlines. PAL Express operated from Mactan-Cebu International Airport in Cebu City, with smaller operations from PAL's main hub in Manila, flying primarily intra-regional routes in the Visayas and Mindanao, as well as secondary...

, its new regional subsidiary, which was unveiled on April 14, 2008. Using the recently ordered fleet, PAL Express will primarily fly intra-regional routes in the Visayas and Mindanao from Cebu City, as well as secondary routes to smaller airports in island provinces that are not able to accommodate PAL’s regular jet aircraft. The launch of PAL Express is a ground-breaking step for PAL as it not only marks the first time it is launching a sub-brand in its history but also marks the return of turboprop aircraft to the PAL fleet since the Asian financial crisis. PAL Express operations began on May 5, with eight flights daily between Manila and Malay. Hub operations from Cebu City commenced on May 19 with flights between Cebu and five points in the Visayas and Mindanao, while service to other destinations, including many destinations formerly served by PAL prior to the Asian financial crisis, began in June and July 2008.

In March 2010, Philippine Airlines again expanded its route network, resuming services to Riyadh
King Khalid International Airport
King Khalid International Airport is located north of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, designed by the architectural firm HOK.The airport includes the terminals, mosque, the control tower and two parallel runways, each long...

 with a four times weekly Boeing 747 service four years after it was suspended, as well as adding a twice weekly Airbus A330 service to Brisbane
Brisbane Airport
Brisbane Airport is the sole passenger airport serving Brisbane and the third busiest in Australia, after Melbourne and Sydney Airports. Brisbane Airport has won many awards. Located in the suburb with the same name, the airport serves the city of Brisbane and the surrounding metropolitan area...

, however both routes were suspended in 2011.

Boeing 777-300ER

In December 2006, the airline initiated its widebody re-fleeting program by signing a deal with Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

 for the purchase of two Boeing 777-300ER aircraft to be delivered in 2009, with an option to purchase two more planes in 2011. PAL also signed a separate agreement with GECAS to lease another two Boeing 777-300ER aircraft for delivery in 2010. The airline later exercised its options for the two planes. Originally intended for flights to the United States, the FAA category 2 downgrading has made expansion in the US impossible until Philippine aviation is restored to Category 1. They will also use the 777 in the Manila-Vancouver service on flights not continuing to Las Vegas (PR116/117) starting March 28, 2011.

Philippine Airlines' first Boeing 777-300ER first flew on November 2, 2009, and was delivered to Philippine Airlines on November 19, 2009. The second 777 was delivered in January 2010 while 2 more 777s will be delivered in 2012 and 2013. The Boeing 777-300ER features 42 fully flat Business Class
Business class
Business class is a travel class available on many commercial airlines and rail lines, known by brand names which vary by airline or rail company. In the airline industry, it was originally intended as an intermediate level of service between economy class and first class, but many airlines now...

 seats (2-3-2 Layout) and 328 Economy Class
Economy class
__FORCETOC__Economy class, also called coach class , steerage, or standard class, is the lowest class of seating in air travel, rail travel, and sometimes ferry or maritime travel....

 seats (3-4-3 Layout) with a total of 370 seats.

Labor disputes

In July 2010, 25 of Philippine Airlines' pilots resigned and left to seek employment abroad without informing the airline. After calls to return to work by both the airline and Philippine Government, PAL subsequently sought to file charges against the pilots involved for breach of contract. In the same month, PAL announced that it would be outsourcing jobs, with retrenchments resulting. Disputes with flight attendants, ground crew, airport staff as well as reservation agents escalated, with threats of potentially disruptive strike action, which took place in October. On Friday 12 November 2010 the Department of Labor and Employment
Department of Labor and Employment (Philippines)
The Philippines' Department of Labor and Employment is the executive department of the Philippine Government mandated to formulate policies, implement programs and services, and serve as the policy-coordinating arm of the Executive Branch in the field of labor and employment...

 approved the lay-off of 2600 employees of Philippine Airlines.

Corporate management

Philippine Airlines is owned by PAL Holdings , a holding company
Holding company
A holding company is a company or firm that owns other companies' outstanding stock. It usually refers to a company which does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow...

 responsible for the airline's operations. PAL Holdings is in turn part of a group of companies owned by business tycoon Lucio Tan
Lucio Tan
Lucio Tan is a prominent Chinese Filipino business magnate and is one of the most prominent business magnates in the Philippines...

. PAL is the thirteenth-largest corporation in the Philippines in terms of revenue and the twenty-first largest in terms of assets, as stated in the Philippines' Top 500 Largest Corporations of 2005. As of January 2005, PAL employs a total of 7,322 regular employees, including 450 pilots and 1300 cabin crew. PAL is the sixty-first largest airline in the world in terms of revenue passenger kilometers flown, with over 16 million flown for 21 million available seat kilometers, an average load factor of 76 percent.

For the fiscal year ending on March 31, 2007, Philippine Airlines reported a net income of US$140.3 million, the largest profit in its 66-year history. This allowed it to exit receivership in October. PAL had forecast net profit to reach $32.32 million for the fiscal year ending on March 31, 2008, $26.28 million in 2009 and $47.41 million in 2010, but this proved difficult to achieve, with a large loss announced in early 2009 causing some concern.

Major facilities

Philippine Airlines operates several aviation facilities in the Philippines. These include various training facilities for pilots and cabin crew, catering services, as well as a data center and a flight simulator
Flight simulator
A flight simulator is a device that artificially re-creates aircraft flight and various aspects of the flight environment. This includes the equations that govern how aircraft fly, how they react to applications of their controls and other aircraft systems, and how they react to the external...

.

Training facilities

Philippine Airlines maintains training facilities both for its pilots and other crew. This is composed of both the PAL Aviation School, the PAL Technical Center and the PAL Learning Center.

The PAL Aviation School, located within the premises of Diosdado Macapagal International Airport
Diosdado Macapagal International Airport
Diosdado Macapagal International Airport , also called Clark International Airport , is the main airport serving the immediate vicinity of the Clark Freeport Zone and the general area of Angeles City in the Philippines...

