), and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area
, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.
Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral
(Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne.
1647 Thirty Years' War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm.
1880 Construction of Cologne Cathedral, the most famous landmark in Cologne, Germany, is completed.
1945 Cologne is captured by American Troops.
1964 World War II veteran Walter Seifert runs amok in an elementary school in Cologne, Germany, killing at least eight children and two teachers and seriously injuring several more with a home-made flamethrower and a lance.
1977 Hanns Martin Schleyer, is kidnapped in Cologne, West Germany by the Red Army Faction and is later murdered.
2009 The building of the Historisches Archiv der Stadt Köln (Historical Archives) in Cologne, Germany, collapses.
), and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area
, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.
Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral
(Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. The University of Cologne
(Universität zu Köln) is one of Europe's oldest and largest universities.
Cologne is a major cultural centre of the Rhineland
and has a vibrant arts scene. Cologne is home to more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair
hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne
, imm Cologne
and the Photokina
Roman CologneThe first urban settlement on the grounds of what today is the center of Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, which was founded in 38 BC by the Ubii
, a Cisrhenian
. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior
in 85 AD. The city was named "Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium
" in 50 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900 year old Roman boat was made in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire
. In 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. The imperial governors of Rome resided in the city and became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps.
Maternus, who was elected as bishop
in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Franks in 459. In 785, Cologne became the seat of an archbishop
Middle AgesDuring the time of the Holy Roman Empire
in the Middle Ages
, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven prince-elector
s and one of the three ecclesiastical electors. The archbishops had ruled large temporal domains but in 1288 Sigfried II von Westerburg was defeated in the Battle of Worringen
and forced into exile in Bonn
Cologne's location on the river Rhine placed it at the intersection of the major trade route
s between east and west and was the basis of Cologne's growth. Cologne was a member of the Hanseatic League
and became a Free Imperial City
in 1475. Interestingly the archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment
. Thus the municipal council (though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning criminal justice. This included torture, which sentence was only allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called "Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne.
Besides its economic and political significance Cologne also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop Rainald of Dassel
gave the relics of the Three Wise Men to Cologne's cathedral in 1164 (after they in fact had been captured from Milan
). Besides the three magi Cologne preserves the relics of Saint Ursula
and Albertus Magnus
The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterized by the city's status as a major harbour and transport hub upon the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organized by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.
As a free city Cologne was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) to maintain its own military force. Wearing a red uniform these troops were known as the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire
("Reichskontingent") and fought in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary France, when the small force was almost completely wiped out in combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken.
The free city of Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire
. Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were taken from the Bavaria
n dynasty Wittelsbach
. Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city. Thus they took up residence in Bonn
and later in Brühl
on the Rhine. As members of an influential and powerful family and supported by their outstanding status as electors
, the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne during the 17th and 18th century, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.
From 19th century until World War IICologne lost its status as a free city
during the French period. According to the Peace Treaty of Lunéville
(1801) all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire
on the left bank of the Rhine were officially incorporated into the French Republic (which already had occupied Cologne in 1798). Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's
Empire. Cologne was part of the French Département Roer (named after the River Roer, German: Rur
) with Aachen
(French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital. The French modernized public life, for example by introducing the Napoleonic code
and removing the old elites from power. The Napoleonic code
remained in use on the left bank of the Rhine until 1900, when a unified civil code (the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch
) was introduced in the German Empire
. In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna
, Cologne was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia
, first in the Jülich-Cleves-Berg province
and then the Rhine province
The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic Rhineland
and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with Cologne being in the focus of the conflict. In 1837 the archbishop of Cologne, Clemens August von Droste-Vischering
, was arrested and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit). In 1874 during the Kulturkampf
, Archbishop Paul Melchers
was imprisoned before taking refuge in the Netherlands. These conflicts alienated the Catholic population from Berlin and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer
, became the first West German chancellor.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, Cologne absorbed numerous surrounding towns, and by World War I had already grown to 700,000 inhabitants. Industrialization changed the city and spurred its growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing were especially successful, though heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area
. The cathedral
, started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560, was eventually finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire
and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's historic heritage with much being demolished (for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral) and sometimes replaced by present-day buildings.
