Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Overview
 
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (icon), also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 and its surrounding metropolitan area
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

. Located along the border between Pasay and Parañaque, about seven kilometers south of Manila proper, and southwest of Makati, NAIA is the main international gateway for travelers to the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 and is the hub for all Philippine airlines.
Encyclopedia
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino
Filipino language
This move has drawn much criticism from other regional groups.In 1987, a new constitution introduced many provisions for the language.Article XIV, Section 6, omits any mention of Tagalog as the basis for Filipino, and states that:...

: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (icon), also known as Manila International Airport , is the airport serving the general area of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 and its surrounding metropolitan area
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

. Located along the border between Pasay and Parañaque, about seven kilometers south of Manila proper, and southwest of Makati, NAIA is the main international gateway for travelers to the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 and is the hub for all Philippine airlines. It is managed by the Manila International Airport Authority (MIAA), a branch of the Department of Transportation and Communications
Department of Transportation and Communications (Philippines)
The Department of Transportation and Communications is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the maintenance and expansion of viable, efficient, and dependable transportation and communications systems as effective instruments for national recovery and economic...

 (DOTC).

Officially, NAIA is the only airport serving the Manila area. However, in practice, both NAIA and Diosdado Macapagal International Airport
Diosdado Macapagal International Airport
Diosdado Macapagal International Airport , also called Clark International Airport , is the main airport serving the immediate vicinity of the Clark Freeport Zone and the general area of Angeles City in the Philippines...

 (DMIA), located in the Clark Freeport Zone
Clark Freeport Zone
Clark Freeport Zone is a redevelopment of the former Clark Air Base, a former United States Air Force base in the Philippines. It is located on the northwest side of Angeles City and borders the municipality of Mabalacat in the province of Pampanga. It is located about 40 miles northwest of...

 in Angeles, Pampanga serve the Manila area, with DMIA catering mostly to low-cost carriers that avail themselves of the lower landing fees than those charged at NAIA. In the long term DMIA is set to replace NAIA as the primary airport of the Philippines. The airport is named after the late Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr.
Benigno Aquino, Jr.
Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. was a Filipino Senator and a former Governor of Tarlac. Aquino, together with Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga, formed the leadership of the opposition to the Marcos regime in the years leading to the imposition of martial law in the Philippines...

, who was assassinated
Assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr.
The assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr., former Philippine Senator, took place on Sunday, August 21, 1983, at the tarmac of Manila International Airport...

 at the airport in 1983. In 2009 the airport saw growth of 11.4% to 24.1 million passengers. In 2010, NAIA terminal carried 27.1 million passengers, making it to the top 50 of the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic
World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

.

History

The original airport that served Manila, the Manila International Air Terminal, was opened in July 1937 at Nielson Field
Nielson Field
Nielson Field was the location of the Far East Air Force headquarters. Most of the aircraft of the FEAF were based at either Clark Field or Nichols Field.- Laurie Reuben Nielson :...

, the runways of which now form Ayala Avenue
Ayala Avenue
Ayala Avenue is an avenue in Makati City in the Philippines. It is one of the busiest thoroughfares in Metro Manila, crossing through the heart of Makati's central business district. Because of the many businesses located on the avenue, Ayala Avenue is aptly nicknamed the Wall Street of the...

 and Paseo de Roxas in Makati. In 1948, following Philippine independence, the airport was moved to its current site adjacent to the Villamor Airbase
Villamor Airbase
Villamor Air Base is home of the Philippine Air Force. It is chiefly used as an air base for PAF transport and helicopter flights. It is also the military base that the Philippine president uses when departing for foreign or domestic trips abroad, though foreign departures are mostly done at the...

, which was then called Nichols Field
Nichols Field
Nichols Field was a U.S. military airfield located south of Manila in Pasay City and Parañaque City, Metro Manila, Luzon, the Philippines. During the World War II era, it was the location of the Far East Air Force's U.S. 20th Air Base Group. Also, based here was Troop F of the U.S. 26th Cavalry...

. The original structure was built on what is now the site of the present-day Terminal 2.

In 1954 the airport's international runway and associated taxiway were built, and in 1961 the construction of a control tower and a terminal building for the use of international passengers was completed. In 1972 a fire caused substantial damage to the original terminal building, and a slightly smaller terminal was rebuilt in its place the following year. This second terminal would become the country's international terminal until 1981 when a new, higher-capacity terminal, known today as Terminal 1, was built to replace it.