, provides flight training for its own operations and as well as for other airlines, the Philippine government and individual students. It currently operates ten Cessna 172
Cessna 172
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seat, single-engine, high-wing fixed-wing aircraft. First flown in 1955 and still in production, more Cessna 172s have been built than any other aircraft.-Design and development:...

Rs and a Piper Seminole for student pilots' training with complete training facilities including simulators for the Boeing 737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

 and for turboprop aircraft. More than 5,000 students graduated from the PAL Aviation School, eventually joining the ranks of pilots at PAL and other airlines.

The PAL Learning Center, located in Manila, serves as the integrated center for Philippine Airlines flight deck crew, cabin crew, catering, technical, ticketing and ground personnel.

PAL flight simulator
Located at the PAL Maintenance Base Complex in Pasay City, the PAL flight simulator, designed to simulate a Boeing 737, can duplicate all flight conditions complete with sound and visual system capability for day, dusk and night operations. Due to PAL removing the 737 series from its fleet, it has placed the flight simulator for sale.

PAL Data Center

Located in Pasay City, the PAL Data Center is the headquarters of the airline's information systems department, communications engineering and information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 hub. The center is the core of the Philippine Airlines' operations, having one of the most extensive computer systems and radio communications networks in the Philippines.

Airport and cargo services

PAL also maintains integrated airport ground handling services, cargo operations and a full catering service for it and other airlines. This is composed of PAL Airport Services, Philippine Airlines Cargo and the PAL Inflight Center.

Based at both the Centennial Terminal (Terminal 2) and International Cargo Terminal of Ninoy Aquino International Airport, PAL Airport Services offers ground handling for seven international airlines calling at Manila, while Philippine Airlines Cargo processes and ships an average of 200 tons of Manila publications and 2 tons of mail daily throughout the country and 368 tons of cargo abroad daily.

Established in 1979, the PAL Inflight Center is the site of fully equipped in-flight kitchens and catering center of Philippine Airlines which also offer catering services for Japan Airlines, China Airlines
China Airlines
China Airlines is both the flag carrier and the largest airline of Republic of China . Although not directly state-owned, the airline is owned by China Airlines Group, which is owned by the China Aviation Development Foundation...

, Korean Air
Korean Air
Korean Air Lines Co., Ltd. , operating as Korean Air, is both the flag carrier and the largest airline of South Korea, with global headquarters located in Seoul, South Korea. Korean Air's international passenger division and related subsidiary cargo division together serve 130 cities in 45...

 and Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines, Inc. was a major United States airline founded in 1926 and absorbed into Delta Air Lines by a merger approved on October 29, 2008, making Delta the largest airline in the world...

, preparing some 6,500 meals daily.

Destinations

Philippine Airlines operates a hub-and-spoke route network out of its two hubs in Manila and Cebu. Virtually all PAL routes are operated from its hubs, with the majority of routes operating from Manila. Domestically, PAL flies to major Philippine cities from Manila and Cebu, while internationally, it flies between Manila (Cebu to a lesser extent) and cities in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean...

 region, the Western United States, Canada and Australia. Many destinations served by PAL, especially destinations in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan and Hong Kong are areas with large overseas Filipino
Overseas Filipino
An Overseas Filipino is a person of Philippine origin who lives outside of the Philippines. This term applies both to people of Filipino ancestry who are citizens or residents of a different country and to those Filipino citizens abroad on a more temporary status.Most overseas Filipinos migrate to...

 populations.

PAL currently operates four non-hub routes, Bangkok-Delhi, Vancouver-Las Vegas, Singapore-Jakarta, and Sydney-Melbourne. In the past, PAL operated a number of domestic and international non-hub routes (most notably Iloilo-General Santos, Vancouver-New York and Zürich-Paris), as well as non-stop services to destinations in Europe and extensive domestic operations; these services were discontinued in light of the Asian financial crisis. Some of its previous domestic operations: namely, service from Manila to Naga, Dumaguete
Dumaguete City
The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. It is the capital, principal seaport, and largest city of the province. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 133,470 people. A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño"...

 and Tuguegarao
Tuguegarao City
Tuguegarao City is the city capital of Cagayan, Philippines and the regional capital of Region 02 . Tuguegarao is the economic center of the Cagayan Valley Region; it is located on a peninsula in the Cagayan Valley. It is sheltered by the Sierra Madre Mountains in the East; Cordilleras in the...

, have been taken over by Airphil Express, while others have been taken over by other airlines or stopped altogether. Service to the Middle East continued after the Asian financial crisis; however, this was also eventually discontinued due to high fuel prices and an oversupply of seats, as well as intense competition from Middle Eastern carriers. PAL discontinued service to Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

, its last Middle Eastern destination, on March 2, 2006 and re-introduced flights again in 2010 but discontinued once again on April 2011, but it maintains code-share agreements with carriers based in that region.

After exiting from receivership, PAL has expressed interest in increasing its frequencies to Canada such as an expansion to Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

 and Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 and introducing flights to Dhaka
Dhaka
Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka Division. Dhaka is a megacity and one of the major cities of South Asia. Located on the banks of the Buriganga River, Dhaka, along with its metropolitan area, had a population of over 15 million in 2010, making it the largest city...

, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

 and Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

  expand its presence in the United States by commencing service to Saipan
Saipan
Saipan is the largest island of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands , a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean with a total area of . The 2000 census population was 62,392...

, Seattle, Dallas and Houston, as well as restore service to New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

, and restoring service to India and Europe, as well as the Middle East. The downgrading of the Philippines' aviation status by the Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

 however has prevented PAL from expanding its coverage in the United States. Because of such, PAL has considered starting services to Perth and Auckland.

On 5 December, Philippine Airlines announced that it would re-introduce services to Brisbane, effective March 2010 with Airbus A330-300 equipment. It's existing services to Sydney and Melbourne would also see an upgrade from Airbus A330-300s to Airbus A340-300 (selected flights to/from Sydney and Melbourne only)

On October 15, 2010, Philippine Airlines announced that its Manila-Brisbane services will be suspended indefinitely as of October 31, with Melbourne bound services reduced from 5 flights per week to just 3 flights per week. Sydney services remain unaltered. The company cited marketing considerations for the suspension of Brisbane services.