Cologne was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German Confederation
. It was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of Verdun
and Liège) with two fortified belts surrounding the city, the remains of which can be seen to this day. The military demands on what became Germany's largest fortress presented a significant obstacle to urban development, with forts, bunkers and wide defensive dugouts completely encircling the city and preventing expansion; this resulted in a very dense built-up area within the city itself.
During World War I
Cologne was the target of several only minor air raids and survived the hostilities without significant damage. Until 1926 Cologne was occupied by the British Army of the Rhine
under the terms of the armistice and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty.
Contrary to the harsh measures taken by French occupation troops, the British acted with more tact towards the local population. The mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933 and future West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer
acknowledged the political impact of this approach, especially that the British had opposed French plans for a permanent Allied occupation of the Rhineland.
As part of the de-militarization of the Rhineland
the fortifications had to be dismantled. This was taken as an opportunity to create two green belts (Grüngürtel) around the city by converting the fortifications and their clear fields of fire into large public parks. However this project was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the University of Cologne
, closed by the French in 1798, was refounded. This re-foundation was considered a replacement for the loss of the German University of Strasbourg
that became part of France with the rest of Alsace
. Cologne prospered during the Weimar Republic
(1919–1933) and progress was made especially in respect to public governance, city planning, housing and social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and copied by other German cities. As Cologne competed for hosting the Olympics a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf. When the British occupation ended, civil aviation was allowed once again and Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport
soon became a hub for national and international air traffic: second in Germany only to Berlin Tempelhof Airport
The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne in March 1933 to the NSDAP and other right wing parties. Thereafter Communist as well as Social Democrats
members of the city assembly were imprisoned and Mayor Adenauer was dismissed by the new holders of power. However, compared to other major cities, the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne and the number of votes cast for the Nazi Party in Reichstag
elections was always below the national average. By 1939 the population had risen to 772,221 inhabitants.
World War II
(Wehrkreis) VI of Münster
. Cologne was under the command of Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible for military operations in Bonn
, and Monschau
. Cologne was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment.
During the Bombing of Cologne in World War II
, Cologne endured 262 air raids by the Western Allies
, which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and almost completely wiped out the centre of the city. During the night of 31 May 1942, Cologne was the target of "Operation Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force
in World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were incendiary. This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed 600 acres (243 ha) of built-up area, killed 486 civilians and made 59,000 people homeless. By the end of the war, the population of Cologne had been reduced by 95%. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German cities in the last two years of war. At the end of 1945, the population had already risen to about 500,000 again.
By that time, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 11,000 had been deported or killed by the Nazis. The six synagogues of the city were destroyed. The synagogue on Roonstraße
was rebuilt in 1959.
The outskirts of Cologne were reached by US-troops on 4 March 1945. The inner city at the left bank of the Rhine was captured on 6 March 1945 in half a day, meeting minor resistance only. Because the Hohenzollernbrücke
was destroyed on retreat by German pioneers, the boroughs at the right bank of the river remained under German control until mid of April 1945.
Post-war Cologne until todayDespite Cologne's status of being the largest city in the region, nearby Düsseldorf
was chosen as the political capital of the federated state
of North Rhine-Westphalia
. With Bonn
being chosen as the provisional capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany (then informally West Germany
), Cologne benefited by being sandwiched between two important political centres. The city became and still is home to a number of Federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990, Berlin was made the capital of Germany.
In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz
called Cologne the "world's greatest heap of rubble." Schwarz designed the master plan of reconstruction in 1947, which called for the construction of several new thoroughfares through the downtown area, especially the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The master plan took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi administration, but the actual construction became easier in times when the majority of downtown lots were undeveloped.
