Landshut War of Succession
The Landshut War of Succession resulted from an agreement between the duchies of Bavaria-Munich
-History:After the death of Stephen II in 1375, his sons Stephen III, Frederick, and John II jointly ruled Bavaria-Landshut. After seventeen years, the brothers decided to formally divide their inheritance. John received Bavaria-Munich, Stephen received Bavaria-Ingolstadt, while Frederick kept...

 (Bayern-München in German) and Bavaria-Landshut
-History:The creation of the duchy was the result of the death of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian. In the Treaty of Landsberg 1349, which divided up Louis's empire, his sons Stephen, William, and Albert were to receive jointly Lower Bavaria and the Netherlands. Four years later the inheritance was...

 (Bayern-Landshut). The agreement concerned the law of succession when one of the two Dukes should die without a male heir. Both of these duchies were owned by branches of the House of Wittelsbach, and the agreement stated that if one branch should become extinct in the male line then the other would inherit both duchies. This agreement disregarded imperial law, which stipulated that the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

 should inherit should a line fail.

George, Duke of Bavaria-Landshut and his wife Hedwig Jagiellon failed to produce a male heir, so George named his daughter Elisabeth as his heir. Because of the agreement, Duke Albert
Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Albert IV of Bavaria-Munich , , from 1467 Duke of Bavaria-Munich, from 1503 Duke of the reunited Bavaria.-Biography:...

 of the Munich line did not accept this, leading to war in 1503. Over the course of this two-year war, many villages surrounding Landshut were reduced to ashes, such as Ergolding
Ergolding is a municipality in the district of Landshut, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the left bank of the Isar, 5 km northeast of Landshut....


The war ended in 1505 with the death of Elisabeth and her husband Ruprecht, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and a decision through arbitration by Emperor Maximilian I
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I , the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky...

 on 30 July 1505 at the Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

Reichstag (Holy Roman Empire)
The Imperial Diet was the Diet, or general assembly, of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire.During the period of the Empire, which lasted formally until 1806, the Diet was not a parliament in today's sense; instead, it was an assembly of the various estates of the realm...

. The two grandsons of George, Otto Henry
Otto Henry, Elector Palatine
Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine, a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty was Count Palatine of Palatinate-Neuburg from 1505 to 1559 and prince elector of the Palatinate from 1556 to 1559...

 (Otto-Heinrich) and Philip, retained Palatinate-Neuburg
Palatinate-Neuburg is a former territory of the Holy Roman Empire, founded in 1505. Its capital was Neuburg an der Donau. Its area was about 2,750 km², with a population of some 100,000.-History:...

 (Junge Pfalz), a fragmented region from the upper Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 over Franconia
Franconia is a region of Germany comprising the northern parts of the modern state of Bavaria, a small part of southern Thuringia, and a region in northeastern Baden-Württemberg called Tauberfranken...

 to the northern part of the Upper Palatinate
Upper Palatinate
The Upper Palatinate is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.- History :The region took its name first in the early 16th century, because it was by the Treaty of Pavia one of the main portions of the territory of the Wittelsbach Elector...

. Neuburg an der Donau
Neuburg an der Donau
Neuburg an der Donau, literally Neuburg on the Danube River, is a town which is the capital of the Neuburg-Schrobenhausen district in the state of Bavaria in Germany.-Divisions:The municipality has 16 divisions:-History:...

 was chosen as the capital of the new state. Because the two heirs had not yet reached their majority, Frederick II, Count Palatine of the Rhine, served as regent in a caretaker regime. The rest of the territory went to the Munich line of the House of Wittelsbach. The emperor took the territory around Kufstein
Kufstein is a city in Tyrol, Austria, located along the river Inn, in the lower Inn valley, near the border with Bavaria, Germany, and is the site of a post World War II French sector United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration Displaced Persons camp.Kufstein is the second largest city...

 for himself as reward for his mediation; the Imperial City of Nuremberg
Imperial City of Nuremberg
The Imperial City of Nuremberg was a free imperial city — independent city-state — within the Holy Roman Empire. After Nuremberg gained piecemeal independence from the Burgraviate of Nuremberg in the High Middle Ages and gaining considerable territory from Bavaria in the Landshut War of...

 gained important territories to the east of the city, including the authorities of Lauf
Lauf an der Pegnitz
Lauf an der Pegnitz is a municipality near Nuremberg, Germany. It is the capital of the district Nürnberger Land, in Bavaria....

, Hersbruck
Hersbruck is a small town in Middle Franconia, Bavaria, Germany, belonging to the district Nürnberger Land. Famous for the late-gothic artwork of the Hersbruck altar, the "Hirtenmuseum" and the beautiful landscape of the "Hersbrucker Schweiz".-History:...

, and Altdorf
Altdorf bei Nürnberg
Altdorf bei Nürnberg is a town in south-eastern Germany. It is situated 25 km east of Nuremberg, in the district Nürnberger Land. Its name literally means Altdorf near Nuremberg, to distinguish it from other Altdorfs.-History:...

. As Count Palatine
Count palatine
Count palatine is a high noble title, used to render several comital styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine, which can have other meanings as well.-Comes palatinus:...

, Otto-Heinrich spent huge sums of money to build a palace at Neuburg an der Donau. Through inheritance, he later became Elector Palatine, where his additions Ottheinrichsbau to Heidelberg Castle
Heidelberg Castle
The Heidelberg Castle is a famous ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg. The castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps....

 made him one of the most important builders of the German Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

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