The old international terminal would serve as Manila's domestic airport until another fire damaged it in May 1985. The present Terminal 1, originally named Manila International Airport, was given its present name on August 17, 1987 by virtue of Republic Act No. 6639, with the intention of honouring Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr.
Benigno Aquino, Jr.
Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. was a Filipino Senator and a former Governor of Tarlac. Aquino, together with Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga, formed the leadership of the opposition to the Marcos regime in the years leading to the imposition of martial law in the Philippines...

, who was assassinated at the airport after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States on August 21, 1983. Plans for a new terminal were conceived in 1989, when the Department of Transportation and Communications commissioned Aéroports de Paris
Aéroports de Paris
Aéroports de Paris or ADP is the airport authority that owns and manages the fourteen civil airports and airfields in the Île-de-France area. Among its notable airports are Charles de Gaulle International Airport, Orly Airport and Le Bourget Airport...

 to do a feasibility study to expand capacity.

The recommendation was to build two new terminals, and in 1998 Terminal 2 was completed. Terminal 2 was nicknamed the Centennial Terminal as its completion coincided with the 100th anniversary of Philippine independence from Spain. In 1997 the government approved the construction of Terminal 3, which was originally scheduled to be completed in 2002. After many delays caused by technical and legal issues, the terminal became fully operational in mid-2008. The government aims to return services from many of the airlines which cancelled services to Manila as a result of the current Terminal 1's problems.

In 2011, it has been tagged as the Worst Airport in the world by the website “The Guide to Sleeping in Airports”.

Volume of Passengers

This table of passenger movements at MNL is based on data from Airport Council International (ACI). 2010 NAIA passenger traffic was based on Manila International Airport Authority's website for the full-year of 2010.
Year Passenger
Movements
2003 12,955,809 (81st)
2004 15,186,521 (75th)
2005 16,216,031 (77th)
2006 17,660,697 (73rd)
2007 20,467,627 (64th)
2008 22,253,158 (57th)
2009 24,108,825 (51st)
2010 27,119,899 (48th)

Terminal 1

The development of the Manila International Airport was finally approved through the promulgation of Executive Order
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

 No. 381, which authorized the airport's development. In 1973, a feasibility study/airport master plan was done by Airways Engineering Corporation through a US$29.6 million loan from the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
The Asian Development Bank is a regional development bank established on 22 August 1966 to facilitate economic development of countries in Asia...

. The Detailed Engineering Design of the New Manila International Airport Development Project was done by Renardet-Sauti/Transplan/F.F. Cruz Consultant while the terminal's Detailed Architectural Design was prepared by Leandro Locsin
Leandro Locsin
Leandro V. Locsin was a Filipino architect, artist, and interior designer, known for his use of concrete, floating volume and simplistic design in his various projects. An avid collector, he was fond of modern painting and Chinese ceramics. He was proclaimed a National Artist of the Philippines...

's L.V. Locsin and Associates.

In 1974, the detailed designs were adopted by the Philippine Government and was subsequently approved by the Asian Development Bank on September 18, 1975. Actual work on the terminal began during the second quarter of 1978. The terminal was completed in 1981 and had a size of 67,000 square meters with a design capacity of 4.5 million passengers per year. It currently serves all non-Philippine Airlines and non-Cebu Pacific international flights. In 1989, a Master Plan Review recommended the construction of two new terminals (NAIA 2 and NAIA 3), as well as many other facility improvements.
The terminal reached capacity in 1991, when it registered a total passenger volume of 4.53 million. Since 1991, the terminal has been over capacity and has been recording an annual average growth rate of 11%. It has 18 air bridges and services 33 airlines (as of May 2011). Interestingly enough, the building does not have a Gate 8 and a Gate 13. Compared to international terminals in other Asian countries, Terminal 1 consistently ranks at the bottom, with limited and outdated facilities, poor passenger comfort, and the facility long ago exceeded its design capacity. In regards to this, several transport authorities have plans to makeover NAIA Terminal 1 and was approved by President Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III , also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010....