The carrier recently re-introduced flights to New Delhi after decades of absence in the Indian subcontinent; there will be 3 direct flights while 3 other flights will stop at Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

's Suvarnabhumi Airport
Suvarnabhumi Airport
Suvarnabhumi Airport , also known as Bangkok International Airport, is an international airport serving Bangkok, Thailand. It was officially opened for limited domestic flight service on 15 September 2006, and opened for most domestic and all international commercial flights on 28 September...

.

Ban from European Union operations

As of 9 September 2010, the airline (along with all airlines certified by the authorities in the Republic of the Philippines) is prohibited from operating within the European Union But in November 2010, EU has raised the possibility of lifting the ban after a revisit from an EU audit team.

Codeshare agreements

Philippine Airlines shares codeshare agreements with the following airlines as of February 2011:
  • Airphil Express (Subsidiary)
  • Cathay Pacific
    Cathay Pacific
    Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

     (Oneworld
    Oneworld
    Oneworld , branded as oneworld, is one of the world's three largest global airline alliances with its central management team, oneworld Management Company, based in New York City, New York, USA. Oneworld was founded in 1999 by American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, Cathay Pacific...

    )
  • Emirates
    Emirates Airline
    Emirates is the airline based in the Emirate of Dubai part of the United Arab Emirates . Based at Dubai International Airport it is the largest airline in the Middle East, operating over 2,400 flights per week, from its hub at Terminal 3, to 111 cities in 62 countries across six continents...

  • Etihad Airways
    Etihad Airways
    Etihad Airways is the flag carrier of the United Arab Emirates. Established in July 2003 and based at Abu Dhabi International Airport, Etihad commenced operations in November 2003....

  • Garuda Indonesia
    Garuda Indonesia
    PT Garuda Indonesia Tbk , publicly known as Garuda Indonesia, is the flag carrier of Indonesia. It is named after the mystical giant bird Garuda of Hinduism and Buddhist mythology. It is headquartered at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, near Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia...

     (future SkyTeam
    SkyTeam
    SkyTeam, branded as SKYTEAM, is an airline alliance with its centralised management team, SkyTeam Central, based at the World Trade Center Schiphol Airport on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands...

     member)
  • Gulf Air
    Gulf Air
    Gulf Air is the principal flag carrier of the Kingdom of Bahrain. Headquartered in Muharraq, adjacent to Bahrain International Airport, the airline operates scheduled services to 45 destinations in 28 countries across Africa, Asia and Europe. Its main base is Bahrain International Airport...

  • Kingfisher Airlines
    Kingfisher Airlines
    Kingfisher Airlines is an airline group based in India. Its head office is Kingfisher House in Vile Parle , Mumbai. Kingfisher Airlines, through its parent company United Breweries Group, has a 50% stake in low-cost carrier Kingfisher Red....

     (future Oneworld
    Oneworld
    Oneworld , branded as oneworld, is one of the world's three largest global airline alliances with its central management team, oneworld Management Company, based in New York City, New York, USA. Oneworld was founded in 1999 by American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, Cathay Pacific...

     member)
  • Malaysia Airlines
    Malaysia Airlines
    Malaysian Airline System Berhad , DBA Malaysia Airlines , is the government-owned flag carrier of Malaysia. Malaysia Airlines operates flights from its home base, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, and its eastern hub in Kota Kinabalu. It has its headquarters on the grounds of Sultan Abdul Aziz...

     (future Oneworld
    Oneworld
    Oneworld , branded as oneworld, is one of the world's three largest global airline alliances with its central management team, oneworld Management Company, based in New York City, New York, USA. Oneworld was founded in 1999 by American Airlines, British Airways, Canadian Airlines, Cathay Pacific...

     member)
  • Qatar Airways
    Qatar Airways
    Qatar Airways Company Q.C.S.C. , operating as Qatar Airways, is the flag carrier of Qatar. Headquartered in the Qatar Airways Tower in Doha, it operates a hub-and-spoke network, linking over 100 international destinations from its base in Doha, using a fleet of over 100 aircraft...

  • Vietnam Airlines
    Vietnam Airlines
    Vietnam Airlines Company Limited, trading as Vietnam Airlines , is the national flag carrier of Vietnam. Founded in 1956 under the name Vietnam Civil Aviation, the airline was established as a state enterprise in April 1989. Vietnam Airlines is headquartered in Long Bien, Hanoi, with hubs at Noi...

     (SkyTeam
    SkyTeam
    SkyTeam, branded as SKYTEAM, is an airline alliance with its centralised management team, SkyTeam Central, based at the World Trade Center Schiphol Airport on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands...

    )

  • Fleet

    As of 26 November 2010, the Philippine Airlines fleet (excluding Airphil Express) consists of the following aircraft with an average age of 8.9 years: The Philippine airlines Boeing customer code is 'F6'. Any aircraft purchased directly from Boeing will feature this code. For example, Boeing 747-400 will become 747-4F6.

    Philippine Airlines fleet
    Aircraft Total Orders Options Passengers Routes Notes
    C Y Total
    Airbus A319-100
    Airbus A320 family
    The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

    4 0 0 8 126 134 Short haul
    Asia, Domestic
    All fitted with new interior
    Mabuhay class has IFE with AVOD
    Leased from GECAS
    Airbus A320-200
    Airbus A320 family
    The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

    13 0 4 12
    12
    138
    144
    150
    156
    Short haul
    Asia, Guam, Domestic
    Newer aircraft have been fitted with new interior and Mabuhay Class with IFE/AVOD.
    Seven leased from GECAS
    Airbus A330-300 8 0 0 42 260 302 Short- to medium-haul international and domestic
    Asia, Hawaii
    Airbus A340-300 4 0 0 44 220 264 Short- to long-haul international and domestic
    Asia, North America, Australia
    All aircraft are now scheduled to complete refitted cabins with new long-haul product.
    Boeing 747-400
    Boeing 747
    The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

