MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

Encyclopedia

The

and hosted by the University of St Andrews

in Scotland

. It contains detailed biographies

on many historical and contemporary mathematician

s, as well as information on famous curve

s and various topics in the history of mathematics

.

The History of Mathematics archive is part of a larger project, the

database. MacTutor covers a wide range of mathematical topics, though its contents have been biased by the interests and enthusiasms of its authors. They have concentrated on areas where O'Connor and Robertson think that the computer, and particularly graphics capabilities of the Apple Macintosh, can give insights not available in other ways. Thus, in addition to the calculus

topics that one would expect to find in any mathematical software, MacTutor is particularly strong in geometry

, algebra

(and in particular, group theory

), graph theory

, number theory

as well as stacks on statistics

, matrices

and complex analysis

.

**MacTutor History of Mathematics archive**is a website maintained by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. RobertsonEdmund F. Robertson

Edmund Frederick Robertson FRSE B.Sc M.Sc Ph.D., born on 1 June 1943, St Andrews, Scotland, is a Professor emeritus of pure mathematics at the University of St Andrews....

and hosted by the University of St Andrews

University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews, informally referred to as "St Andrews", is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in the English-speaking world after Oxford and Cambridge. The university is situated in the town of St Andrews, Fife, on the east coast of Scotland. It was founded between...

in Scotland

Scotland

Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

. It contains detailed biographies

Biography

A biography is a detailed description or account of someone's life. More than a list of basic facts , biography also portrays the subject's experience of those events...

on many historical and contemporary mathematician

Mathematician

A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

s, as well as information on famous curve

Curve

In mathematics, a curve is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but which is not required to be straight...

s and various topics in the history of mathematics

History of mathematics

The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past....

.

The History of Mathematics archive is part of a larger project, the

**Mathematical MacTutor system**, by the same authors, which is an 18-megabyte HyperCardHyperCard

HyperCard is an application program created by Bill Atkinson for Apple Computer, Inc. that was among the first successful hypermedia systems before the World Wide Web. It combines database capabilities with a graphical, flexible, user-modifiable interface. HyperCard also features HyperTalk, written...

database. MacTutor covers a wide range of mathematical topics, though its contents have been biased by the interests and enthusiasms of its authors. They have concentrated on areas where O'Connor and Robertson think that the computer, and particularly graphics capabilities of the Apple Macintosh, can give insights not available in other ways. Thus, in addition to the calculus

Calculus

Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem...

topics that one would expect to find in any mathematical software, MacTutor is particularly strong in geometry

Geometry

Geometry arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Geometry was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers ....

, algebra

Algebra

Algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures...

(and in particular, group theory

Group theory

In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.The concept of a group is central to abstract algebra: other well-known algebraic structures, such as rings, fields, and vector spaces can all be seen as groups endowed with additional operations and...

), graph theory

Graph theory

In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects from a certain collection. A "graph" in this context refers to a collection of vertices or 'nodes' and a collection of edges that connect pairs of...

, number theory

Number theory

Number theory is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. Number theorists study prime numbers as well...

as well as stacks on statistics

Statistics

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments....

, matrices

Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. An example of a matrix with six elements isMatrices of the same size can be added or subtracted element by element...

and complex analysis

Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers. It is useful in many branches of mathematics, including number theory and applied mathematics; as well as in physics,...

.