. The said makeover and airport upgrade reportedly includes the expansion of the arrival area, additional parking lots, and improvement of facilities in the terminal. http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/340958/aquino-oks-makeover-naia1

The DOTC previously announced that as soon as Terminal 3 becomes fully operational, Terminal 1 would be rehabilitated into an "Airport City", with the intention of Cebu Pacific Airways to convert Terminal 1 as their exclusive terminal. This terminal handles all international flights except those operated by Cebu Pacific
Cebu Pacific
Cebu Air, Inc., operating as Cebu Pacific Air, is based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport , Pasay City, Metro Manila, the Philippines. It offers scheduled flights to both domestic and international destinations...

 and Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

.

Terminal 2 (Centennial Terminal)

The second terminal, NAIA-2, located at the Old MIA Road, was completed in 1998 and began operations in 1999. It has been named the Centennial Terminal in commemoration of the centennial year of the declaration of Philippine independence. The 75,000-square-meter terminal was originally designed by Aéroports de Paris to be a domestic terminal, but the design was later modified to accommodate international flights. It has a capacity of 2.5 million passengers per year in its international wing and 5 million in its domestic wing, it is possible to accommodate nine million passengers per year if required.

Terminal 2 is for the exclusive terminal of Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

 and is used for both its domestic and international flights. It is divided into Two wings: the North Wing, which handles international flights, and the South Wing, which handles domestic flights. It currently has 12 air bridges. There are several cafes and restaurants scattered around the Terminal post-security and include Cafe Nescafe and Cafe Delifrance. There is also a (very) small duty-free section in the north wing. The need for two more terminals was proposed by a Master Plan Review of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport that was undertaken in 1989 by Aéroports de Paris (ADP), which was facilitated through a grant from the French Government. The review cost 2.9 million French franc
French franc
The franc was a currency of France. Along with the Spanish peseta, it was also a de facto currency used in Andorra . Between 1360 and 1641, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it remained in common parlance as a term for this amount of money...

s and was submitted to the Philippine Government for evaluation in 1990.

In 1991, the French government granted a 30 million franc soft loan to the Government of the Philippines, which was to be used to cover the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design of the NAIA Terminal 2. ADP completed the design in 1992 and in 1994, the Japanese Government granted an 18.12 billion yen
Japanese yen
The is the official currency of Japan. It is the third most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar and the euro. It is also widely used as a reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, the euro and the pound sterling...

 soft loan to the Philippine Government to finance 75% of the terminal's construction costs and 100% of the supervision costs. Construction of the terminal began on December 11, 1995, and was formally turned over to the government of the Philippines on December 28, 1998.

Terminal 3

The third terminal of the airport, Terminal 3 or NAIA-3, is the newest and biggest terminal in the NAIA complex, wherein construction started in 1997. The terminal is one of the most controversial projects in the Philippines in that the government has become involved with legal battles, red tape
Red tape
Red tape is excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making...

, and arbitration cases in both the United States and Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, as well as technical and safety concerns which delayed its opening several times.

The terminal officially opened to selected domestic flights from July 22, 2008 (initially Cebu Pacific only, then Philippine Airlines' subsidiaries Air Philippines and PAL Express), with Cebu Pacific international flights using it from August 1, 2008. All international operations, except for those from PAL, are intended to operate from Terminal 3 in the future, originally proposed to move in fourth quarter of 2010, however domestic carriers Cebu Pacific
Cebu Pacific
Cebu Air, Inc., operating as Cebu Pacific Air, is based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport , Pasay City, Metro Manila, the Philippines. It offers scheduled flights to both domestic and international destinations...

 and Airphil Express (then Air Philippines) remained the only tenants for the first two years of its operation. The vast majority of international flights still operate from Terminal 1, with the exception of ANA All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

 being the first foreign-based carrier to operate out of Terminal 3 starting Feb.27th.

History

1990s

The original proposal for the construction of a third terminal was proposed by Asia's Emerging Dragon Corporation (AEDP). AEDP eventually lost the bid to PairCargo and its partner Fraport AG of Germany, who went on to begin construction of the terminal under the administration of Joseph Estrada. Terminal 3 was approved for construction in 1997 and the structure was mostly completed several years ago and was originally scheduled to open in 2002. The ultra-modern US$640 million, 189,000 square meter facility was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill
Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP is an American architectural and engineering firm that was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John O. Merrill. They opened their first branch in New York City, New York in 1937. SOM is one of the largest...

 (SOM) to have a capacity of 13 million passengers per year. However, a legal dispute between the government of the Philippines and the project's main contractor, Philippine International Air Terminals Co. Inc. (PIATCO), over the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) contract, delayed the final completion and opening of the terminal.