The destruction of 95% of the city centre including the famous Twelve Romanesque churches
like St. Gereon
, Great St. Martin
, St. Maria im Kapitol
and several other monuments in World War II meant a tremendous loss of cultural treasures. The rebuilding of those churches and other landmarks like the Gürzenich event hall was not undisputed among leading architects and art historians at that time, but in most cases, civil intention prevailed. The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when the Romanesque church of St. Kunibert
In 1959, the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. It then grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about one year from 1975. It has remained just below that until mid 2010, when it exceeded 1 million again.
In the 1980s and 1990s Cologne's economy prospered for two main reasons. Firstly, a growth in the number of media companies, both in the private and public sectors; they are especially catered for in the newly-developed Media Park, which creates a strongly visual focal point in the Cologne town centre and includes the KölnTurm, one of Cologne's most prominent high-rise buildings. Secondly, a permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure made Cologne one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in Central Europe.
Due to the economic success of the Cologne Trade Fair
, the city arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005. At the same time the original buildings, which date back to the 1920s are rented out to RTL
, Germany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate headquarters.
DistrictsCologne is subdivided into 9 districts (Stadtbezirke) and 85 city parts (Stadtteile):
Innenstadt is the central city district of the City of Cologne in Germany.The district was established with the last communal land reform in 1975, and comprises Cologne's historic old town , the Gründerzeit era new town plus the right-Rhenish district of Deutz...
Rodenkirchen is a southern city district of Cologne in Germany. It has about 100,000 inhabitants and covers as an area of 54.56 square kilometres...
Lindenthal (Stadtbezirk 3)
Ehrenfeld (Stadtbezirk 4)
Nippes is the Fifth city district of Cologne, Germany. Nippes was merged into the city of Cologne in 1888, the district was formed in 1975...
Chorweiler is the Sixth city district of Cologne, Germany. Large portion of the district of Chorweiler were incorporated into the city of Cologne in 1922, the quarter of Chorweiler was created in the 1970s...
Porz is a city district or Stadtbezirk of Cologne, Germany. It is situated on the right side of the Rhine in the south-east of the city...
Kalk (Stadtbezirk 8)
Mülheim (Stadtbezirk 9)
ClimateCologne is one of the warmest cities in Germany. It has a temperate–oceanic
climate with relatively mild winters and warm summers. Its average annual temperature is 10 °C (50 °F): 14.5 °C (58 °F) during the day and 5.5 °C (42 °F) at night.
s, protection from rising waters for buildings close to the river banks, monitoring and forecasting systems, pumping stations and programs to create or protect floodplain
s and river embankments. The system was redesigned after a 1993 flood which resulted in heavy damages.
DemographicsCologne is the fourth-largest city in Germany in terms of inhabitants after Berlin
. As of 30 June 2011, there were officially 1,010,269 residents. Cologne is the centre of the Cologne/Bonn Region
with around 3 million inhabitants (including the neighboring cities of Bonn
, and Bergisch Gladbach
According to local statistics, in 2006 the population density
in the city was 2,528 inhabitants per square kilometre. 31.4 percent of the population has migrated there, and 17.2 percent of Cologne's population is non-German. The largest group, comprising 6.3 percent of the total population, is Turkish. As of September 2007, there are about 120,000 Muslims living in Cologne, mostly of Turkish origin. Cologne also has the oldest and one of the largest Jewish communities in Germany.
In the city the population was spread out with 15.5% under the age of 18, 67.0% from 18 to 64 and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
GovernmentThe city's administration is headed by the mayor and the three deputy mayors. Jürgen Roters
of the Social Democratic Party
has been mayor since 20 October 2009.
Political traditions and developmentsThe long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the church and the bourgeoisie (and within it between the patricians and craftsmen) has created its own political climate in Cologne. Various interest groups often form the basis of societal socialization and therefore beyond party boundaries. The resulting network of relationships, the political, economic and cultural links with each other in a system of mutual favors, obligations and dependencies, also called Cologne coterie. This has often led to an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, revealed "waste scandal" over kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions, not only the entrepreneur Hellmut Trienekens in prison brought, but did throw almost the entire leadership staff of the ruling Social Democrats.