    5 0 0 42
    44
    56
    383
    383
    335
    425
    427
    391
    Short- to long-haul international and domestic
    Asia, North America
    All aircraft are fitted with new long-haul product.
    Six business class seats removed from RP-C8168.
    Boeing 777-300ER 2 4 0 42 328 370 Short- to long-haul international and domestic
    Asia, North America
    Fitted with new long-haul product.
    The delivery of the four additional aircraft is based on whether Category II status of the Philippines is raised to Category I
    Total 36 4 4


    Future fleet

    In May 2006, Philippine Airlines announced its medium-term fleet plan, covering fiscal years 2006 to 2011. The plan aims to increase and/or replace the current fleet with new additional aircraft for a complete fleet of 43 wide and narrow bodied aircraft at the culmination of the re-fleeting and expansion program. A major overhaul of the narrow-bodied fleet includes the phase-out of all remaining Boeing 737 aircraft by October 2007, maintaining instead a fleet of 20 brand-new Airbus A320 family
    Airbus A320 family
    The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus Industrie.Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies, and is now fully owned by EADS. Airbus's name has been Airbus SAS since 2001...

     aircraft from 2008 onwards. The wide-body fleet plan also seeks to increase the current medium-haul fleet of eight Airbus A330-300 aircraft with two additional aircraft between 2007 and 2009, and the long-haul fleet of five Boeing 747-400 and four Airbus A340-300
    Airbus A340
    The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

     with six additional aircraft between 2007 and 2011.

    On December 6, 2006, PAL signed an agreement with Boeing for two Boeing 777-300ER
    Boeing 777
    The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

     aircraft, with a purchase agreement for two more aircraft. A separate agreement to lease two additional 777-300ERs from General Electric Capital Aviation Services (GECAS) was signed as well. In May 2007, PAL exercised its rights to purchase an additional two 777-300ERs for delivery in 2011. The first 777 delivered in November 2009 and the 2nd 777 delivered in January 2010 are leased. The four 777s that were directly purchased and were slated for delivery starting 2011 were deferred to 2012 and 2013 following mounting losses and uncertainty over the return to a Category 1 rating.

    As part of its domestic expansion plan, PAL has also acquired a fleet of nine Bombardier Dash 8 aircraft, three Q300s and six Q400s, for the use of PAL Express. Likewise, Philippine Airlines has also shown interest in acquiring next-generation aircraft such as the Airbus A350
    Airbus A350
    The Airbus A350 is a family of long-range, wide-body jet airliners under development by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.A consortium originally comprising European aerospace companies from the UK, France, Spain and West Germany, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known...

    , the Airbus A380
    Airbus A380
    The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

    , the Boeing 747-8
    Boeing 747-8
    The Boeing 747-8 is a wide-body jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Officially announced in 2005, the 747-8 is the fourth-generation Boeing 747 version, with lengthened fuselage, redesigned wings and improved efficiency...

     Intercontinental and the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, as well as the Boeing 767
    Boeing 767
    The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

     to augment its medium to long haul routes. Currently Philippine Airlines is in negotiations with Airbus towards twelve Airbus A350-900
    Airbus A350
    The Airbus A350 is a family of long-range, wide-body jet airliners under development by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.A consortium originally comprising European aerospace companies from the UK, France, Spain and West Germany, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known...

     to replace the A330-300s and the A340-300s.

    PAL President Jaime Bautista has expressed interest to replace its 747-400s by 2015 and is highly considering the Airbus A380. Rumors has it that PAL may buy two Airbus A380s and lease two more for its expansion in United States soil, but an official announcement has yet to be made. The Airbus A380 will complement its upcoming Boeing 777-300ER in U.S. and Canada routes. As of this moment, studies are being done for a possible A380 order by 2009 or 2010 to be delivered by 2014.

    Former fleet

    • Airbus A300B4
    • Airbus A340-200
      Airbus A340
      The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engine wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner. Developed by Airbus Industrie,A consortium of European aerospace companies, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known as Airbus SAS. a consortium of European aerospace companies, which is...

    • BAC One-Eleven Series 400
      BAC One-Eleven
      The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111, BAC-1-11 or BAC 1-11, was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s...

    • BAC One-Eleven Series 500
      BAC One-Eleven
      The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111, BAC-1-11 or BAC 1-11, was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s...

    • Beech Model 17
      Beechcraft Staggerwing
      The Beechcraft Model 17 Staggerwing is an American biplane with an atypical negative stagger , that first flew in 1932.-Development:...

    • Beech Model 18
    • Boeing 707
      Boeing 707
      The Boeing 707 is a four-engine narrow-body commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. Its name is most commonly pronounced as "Seven Oh Seven". The first airline to operate the 707 was Pan American World Airways, inaugurating the type's first commercial flight on...

    • Boeing 727-100
    • Boeing 737-300
      Boeing 737 Classic
      The Boeing 737 Classic is the name given to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737 following the introduction of the -600/-700/-800/-900 series. They are short- to medium- range, narrow-body jet airliners produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The Classic series was introduced as the 'new...

    • Boeing 737-400
      Boeing 737 Classic
      The Boeing 737 Classic is the name given to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737 following the introduction of the -600/-700/-800/-900 series. They are short- to medium- range, narrow-body jet airliners produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The Classic series was introduced as the 'new...

    • Boeing 747-200B
      Boeing 747
      The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

    • Convair 340
    • De Havilland DHC-3 Otter
      De Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter
      The de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter is a single-engined, high-wing, propeller-driven, STOL aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada. It was conceived to be capable of performing the same roles as the earlier and highly successful Beaver, but was overall a larger aircraft.-Design and...

    • Douglas DC-3
      Douglas DC-3
      The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting impact on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made...

  • Douglas DC-4
    Douglas DC-4
    The Douglas DC-4 is a four-engined propeller-driven airliner developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company. It served during World War II, in the Berlin Airlift and into the 1960s in a military role...

  • Douglas DC-6
    Douglas DC-6
    The Douglas DC-6 is a piston-powered airliner and transport aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1946 to 1958. Originally intended as a military transport near the end of World War II, it was reworked after the war to compete with the Lockheed Constellation in the long-range...

  • Douglas DC-8
    Douglas DC-8
    The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined narrow-body passenger commercial jet airliner, manufactured from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company...