While the original agreement was one in which PairCargo and Fraport AG would operate the airport for several years after its construction, followed by a handing over of the terminal to the Philippine Government, the government offered to buy out Fraport AG for $400 million, to which Fraport agreed. However, before the terminal could be fully completed, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, called the contract "onerous" formed a committee to evaluate the agreement to buy out Fraport AG. It is this action that sparked the most controversy. The Philippine Supreme Court eventually found the PIATCO contract "null and void" citing a variety of anomalies.

The administration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo eventually abrogated PIATCO's BOT Contract for allegedly having been anomalous in certain important respects. In a subsequent decision, the Philippine Supreme Court upheld the Philippine Government's position on the matter and declared the BOT contract "null and void" for, among other things, violations of certain provisions of the BOT law. More specifically, the Court found that the original contract was revised to allow for a Philippine Government guarantee of PIATCO's obligations to its creditors, contractors and suppliers. The BOT law disallows the granting of such sovereign guarantees. PIATCO disagrees and continues to maintain that the provisions cited by the Supreme Court do not amount to a prohibited sovereign guarantee by the Philippine Government.

2000s

In December 2004, the Philippine Government expropriated the terminal project from PIATCO through an order of the Pasay City Regional Trial Court (RTC). However, the court only allowed the Philippine Government to take over the terminal upon payment of an initial amount of PHP
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

3 billion (approx. US$64 million) to PIATCO. The Philippine Government formally paid PIATCO the said amount on the second week of September 2006. According to the Philippine Government, NAIA-3 was 98% complete (prior in 2006) and required at least an additional USD6 million to complete. The government was then in the process of negotiating a contract with the builder of the terminal, Takenaka of Japan, because another factor that delayed the terminal's opening was the ongoing investigation into the collapse of a 100 sqm. area of the terminal's ceiling.

PIATCO (and its German partner Fraport) have instituted arbitration proceedings before different international bodies (Piatco in Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 before the ICC and Fraport in Washington D.C. before the ICSID) to recover a fair settlement.
In 2007, the ICSID case filed in Washington was decided in favor of the Philippine Government because of a violation of Philipine Law by Fraport. However, this decission was annulled in 2010 due to a violation of FRAPORT's right to be heard. A new proceeding before the ICSID is ongoing.
The case in Singapore continues to be under litigation. PIATCO, speaking through its lawyers, has stated in the local Philippine press that it remains open to reaching an amicable settlement with the Philippine Government. By Executive Order No. 732, the NAIA Terminal 3 Task Force was made and Michael Defensor was appointed on June 19, 2008 as head, creating the Presidential Task Force on the NAIA-3 that was "mandated to ensure the immediate opening and operation of Terminal III." The order provides for the NAIA-3 opening based on decisions of the Supreme Court and applicable laws.

Terminal 3 began partial operations at 0515 on July 22, 2008 with 16 inbound and outbound domestic flights from Cebu Pacific
Cebu Pacific
Cebu Air, Inc., operating as Cebu Pacific Air, is based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport , Pasay City, Metro Manila, the Philippines. It offers scheduled flights to both domestic and international destinations...

. Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines
Philippine Airlines, Inc. operating as Philippine Airlines, is a flag carrier of the Philippines. Headquartered in the Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City, the airline was founded in 1941 and is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name...

' budget brand PAL Express
PAL Express
PAL Express was the low-cost regional airline brand of Philippine Airlines. PAL Express operated from Mactan-Cebu International Airport in Cebu City, with smaller operations from PAL's main hub in Manila, flying primarily intra-regional routes in the Visayas and Mindanao, as well as secondary...

 and Air Philippines
Air Philippines
Air Philippines Corporation, now operating as Airphil Express , is a low-cost airline based in Pasay City, in the Philippines. It operates both domestic and international scheduled services from Manila, Cebu, Davao and Zamboanga. The airline was re-branded for a number of times, first as Air...

 moved their operations to this terminal two days later. Cebu Pacific
Cebu Pacific
Cebu Air, Inc., operating as Cebu Pacific Air, is based on the grounds of Ninoy Aquino International Airport , Pasay City, Metro Manila, the Philippines. It offers scheduled flights to both domestic and international destinations...

 moved all of its domestic and international operations to the terminal on August 1, 2008. On August 1, 2010, President Noynoy Aquino has announced plans to utilize Terminal 3 to its maximum capacity by Christmas Season 2010, which may mean moving international carriers to Terminal 3, but the goal was never reached.