The city was connected because of their Catholic tradition in the Empire and the Weimar Republic established the center, joined soon after the war, the political majority of the CDU to the SPD. This ruled for 40 years, in part, by an absolute majority of Council. Because of liberal traditions Cologne was always a stronghold of the FDP, because of its tolerant social climate and the Greens. Both parties do - with varying degrees of success - the increasingly popular parties disputed the majority.
MayorLord Mayor of Cologne is Jürgen Roters
of the Social Democratic Party. As a common candidate of the SPD and the Greens, he received 54.67% of the vote on 30 August 2009 at the municipal election. He has been Lord Mayor since 21 October 2009.
Make-up of city council
|Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...
|Christian Democratic Union
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It is regarded as on the centre-right of the German political spectrum...
Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party and Alliance 90 in 1993. Its leaders are Claudia Roth and Cem Özdemir...
|Free Democratic Party
Free Democratic Party (Germany)
The Free Democratic Party , abbreviated to FDP, is a centre-right classical liberal political party in Germany. It is led by Philipp Rösler and currently serves as the junior coalition partner to the Union in the German federal government...
The Left (Germany)
The Left , also commonly referred to as the Left Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Germany. The Left is the most left-wing party of the five represented in the Bundestag....
Free Voters is a German concept in which an association of persons participates in an election without having the status of a registered political party. Usually it is a locally organized group of voters in the form of a registered association . In most cases, Free Voters are active only at the...
CityscapeThe inner city of Cologne was completely destroyed during World War II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the 1950s, while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets. Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings, with few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due to their historical importance. Some buildings of the "Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example the opera house by Wilhelm Riphahn
, are nowadays regarded as classics of modern architecture. Nevertheless, the uncompromising style of the Cologne Opera
house and other modern buildings has remained controversial.
Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne which is approximately 75 m² (89.7 sq yd) of public green space for every citizen of the city.
TourismCologne had 4.31 million overnight accommodations booked and 2.38 million arrivals in 2008. The city also has the most pubs per capita in Germany
. The city has 70 clubs and other party spots. The city has "countless" bars, restaurants and pubs.
- Cologne CathedralCologne CathedralCologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and is a World Heritage Site...
(German: Kölner Dom) is the city's most famous monument and the Cologne residents' most respected landmark. It is a GothicGothic architectureGothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....
church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was designated a World Heritage siteWorld Heritage SiteA UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...
; it houses the Shrine of the Three Kings that supposedly contains the relicRelicIn religion, a relic is a part of the body of a saint or a venerated person, or else another type of ancient religious object, carefully preserved for purposes of veneration or as a tangible memorial...
s of the Three MagiBiblical MagiThe Magi Greek: μάγοι, magoi), also referred to as the Wise Men, Kings, Astrologers, or Kings from the East, were a group of distinguished foreigners who were said to have visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh...
(see also). Residents of Cologne sometimes refer to the cathedral as "the eternal construction site" (Dauerbaustelle).
- Twelve Romanesque churchesTwelve romanesque churches of CologneThe twelve Romanesque churches of Cologne are twelve landmark churches in the Old town of Cologne, Germany. All twelve churches are Roman Catholic.- Churches :The twelve churches are1:* St. Andreas in Altstadt-Nord, est. 974...
: These buildings are outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.
The Cologne City Hall (Kölner Rathaus), established in the 12th century, is the oldest city hall
in Germany still in use. The Renaissance style loggia and tower were added in the 15th century. Other famous houses include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus.
Medieval city gates
Of the once 12 medieval city gate
s, only the Eigelsteintorburg at Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and the Severinstorburg at Chlodwigplatz still stand today.
- The Cologne RingCologne RingThe Cologne Ring is a semi-circular, some 6 km long urban boulevard in Innenstadt, Cologne and the city's busiest and most prominent street system...
boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with their medieval city gates (such as Hahnentorburg on Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life.
- Hohe StraßeHohe StraßeHohe Straße is a shopping street in the old town of Cologne, Germany, and one of the city's both oldest and busiest streets. Together with many of its adjacent side streets, Hohe Straße is part of a designated pedestrian zone and spans about 680 meters from Cologne Cathedral on its Northern end to...