  • McDonnell Douglas DC-10
    McDonnell Douglas DC-10
    The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine widebody jet airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The DC-10 has range for medium- to long-haul flights, capable of carrying a maximum 380 passengers. Its most distinguishing feature is the two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a...

  • Fokker 27
    Fokker F27
    The Fokker F27 Friendship is a turboprop airliner designed and built by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker.-Design and development:Design of the Fokker F27 started in the 1950s as a replacement to the successful Douglas DC-3 airliner...

  • Fokker 50
  • Hiller UH-12
  • Hawker Siddeley HS 748
  • McDonnell Douglas MD-11
    McDonnell Douglas MD-11
    The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is a three-engine medium- to long-range widebody jet airliner, manufactured by McDonnell Douglas and, later, by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Based on the DC-10, it features a stretched fuselage, increased wingspan with winglets, refined airfoils on the wing and smaller...

    (Leased from World Airways
    World Airways
    World Airways, Inc. is an American airline headquartered at the HLH Building in Peachtree City, Georgia. For the most part, the company operates non-scheduled services. Its main aircraft and maintenance base is Tampa International Airport.-History:...

    )
  • NAMC YS-11
    NAMC YS-11
    The NAMC YS-11 is a turboprop airliner built by a Japanese consortium, the Nihon Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. The program was initiated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1954, the aircraft was rolled out in 1962, and production ceased in 1974.-Development and design:In...

  • Noorduyn Norseman C-64
    Noorduyn Norseman
    The Noorduyn Norseman is a Canadian single-engine bush plane designed to operate from unimproved surfaces. Norseman aircraft are known to have been registered and/or operated in 68 countries throughout the world and also have been based and flown in the Arctic and Antarctic regions.-Design and...

  • Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer II
    Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer
    |-See also:-Bibliography:*Green, William. Macdonald Aircraft Handbook. London. Macdonald & Co. Ltd., 1964.*Donald, David, ed. The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X....

  • Shorts SD360
  • Vickers Viscount 784
    Vickers Viscount
    The Vickers Viscount was a British medium-range turboprop airliner first flown in 1948 by Vickers-Armstrongs, making it the first such aircraft to enter service in the world...


  • Fleet maintenance

    The entire Philippine Airlines fleet of Airbus
    Airbus
    Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

     and Boeing
    Boeing
    The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

     jets were formerly maintained in-house at the PAL Technical Center, which consists of two hangars which contain an engine overhaul shop, two engine test cells and test shops. The responsibility of maintaining the fleet, as well as all the facilities, was subsequently transferred in 2000 to Lufthansa Technik Philippines (LTP), a joint venture of Hamburg-based Lufthansa Technik AG, a leading maintenance provider in aircraft maintenance, repair and overhaul, and Macro Asia Corporation, one of the Philippines' leading providers of aviation support services and catering for foreign airlines, owned by Lucio Tan, the majority owner of PAL. LTP currently maintains a four-bay hangar and workshops occupying 110,000 square meters in Manila’s Ninoy Aquino International Airport.

    Logo

    The Philippine Airlines logo has gone under four incarnations in the entire length of its operations. The first logo incorporated a blue oval with "PAL" superimposed in white letters, a four-pointed star whose points intersect behind the "A" in the PAL initials, and a wing whose position varied depending on the location of the logo (the wing points to the right if located on the left side of the plane, left if on the right side). A variant of this logo used a globe instead in the blue oval with the PAL initials superimposed. This logo would be in use from the 1950s until the mid-1960s, when it would be replaced by a second logo.

    The second logo adopted a blue triangle (with the bottom point missing) and a red triangle superimposed upon it, enclosed by a circle. In the mid-1970s, a third logo, which removed the circle, was introduced. The typeface used in the third logo was later applied to the second logo, which remained the official PAL logo until 1986, when it would be replaced by its current logo.

    The current PAL logo features the same two blue and red triangles used in the second and third logos. However, a yellow sun, reminiscent of the flag of the Philippines
    Flag of the Philippines
    The national flag of the Philippines is a horizontal flag bicolor with equal bands of royal blue and scarlet red, and with a white equilateral triangle at the hoist; in the center of the triangle is a golden yellow sun with eight primary rays, each containing three individual rays, which represent...

    , was superimposed on top of the blue triangle, and a new Helvetica
    Helvetica
    Helvetica is a widely used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with Eduard Hoffmann.-Visual distinctive characteristics:Characteristics of this typeface are:lower case:square dot over the letter i....

     typeface was used.

    Livery

    PAL liveries have undergone many incarnations. The first PAL aircraft bore a simple white-top, silver-bottom livery separated by solid straight cheatlines, with a small Philippine flag superimposed on the tail. The name "Philippine Air Lines" was superimposed in the upper forward portion of the fuselage and the PAL logo was located in the back. Later variants of the livery, especially on PAL jet aircraft, made use of an extended Philippine flag as cheatlines, with the PAL logo superimposed on the tail. By this time, the name "Philippine Airlines" was used in the livery.

    Another variant of the original livery used by PAL is somewhat similar to the current livery used today. However, it uses PAL's third logo on the tail with blue, white and red cheatlines running the center of the fuselage. Later on, the bottom half of the fuselage was also painted white.

    The current "Eurowhite" livery, first used with the Short 360, was adopted in 1986 following PAL's corporate rebranding. This livery, (designed by Landor Associates
    Landor Associates
    Landor Associates is a San Francisco-based brand and creative design consultancy. Founded by Walter Landor and his wife Josephine in 1941, Landor pioneered many of the research, design and consulting methodologies that are now standard in the branding industry.-Operations:Landor offers brand...

    ) has the name "Philippines" superimposed on the forward portion of the fuselage in italics (using the PAL logo typeface), while the tail is painted with the logo and the Philippine flag is visible near the rear of the aircraft. The PAL logo is also painted on the winglets of aircraft that feature them. The name "Philippines" was used instead of "Philippine Airlines" to denote that PAL is the primary flag carrier of the Philippines. However, this has led to confusion, leading some to believe that a PAL plane, especially when chartered by the President
    President of the Philippines
    The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

     for official or state visits, is in fact the Philippine "Air Force One".