The Philippine Government has made a new plan where Terminal 3 would be 100% operational by the end of 2011, but lowered their goal to 55% operational after further study. Starting February 2011, The move of international carriers began with All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

 starting new service to Manila from Terminal 3, rather than Terminal 1 with other international carriers. ANA will be the only foreign carrier at Terminal 3, while other carriers have no intention of moving yet or are still in negotiations such as Cathay Pacific.

Structure

Terminal 3 is built on a 63.5-hectare lot that sits on Villamor Air Base. The terminal building has a total floor area of 182,500 m², having a total length of 1.2 kilometers. A four-level shopping mall connects the terminal and parking buildings. The parking building has a capacity of 2,000 cars while the outdoor parking area has a capacity of 1,200 cars. The terminal is capable of servicing 33,000 passengers daily at peak or 6,000 passengers per hour.

Its apron area has a size of 147,400 m², 34 air bridges, 20 contact gates with the ability of servicing 28 planes at any given time. The terminal has 70 flight information terminals, 314 display monitors, with 300 kilometers of fiber optic I.T. cabling. It also has 29 restroom blocks. The departure area has five entrances all equipped with X-ray machines with the final security check having 18 X-ray machines. Its baggage claim has 7 large baggage carousels, each with its own flight display monitor.

Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal

This terminal is host to all domestic flights within the Philippines that are operated by Zest Air and South East Asian Airlines. There are no jet bridges and passengers walk to and from the aircraft or are occasionally bussed. Twenty-six Check-in counters are located in the Terminal, the departure hall has the seating capacity for 969 people at a time. Several food stores and a book and magazine stall are also available. Five baggage carousels are located in the terminal whilst Domestic airline offices, banks, restaurants and a grocery store are also located right beside the Domestic passenger terminal. The Domestic Terminal on the old Airport Road was built in 1948 and is located near the north end of Runway 13/31. An old hangar has since been annexed to the terminal.

Passenger


Notes:: Although most of Saudi Arabian Airlines' flights to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

 stop in Hong Kong, Saudi Arabian Airlines has no rights to transport passengers between Manila and Hong Kong.

Cargo

The following cargo airlines serve Ninoy Aquino International Airport.

Structure

Runways

NAIA has a primary runway (3,737 m) running at 061°/241° (designated as Runway 06/24) and a secondary runway (2,258 m) running at 136°/316° (designated as Runway 13/31). On October 11, 2007, NAIA witnessed the debut of the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

 in the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, after test aircraft MSN009 landed on NAIA's primary runway. The test flight proved that the A380 could be flown in existing runways in Asia, and that the primary international airport of the Philippines can support aircraft as large as the A380.

Other structures

The airport also serves as a gateway facility of the logistics company DHL
DHL
DHL Express is a division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post providing international express mail services. DHL is a world market leader in sea and air mail....

, and hosts the aircraft repair and maintenance facilities of German firm Lufthansa Technik AG
Lufthansa Technik
Lufthansa Technik AG is the leading manufacturer-independent provider of maintenance, repair and overhaul services for aircraft, engines and components. The Lufthansa Technik Group consists of 32 companies with more than 25.500 employees...

, a division of Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

.

Ground transportation

Taxi
Taxicab
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice...

 service is available to NAIA from all points of Metro Manila
Metro Manila
Metropolitan Manila , the National Capital Region , or simply Metro Manila, is the metropolitan region encompassing the City of Manila and its surrounding areas in the Philippines...

. Also, several bus routes directly serve the airport complex, either serving Terminals 1 and 2, Terminal 3 and the Domestic Terminal, or Terminal 3 exclusively. Some of the bus routes are also served by jeepney
Jeepney
Jeepneys are the most popular means of public transportation in the Philippines. They were originally made from US military jeeps left over from World War II and are known for their flamboyant decoration and crowded seating...

s. A shuttle bus system connects all four terminals for the convenience of passengers who have onward connections on flights departing from another terminal. The airport is also accessible, albeit indirectly, by rail: Baclaran
Baclaran LRT Station
Baclaran LRT Station is a station on the Manila LRT Yellow Line . The station is located on the last stretches of Taft Avenue, in the Pasay City portion of Baclaran, and, like all other stations on the LRT-1, Baclaran station is above-ground on viaduct...