(literally: High Street) is one of the main shopping areas and extends past the cathedral in an approximately southerly direction. The street contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast food restaurants and electronic goods dealers.
- SchildergasseSchildergasseThe Schildergasse is a shopping street in central Cologne, Germany, and with 13,000 people passing through every hour, it is the busiest shopping street in Europe...
- connects the Neumarkt plaza on its west end to the southern end of the Hohe Strasse shopping street at its east end and has been named the busiest shopping street in Europe with 13,000 people passing through every hour.
- Ehrenstraße - the shopping area around Apostelnstrasse, Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little more on the eccentric and stylish side.
BridgesSeveral bridges cross the Rhine in Cologne. They are (from South to North): the Cologne Rodenkirchen Bridge
, Southern Railway Bridge, Severin Bridge, Deutz Bridge, Hohenzollern Bridge, Zoo Bridge (Zoobrücke) and Cologne Mülheim Bridge
. In particular the iron tied arch
Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrücke) is a dominant landmark along the river embankment. A Rhine river crossing of a special kind is provided by the Cologne Cable Car (German: Kölner Seilbahn), a cableway that runs across the Rhine between the Cologne Zoological Garden
in Niehl and the Rheinpark
High rise structuresCologne's tallest structure is the Colonius
telecommunication tower at 266 m (873 ft). The observation deck has been closed since 1992. A selection of the tallest buildings in Cologne are listed below. Other tall structures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect Jacob Koerfer and completed in 1925 - it was at one time Europe's tallest office building), the Kranhaus buildings at Rheinauhafen
and the Messeturm Köln
(English: Trade Fair tower).
|Skyscraper||Image||Height in metres||Floors||Year||Address||Notes|
At is 148.5 meters tall , the Cologne Tower is the tallest office building in Cologne. Construction of the building lasted from June, 1999 to November, 2001...
The MediaPark is a urban regeneration neighborhood in Cologne, Germany, completed by the turn of the millennium. It was set up to accommodate companies of the media and communication industry, as well as cultural institutions, a hotel and some apartment buildings. The MediaPark is situated in...
|(literally: Cologne Tower), Cologne's second tallest building at 165.48 metres (542.91 ft) in height, second only to the Colonius telecommunication tower. The 30th floor of the building has a restaurant and a terrace with 360° views of the city.|
The Colonia-Hochhaus is the tallest building used primarily for residential purposes in Germany. It is located in the Cologne district of Riehl and was completed in 1973. It is 147 meters high...
|147||45||1973|| An der Schanz 2, Riehl
- People :* 16189 Riehl , a Main-belt Asteroid discovered 2000* Riehl melanosis, a form of contact dermatitis* Alois Adolf Riehl , Austrian philosopher* Herbert Riehl* Kevin Riehl , Canadian professional ice hockey player...
|tallest building in Germany from 1973 to 1976. Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building.|
|Rheintower||138||34||1980||Raderberggürtel, Marienburg|| former headquarters of Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle or DW, is Germany's international broadcaster. The service is aimed at the overseas market. It broadcasts news and information on shortwave, Internet and satellite radio on 98.7 DZFE in 30 languages . It has a satellite television service , that is available in four languages, and...
, since 2007 under renovation with the new name Rheintower Köln-Marienburg.
|Uni-Center||133||45||1973|| Luxemburger Straße, Sülz
Sülz is a municipal part of Cologne, Germany and part of the district of Lindenthal. Sülz lies on Luxemburger Straße between Lindenthal and Klettenberg. Sülz has 35.475 inhabitants and covers an area of 5,17 km² .The name Sülz goes back to Sulpece, first mentioned in 1145 as a possession of...
| TÜV Rheinland
TÜV Rheinland is a global provider of technical, safety and certification services. Originally called the Dampfkessel-Überwachungs-Vereine , TÜV Rheinland was founded in 1872 and has its headquarters in Cologne, Germany...