    Slogans and advertising

    • Mabuhay
    • Asia's First Airline
    • Welcome Aboard the Philippines
    • Shining Through - concurrent with the slogan The beauty of the Philippines that heavily promoted Philippines as a tourist destination. The TV advertisement clip won a finalist in Clio Awards.
    • Pilipino, Para sa Pilipino (Filipino, for the Filipino)
    • On the Wings of Change
    • Asia's Sunniest
    • With You All the Way
    • It's About Experience - introduced after its 60th Anniversary. It attempts to highlight the fact that PAL is the first and longest-serving airline in Asia under its original name. The slogan was also used in the airline's ad spot featuring Kevyn Lettau, which incidentally featured her song, "Sunlight."
    • Love at Thirty Thousand Feet is the de facto theme song of the airline. It was composed by Jose Mari Chan
      José Mari Chan
      Jose Mari Chan is a Chinese Filipino singer, songwriter and businessman in the sugar industry. He was born in Iloilo City on March 11, 1945. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Economics from the Ateneo de Manila University in 1967...

       and is still being used today. The song has many variations, including a version for the PAL's Swingaround tour package advertisement.
    • Clearly no. 1
    • With us, You're always no. 1
    • Asia's First, Shining Through - introduced for PAL's 70th anniversary, it combines two previous PAL slogans: Asia's First Airline and Shining Through.

    Mabuhay Miles

    Mabuhay Miles is the Philippine Airlines frequent flyer program
    Frequent flyer program
    A frequent flyer program is a loyalty program offered by many airlines. Typically, airline customers enrolled in the program accumulate frequent flyer miles corresponding to the distance flown on that airline or its partners. There are other ways to accumulate miles...

    . It was established in 2002 by merging all existing PAL frequent flyer programs prior to the Asian financial crisis: namely, PALsmiles, the Mabuhay Club and the Flying Sportsman, with PALsmiles and Mabuhay Club members being moved to the new program on August 1, 2002. The Flying Sportsman program was subsequently transformed into SportsPlus, a three-tiered, subscription-based program which gives extra baggage allocations for sports equipment on PAL flights, aimed specifically at golfers, bowlers, scuba divers, tennis and badminton players, anglers and cyclists. The SportsPlus program is available only to Mabuhay Miles base members, as Mabuhay Miles members on higher membership tiers automatically receive SportsPlus privileges.

    Mabuhay Miles members earn miles that can be redeemed at face value on most Philippine Airlines-operated flights, as well as on code-shared routes of partner airlines. Some promotional fares and all flights operated by Airphil Express, however, are ineligible to earn miles. Miles may also be earned by patronizing the services of Mabuhay Miles partners, or by purchasing miles. Membership tiers include Mabuhay Miles Base, Elite, Premium Elite and Million Miler.

    Mabuhay Miles Tiers
    Tier Level Benefits Requirements
    Base
    • Redeemable free flights and service class upgrades
    1,000 Miles on eligible published fares with Philippine Airlines and partners.
    Elite
  • 25% bonus on actual miles flown for all flights on Philippine Airlines
  • Mabuhay Lounge access and participating VIP lounges
  • Priority reservation waitlist
  • Priority check-in, boarding, luggage handling
  • Priority airport standby (higher priority for a seat on the next available flight in case of flight cancellations)
  • Additional luggage allowance of ten kilograms flying on Philippine Airlines-operated flights (except to/from the United States and Canada)
  • SportsPlus Global and partner privileges
  • 25000 miles (40,233.5 km) or
    30 one way segments in Fiesta class or
    15 one way segments in First or Mabuhay class within a calendar year
    Premier Elite
  • Receive all the benefits of Mabuhay Miles Elite
  • 75% bonus on actual miles flown traveling to and from the United States and Canada on Philippine Airlines
  • For all other flights on Philippine Airlines, a 25% bonus on actual miles flown
  • Receive 2 upgrade travel certificates
  • Invite a traveling companion to the Mabuhay Lounge
  • 45000 miles (72,420.3 km) or
    50 one way segments in Fiesta class or
    25 one way segments in First or Mabuhay class within a calendar year
    Million Miler
  • Receive all the benefits of Mabuhay Miles Premier Elite
  • Lifetime Premier Elite Membership
  • Highest level of priority and recognition
  • 1000000 miles (1,609,340 km) accumulated from the beginning of one's membership



    As of October 22, 2004, Philippine Airlines has 27 Million Milers.

    Mabuhay Lounge and partner lounges

    The Mabuhay Lounge is Philippine Airlines' airport lounge
    Airport lounge
    An airport lounge is a lounge owned by a particular airline . Many offer private meeting rooms, phone, fax, wireless and Internet access and other business services, along with provisions to enhance comfort such as free drinks and snacks...

    , serving passengers flying Mabuhay Class on Philippine Airlines flights, as well as members of the Mabuhay Miles Elite and Premier Elite membership tiers (except Econolight ticket holders). There are twelve Mabuhay Lounges, with one each in Bacolod-Silay, Iloilo
    Iloilo International Airport
    Iloilo International Airport is the airport serving the general area of Iloilo City, the capital city of the province of Iloilo and the regional center of the Western Visayas region in the Philippines...

     and General Santos City
    General Santos International Airport
    General Santos International Airport is an alternate international airport located in General Santos City, Philippines serving the greater area of SOCCSKSARGEN...

     in the Philippines, and in Honolulu
    Honolulu International Airport
    Honolulu International Airport is the principal aviation gateway of the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawaii and is identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States, with traffic now exceeding 21 million passengers a year and rising.It is located in the Honolulu...

    , Los Angeles
    Los Angeles International Airport
    Los Angeles International Airport is the primary airport serving the Greater Los Angeles Area, the second-most populated metropolitan area in the United States. It is most often referred to by its IATA airport code LAX, with the letters pronounced individually...

     and San Francisco
    San Francisco International Airport
    San Francisco International Airport is a major international airport located south of downtown San Francisco, California, United States, near the cities of Millbrae and San Bruno in unincorporated San Mateo County. It is often referred to as SFO...

     internationally. There are two lounges at PAL's hubs in Manila and Cebu City, as well as in Davao City
    Francisco Bangoy International Airport
    Francisco Bangoy International Airport , also called Davao International Airport , is the main airport serving Davao City in the Philippines. It is the busiest airport in the island of Mindanao...