 station of the Manila Light Rail Transit System
Manila Light Rail Transit System
The Manila Light Rail Transit System, popularly known as the LRT, is a metropolitan rail system serving the Metro Manila area in the Philippines. Although referred to as a light rail system because it originally used light rail vehicles, it has many characteristics of a rapid transit system, such...

 and Nichols station of the Philippine National Railways
Philippine National Railways
The Philippine National Railways , or PNR, is a state-owned railway company in the Philippines, operating a single line of track on Luzon. As of 2010, it operates one commuter rail service in Metro Manila and a second in the Bicol Region. PNR restored its intercity service to the Bicol region in 2011...

 both serve the airport complex.

In the future, with the extension of the existing Yellow Line
Manila LRT Yellow Line
The Manila LRT Yellow Line is the first metro line of the Manila Light Rail Transit System. Presently, the line contains twenty-two stations and runs over twenty point seven kilometers of fully elevated track...

, a new station, Manila International Airport
Manila International Airport LRT Station
Manila International Airport LRT Station, also known as MIA LRT Station, is a proposed station on the Manila LRT Yellow Line . It is part of the LRT Line 1 Cavite Extension Project. The LRT-1 extension plan calls for an elevated 10-station, 11.7-kilometer extension, which means that this station...

 station, is set to connect the airport, albeit still indirectly, to the LRT. The NAIA Expressway
NAIA Expressway
The NAIA Expressway is a elevated Expressway that runs from Metro Manila Skyway to Sales Road near Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3. This elevated expressway project is divided into 4 packages. This is also the first airport expressway in the Philippines. It is located within Pasay...

 or NAIA Skyway connecting NAIA/Sales Exit of Metro Manila Skyway
Metro Manila Skyway
The Metro Manila Skyway is an elevated highway crossing over much of the existing South Luzon Expressway as of the moment. It is located within the Metro Manila portion of the SLEX and crosses through Makati City, Pasay City, Parañaque City, and Muntinlupa City. The Skyway begins in Barangay San...

 and Andrews Avenue in front of Terminal 3. It would soon be extended to Domestic Road, linking with the Domestic Terminal, and NAIA Road before reaching the Coastal Road
Manila-Cavite Expressway
The Manila-Cavite Expressway or Aguinaldo Boulevard is a tollway/expressway in the Philippines. It is considered part of the Radial Road 1 of Metro Manila...

. Terminal 3 is served by Sales Exit of South Luzon Expressway
South Luzon Expressway
The South Luzon Expressway ', which is formerly called the South Superhighway ', and officially known as Radial Road 3 or R-3, is a network of three expressways that connects Metro Manila to the provinces of the CALABARZON region in the Philippines...

, and the NAIA Road-Roxas Boulevard Intersection of Coastal Road serving Terminals 1 and 2 and Domestic Terminal.

Accidents and incidents

  • On February 24, 1949, Cathay Pacific (Douglas C-47A-90-DL). The crew aborted an approach in poor visibility and tried to go around. The aircraft struck a hillside near Braemar Reservoir. All 23 occupants were killed.
  • On November 19, 1970, Douglas C-47As PI-C9 and PI-C15 of Philippine Air Lines, and Douglas DC-3D
    Douglas DC-3
    The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting impact on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made...

     PI-C944 of Fairways Corportation were damaged beyond repair by Typhoon Patsy
    Typhoon Patsy (1970)
    Super Typhoon Patsy was the twenty-seventh named storm, twelfth typhoon, and seventh super typhoon of the 1970 Pacific typhoon season....

    .
  • On July 25, 1971, Pan American World Airways (Boeing 707-321C) The Boeing, named "Clipper Rising Sun", was on a cargo flight from San Francisco via Honolulu, Guam and Manila to Saigon. While on a VOR/DME approach to Manila runway 24, the aircraft struck Mount Kamunay at an altitude of 2525 feet (770 m). All 4 occupants were killed.
  • On November 15, 1974, Douglas C-47A RP-C570 of OASIS was damaged beyond economic repair when a forced landing was made in a paddy field shortly after take-off from Manila International Airport following failure of the starboard engine. One of the eight people on board was killed.
  • On February 7, 1980, China Airlines Boeing 707 originated from Taipei-Chiang Kai Shek International Airport (TPE) (TPE/RCTP) undershot the runway on landing and caught fire. Of all the 135 onboard, theres only 2 fatalities.
  • During 1982, Douglas C-47B RP-C3 of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
    Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
    The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas and commonly abbreviated as BSP is the central bank of the Philippines. It was rechartered on July 3, 1993, pursuant to the provision of the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the New Central Bank Act of 1993...

     was damaged beyond repair in an accident at Manila International Airport.
  • On August 21, 1983, the most unforgettable incident was the assassination of Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., who was killed at the airport after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States. Five years after the incident he was memorialized by having the airport named in his honor, by virtue of Republic Act No. 6639.
  • On December 13, 1983, Douglas C-47B RP-C287 of Philair crashed shortly after take-off following an engine failure. The aircraft was on a non-scheduled passenger flight. All ten people on board survived.
  • On May 6, 1989, Douglas C-47A RP-C82 of MATS crashed on following an engine failure. The aircraft was being used on a domestic non-scheduled passenger flight although it was not licenced to carry passengers. All 18 people on board survived.
  • On April 28, 1989 Douglas C-47A RP-C81 of Manila Aero Transport System (MATS) crashed shortly after take-off on a non-scheduled domestic passenger flight to Roxas Airport
    Roxas Airport
    -External links:*...

     following an engine failure. MATS did not have a licence to fly passengers. Seven of the 22 passengers were killed. The aircraft had earlier made a forced landing on a taxiway at the airport.
  • On July 21, 1989 Philippine Airlines Flight 124, a BAC One-Eleven
    BAC One-Eleven
    The British Aircraft Corporation One-Eleven, also known as the BAC-111, BAC-1-11 or BAC 1-11, was a British short-range jet airliner of the 1960s and 1970s...

     overran a runway in poor visibility and heavy rain. No passengers or crew on board were killed but eight people on the ground were killed when the jet crossed a road.
  • On May 11, 1990, Philippine Airlines Flight 143
    Philippine Airlines Flight 143
    Philippine Airlines Flight 143 was the route designator of a domestic flight from the Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport, Metro Manila, Philippines to Mandurriao Airport, Iloilo City...

    , a Boeing 737–300
    Boeing 737
    The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

     suffered an explosion in the center fuel tank near the terminal of Ninoy Aquino International Airport while preparing for takeoff. The fire and smoke engulfed the aircraft before it could be completely evacuated. The explosion was similar to what happened to the ill-fated TWA Flight 800
    TWA Flight 800
    Trans World Airlines Flight 800 , a Boeing 747-131, exploded and crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York, on July 17, 1996, at about 20:31 EDT, 12 minutes after takeoff, killing all 230 persons on board. At the time, it was the second-deadliest U.S...

     six years later. 8 people died during the incident
  • On May 18, 1990, Aerolift Philippines (Beechcraft 1900C-1) a Domestic Scheduled Passenger bound for Surigao Airport (SUG) (SUG/RPMS) Crashed into a residential area following takeoff. The Beech reportedly suffered an engine failure. All 21 occupants and 4 people on the ground were killed.
  • On September 4, 2002, Asian Spirit flight 897 (de Havilland Canada DHC-7-102)carrying 49 occupants, was the last flight of the day to Caticlan and departed the Manila domestic airport for at 15:36 for a one hour flight. On approach to Caticlan the right main gear failed to deploy. The approach was abandoned and the crew decided to return to Manila for an emergency landing. The plane circled for about 35 minutes over Las Piñas to burn off fuel. The crew then carried out an emergency landing with the right gear retracted on Manila's international airport runway 24. After touchdown the aircraft swerved off the runway onto a grassy area. There were no reported injuries or fatalities but the aircraft was Written off (damaged beyond repair).
  • On November 11, 2002, Laoag Flight 585 took off from Manila runway 31 at just after 6 o'clock for a flight to Laoag and Basco Airport (BSO). Shortly after takeoff engine trouble developed in the aircraft's left engine. The pilot declared an emergency and he tried to land the plane but decided at the last minute to ditch it into the sea. The aircraft broke up and sank in the water to a depth of about 60 feet. 19 of the 34 occupants were killed.
  • In March 2006, just before the scheduled soft-opening of terminal 3, a portion of its ceiling collapsed. This pushed back its initial partial opening until July 22, 2008.
  • On July 25, 2008 Qantas Flight 30
    Qantas Flight 30
    Qantas Flight 30 was a Qantas Boeing 747-438, construction number 25067, registered in Australia as VH-OJK. QF30 was a scheduled flight from London Heathrow Airport to Melbourne Airport with a stopover in Hong Kong International Airport on 25 July 2008. The flight was interrupted when an oxygen...