    , with each lounge respectively catering to PAL's domestic and international passengers.

    All Mabuhay Lounges offer light meals and refreshments. At the Mabuhay Lounges in Manila and Cebu City, as well as in Bacolod and Iloilo, amenities include large plasma-screen televisions, a business center equipped with telephones, a fax machine and personal computers with free, unlimited Internet access, as well as massage services. Wi-Fi internet service is available exclusively at the Mabuhay Lounges in Manila and Cebu City.

    Passengers at other airports can avail of similar facilities at partner lounges. Some of them include the CNAC Lounge at Hong Kong International Airport, the Air New Zealand lounge at Melbourne Airport
    Melbourne Airport
    Melbourne Airport , also known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne and the second busiest in Australia. It was opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the sole international airport of the four airports serving the...

     and SATS Lounge at Singapore's Changi Airport.

    Cabin service

    Philippine Airlines currently offers two-class services on all aircraft. The airline's inflight magazine, Mabuhay, is available in all classes. In 2006, in commemoration with the 60th anniversary of the First Transpacific Crossing by an Asian Airline, Philippine Airlines launched One by One in its First Class and Mabuhay Class service onboard transpacific flights. The new inflight meal service method recreates the "A la Carte" service where passengers can select their own meal from a variety of choices. "On Demand" service allows passengers to partake of their meals anytime during the flight.

    Mabuhay Class (Business class)

    Mabuhay Class seats, available on all aircraft, offer increased legroom, advanced seat ergonomics and personal screens (older A320-200s do not feature personal screens and instead they have drop-down LCD screens). The food service offers a full-course selection of Western, Filipino and Japanese Kaiseki dishes (the latter is offered on Japan-bound flights). A written menu is provided and orders are taken before take-off. Currently, Philippine Airlines is the only local carrier to offer business class on domestic flights.

    Newly refurbished Boeing 747-400
    Boeing 747-400
    The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

    s, except for RP-C8168, and the new Boeing 777-300ER feature 42 (B744) or 56 (B777) lie-flat business class seats manufactured by Recaro
    Recaro
    RECARO GmbH & Co. KG, commonly known as Recaro, is a German company based in Kirchheim unter Teck in the vicinity of Stuttgart, known for their automobile bucket seats...

    . Arranged in 2-2 or 2-3-2 configurations, seats have a pitch of at least 60 inches. Seats are upholstered in blue with silver-copper accents and feature 15 inches (38.1 cm) personal screens with AVOD (bulkhead and exit row seats feature 10.6 inches (26.9 cm) personal screens), as well as in-seat power. The new 777-300s feature a USB port where passengers can plug-in their flash drives to listen to music from their personal collection on the aircraft's IFE system. Amenity kits with toothpaste, hairbrush, knitted socks, slumber mask and toiletries from BVLGARI are provided on long-haul flights, regardless of aircraft.

    On other wide-body aircraft such as the A340-300, the older First Class cabin with seat pitch of 82 inches (208.3 cm) is sold as Mabuhay Class, alongside other recliner seats with seat pitch of 50 inches (127 cm). There are personal screens but the programming is not AVOD.

    Mabuhay Class seats on recently delivered narrow-body aircraft are recliners with a seat pitch of 39 inches (99.1 cm). The cabins also feature Audio-Video On Demand, and laptop power supply.

    Fiesta Class (Economy class)

    On long-haul flights, a basic amenity kit with toothpaste, slumber mask and socks is distributed to passengers. Similar to economy class seats in other carriers, the passenger's footrests and tray tables are found in the seat in front of them except for bulkhead and exit seats, where the tray tables are embedded in the seats and footrests are on the floor. A319-100s and A320-200s have drop down overhead LCD screens. All aircraft in the mainline fleet feature audio entertainment to Fiesta Class passengers.

    Newly refurbished Boeing 747-400s and brand-new Boeing 777-300s feature a new economy class product also manufactured by Recaro and Weber respectively. Their seats offer a pitch of between 32 and 34 inches and they are upholstered in blue with silver-copper accents. The new economy class offers AVOD and each seat is equipped with 9 inches (228.6 mm) monitors, mounted either on the seatbacks or armrests (for bulkhead and exit row seats). The new Boeing 777-300s in economy class also feature a USB port that allows passengers to charge portable devices such as their iPOD. Although other widebody aircraft have nearly the same amount of pitch as that in the refurbished Boeing 747s and 777s, there are no in-seat video monitors installed.

    In late 2008, Philippine Airlines introduced Econolight, which is its no-frills economy class product. Passengers can travel on domestic and selected regional routes for round-trip fares as low as P
    Philippine peso
    The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

    488 (for domestic routes) and US$48 (for regional routes; excluding taxes and other fees). While the seat used is the same as PAL's full-service Fiesta Class, at the time of launch, food and headsets were not provided and they had to sit at the back of the aircraft. No physical barriers (i.e. walls or curtains) separate Econolight passengers from full-service Economy class passengers; instead, Econolight passengers were identified with a sticker attached to their seat. However, in November 2009, Econolight was enhanced to provide meals and passengers may already choose their seats at check-in. Still, passengers requiring special assistance may not be handled properly. The inclusion of meals and seat assignments came at the expense of raising the base fares to almost double what it was when it launched. Other restrictions such as the lack of check-through facilities and lounge access for high-tier Mabuhay Miles members still remain though.