    , a Boeing 747
    Boeing 747
    The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

     headed from London to Melbourne with a stopover at Hong Kong, made an emergency landing at Manila's Ninoy Aquino International Airport. A gaping hole on the belly near the right wing was torn from the fuselage in mid-air when a large piece of what appeared to be canvas and a red piece of insulation material stuck out of the fuselage as if pushed by an explosion from the inside. The 747 was carrying 356 passengers and 19 crew but there were no reported injuries or fatalities.
  • On Sunday August 23, 2009, South East Asian Airlines
    South East Asian Airlines
    Southeast Asian Airlines , Inc. operating as SEAir is an airline based in Pampanga, the Philippines. It operates domestic services and its main base is Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Manila, with hubs at Godofredo P. Ramos Airport, Malay, Aklan.- History :The airline was established in 1995...

     flight DG-0624, flown by Dornier 328
    Dornier 328
    |-See also:- References :* Swanborough, Gordon. "Dornier 328: A Daimler for Commuters". Air International, March 1992, Vol. 42 No. 3. pp. 123–128. ISSN 0306-5634....

     RP-C6328, was hit by strong crosswind when decelerating after landing on runway 13. The aircraft veered off the runway and came to a stop in the grass. None of the 32 passengers and 3 crew was injured. The airport had to be temporarily closed for towing the Seair Dornier away.
  • On October 17, 2009, Douglas DC-3
    Douglas DC-3
    The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. Its lasting impact on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made...

     RP-C550 of Victoria Air crashed shortly after take-off on a flight to Puerto Princesa International Airport after an engine malfunctioned.The Plane Crashed near a factory in Las Piñas. All on board died
  • On June 19, 2010 The Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range
    VHF omnidirectional range
    VOR, short for VHF omnidirectional radio range, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft. A VOR ground station broadcasts a VHF radio composite signal including the station's identifier, voice , and navigation signal. The identifier is typically a two- or three-letter string in Morse code...

     ( DVOR ) controlling the Ninoy Aquino International Airport's Navigational aid malfunctioned due to a short circuit. Reports said that the short circuit was caused by a heavy rain downpour. Authorities were forced to close the whole airport for the whole evening and divert all air traffic to Diosdado Macapagal International Airport
    Diosdado Macapagal International Airport
    Diosdado Macapagal International Airport , also called Clark International Airport , is the main airport serving the immediate vicinity of the Clark Freeport Zone and the general area of Angeles City in the Philippines...

     in Clark, Pampanga, Mactan-Cebu International Airport
    Mactan-Cebu International Airport
    Mactan-Cebu International Airport is a major international airport in the Visayas region of the Philippines. It is located in Lapu-Lapu City, Mactan Island, Metro Cebu and is the country's second primary gateway...

     in Cebu City, Cebu. Although they have to get some replacement parts from the Subic Bay International Airport's
    Subic Bay International Airport
    -Cargo airlines:As of October 2010, there are no cargo airlines operating in Subic Bay International Airport.FedEx Express closed its hub at Subic Bay on February 6, 2009, this was the first hub to be closed in FedEx's history...

     own VOR, the radar was repaired and daylight air traffic was restored to normal the following day whilst pilots limited only for a visual approach in all of its runways

See also

  • Nichols Field
    Nichols Field
    Nichols Field was a U.S. military airfield located south of Manila in Pasay City and Parañaque City, Metro Manila, Luzon, the Philippines. During the World War II era, it was the location of the Far East Air Force's U.S. 20th Air Base Group. Also, based here was Troop F of the U.S. 26th Cavalry...

  • Villamor Air Base
  • Ninoy Aquino
    Benigno Aquino, Jr.
    Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. was a Filipino Senator and a former Governor of Tarlac. Aquino, together with Gerry Roxas and Jovito Salonga, formed the leadership of the opposition to the Marcos regime in the years leading to the imposition of martial law in the Philippines...



External links




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