    Cabin modernization plan

    In the second half of 2006, PAL announced a cabin reconfiguration project for its Boeing 747-400
    Boeing 747-400
    The Boeing 747-400 is a major development and the best-selling model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. While retaining the four-engine wide-body layout of its predecessors, the 747-400 embodies numerous technological and structural changes to produce a more efficient airframe...

     and Airbus A340-300 aircraft. The airline is spending USD$85.7 million to remove the first-class section and increase the size of its business featuring cocoon-type lie-flat seats and economy cabins. Also, personal screens with AVOD will be made available comprehensively across both cabin classes. The cabin reconfiguration project began in the third quarter of 2008. The first 747-400 reconfigured plane (RP-C7471) re-entered into service late October 2008. The second reconfigured plane (RP-C7475) was completed in May 2009, and the third (RP-C7472) was completed July 2009. The fourth plane began reconfigured work in early August. Reconfiguration of the carrier's 4 Airbus A340s has been put on hold until further notice as no word has been given on the matter.

    Incidents and accidents

    Although Philippine Airlines aircraft have been involved in a string of accidents since its founding in 1941, the majority of airline accidents have occurred with propeller aircraft during the early years of operations. Few PAL jet aircraft have been involved in accidents, the most notable being the explosion onboard Philippine Airlines Flight 434
    Philippine Airlines Flight 434
    Philippine Airlines Flight 434 was the route designator of a flight from Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Pasay City, the Philippines, to New Tokyo International Airport , Narita near Tokyo, Japan, with one stop at Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Cebu, the Philippines.On December 11, 1994...

    , masterminded by al-Qaeda
    Al-Qaeda
    Al-Qaeda is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist organization founded by Osama bin Laden sometime between August 1988 and late 1989. It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless army and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad...

     and precursor to the ill-fated Project Bojinka.

    Despite this, PAL is known for being the only airline in the Philippines to be accredited by the International Air Transport Association
    International Air Transport Association
    The International Air Transport Association is an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the International Civil Aviation Organization is also headquartered. The executive offices are at the Geneva Airport in SwitzerlandIATA's mission is to...

     with passing the IATA Operational Safety Audit
    IATA Operational Safety Audit
    The IATA Operational Safety Audit programme is an internationally recognised and accepted evaluation system designed to assess the operational management and control systems of an airline. IOSA uses internationally recognised quality audit principles and is designed to conduct audits in a...

     (IOSA), having been accredited in February 2007.
    Source: Philippine Airlines Accidents and Incidents, Aviation safety Network.

    Hijackings

    • On December 30, 1952, after takeoff from Laoag an armed man forced his way into the cockpit. He pulled .45-caliber pistol and demanded that the plane be brought to Amoy, in mainland China. The captain took over control from the co-pilot and put the plane into a steep dive. The hijacker did not lose his balance and instead shot and killed the captain. The co-pilot took over control and meanwhile the steward had come up to the cockpit to find out what was going on. As he knocked, the hijacker shot him twice through the cockpit door, killing him. The co-pilot changed course to China and continued at 6000 feet (1,828.8 m) over the China Sea until two Chinese Nationalists T-6 Harvard planes showed up. Both planes chased the DC-3 and sprayed machine gun fire. The pilot managed to escape until he met with other Nationalist planes, who forced the flight to land at Quemoy. At Quemoy the hijacker was arrested.
    • On November 6, 1968, four hijackers demanded money.
    • On 30 March 1971, six hijackers attempted to hijack a Philippines Airlines BAC One-Eleven in Guangzhou, China.
    • On 11 October 1973, three hijackers surrendered after attempting to hijack a Philippines Airlines BAC One-Eleven in Hong Kong, China.
    • On February 25, 1975, Two hijackers attempted to hijack a Philippines Airlines BAC One-Eleven bound from Davao to Manila. Hijackers surrendered.
    • On October 7, 1975, One hijacker on a Philippines Airlines BAC One-Eleven bound from Davao to Manila demanded to be taken to Libya. Hijacker surrendered.
    • On April 7, 1976, a BAC 1-11 was hijacked by rebels for seven days, demanding money and the release of imprisoned rebels. The aircraft ended up in Benghazi
      Benghazi
      Benghazi is the second largest city in Libya, the main city of the Cyrenaica region , and the former provisional capital of the National Transitional Council. The wider metropolitan area is also a district of Libya...

      , Libya
      Libya
      Libya is an African country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west....

      .
    • On May 23, 1976, Philippine Airlines Flight 116, a BAC One-Eleven
      BAC One-Eleven
      The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111, BAC-1-11 or BAC 1-11, was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s...

       en route from Davao
      Davao City
      The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

       to Manila
      Manila
      Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

      , was hijacked by rebels, demanding $375,000 and a plane to fly them to Libya. The hijackers subsequently detonated a hand grenade in the cabin, which burned the aircraft and killing 10 passengers and 3 hijackers. The remaining three hijackers were caught and sentenced to death.
    • On July 12, 1980, A hijacker of a Philippine Airlines flight from Manila to Cebu demanded money and wanted to be flown to Libya. The aircraft was stormed and the hijacker arrested.
    • On May 21, 1982 A man with a hand grenade, demanding better conditions for sugar workers and coconut farmers, held 109 people hostage aboard a Philippine Airlines jet bound from Bacolod
      Bacolod City
      The City of Bacolod , is a highly urbanized midsize Philippine city. It is the capital of the Negros Occidental province. Having a total of 499,497 inhabitants as of August 1, 2007, it is the most populous city in the Western Visayas Region. It is currently ranked as the 17th most populous city in...

       to Cebu
      Cebu City
      The City of Cebu is the capital city of Cebu and is the second largest city in the Philippines, the second most significant metropolitan centre in the Philippines and known as the oldest settlement established by the Spaniards in the country.The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu and was...

      . The plane was on the ground at Cebu. The unidentified hijacker also demanded pay raises for teachers and back pay for veterans.
    • On May 25, 2000, Philippine Airlines Flight 812
      Philippine Airlines Flight 812
      Philippine Airlines Flight 812 was a scheduled passenger flight from Francisco Bangoy International Airport in Davao City to Ninoy Aquino International Airport near Manila. On May 25, 2000, an Airbus A330-301 operating on the route was hijacked by a man later identified as Reginald Chua, just...

      , en route from Davao to Manila, was hijacked by a man with marital problems. The hijacker was pulled out of the aircraft before arrival by a flight attendant and used a homemade parachute in escaping, with none of the other passengers and crew being injured or killed.

    See also



    External links

    Official website
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