|112||22||1974||Am Grauen Stein, Poll|
KölnTriangle is a tall building in Deutz, Cologne, and a prominent landmark in Cologne. The building was designed by Cologne-based architecture firm Gatermann + Schossig and completed in 2006. It's south facade consists of a double-facade, allowing natural ventilation even at high floors...
|103||29||2006||Ottoplatz 1, Deutz|| opposite to the cathedral with a 103 m (338 ft) high viewing platform and a view of the cathedral over the Rhine; headquarters of the European Aviation Safety Agency
European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Aviation Safety Agency is an agency of the European Union with offices in Cologne, Germany, which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. It was created on 15 July 2002, and it reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions...
|Herkules-Hochhaus||102||31||1969||Graeffstraße 1, Ehrenfeld|
CultureCologne has several museums. The famous Roman-Germanic Museum features art and architecture from the city's distant past; the Museum Ludwig
houses one of the most important collections of modern art
in Europe, including a Picasso collection matched only by the museums in Barcelona
. The Schnütgen Museum
of religious art is housed in St. Cecilia, one of Cologne's Twelve Romanesque churches
. Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the Gürzenich Orchestra
and the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne
, both based at the Cologne Philharmonic Orchestra Building. Other orchestras are the Musica Antiqua Köln
, as well as several choirs, including the WDR Rundfunkchor Köln. Cologne was also an important centre of electronic music in the 1950s (Studio für elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen
) and again from the 90s onward. The public radio and TV station WDR was involved in promoting musical movements such as Krautrock
in the 70s; the influential Can
was formed there in 1968. There are several centres of nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latäng (the student quarter around the Zülpicher Straße) and the nightclub-studded areas around Hohenzollernring, Friesenplatz and Rudolfplatz.
The large annual literary festival Lit.Cologne features regional and international authors. The main literary figure connected with Cologne is writer Heinrich Böll
, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Cologne is well known for its beer, called Kölsch
. Kölsch is also the name of the local dialect. This has led to the common joke of Kölsch being the only language one can drink.
Cologne is also famous for Eau de Cologne
(German: Kölnisch Wasser; lit: Water of Cologne), a perfume created by Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina
at the beginning of the 18th century. During the 18th century this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported all over Europe by the Farina family and Farina became a household name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm Mülhens entered into a contract with an unrelated person from Italy named Carlo Francesco Farina who granted him the right to use his family name and Mühlens opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years and after various court battles his grandson Ferdinand Mülhens
had to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product. He decided to use the house number given to the factory at Glockengasse during French occupation in the early 19th century: 4711. Today, original Eau de Cologne is still produced in Cologne by both the Farina family, currently in the eighth generation, and by Mäurer and Wirtz who bought the 4711 brand in 2006.
CarnivalThe Cologne carnival
is one of the biggest street festivals in Europe. In Cologne, the carnival season officially starts on 11 November at 11 minutes past 11 a.m. with the proclamation of the new Carnival Season, and continues until Ash Wednesday
. But the so-called "Tolle Tage" (crazy days) don't start until Weiberfastnacht (Women's Carnival) or, in dialect, Wieverfastelovend (Thursday before Ash Wednesday), which is the beginning of the street carnival. Zülpicher Strasse and its surroundings, Neumarkt square, Heumarkt and all bars and pubs in the city are crowded with people in costumes dancing and drinking on the streets. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to Cologne during this time. Generally, around a million people celebrate in the streets on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday.
Rivalry with DüsseldorfCologne and Düsseldorf
have a "fierce regional rivalry"., which includes carnival
parades, football, and beer
. People in Cologne prefer Kölsch
while people in Düsseldorf prefer Alt. Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who order Alt beer in Cologne and Kölsch in Düsseldorf. The rivalry has been described as a "love-hate relationship".
- Farina Fragrance MuseumFragrance museumThe Farina Fragrance Museum is situated across from Cologne City Hall, and near the famous Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in the Obenmarspforten in Innenstadt, Cologne...
, the birthplace of Eau de CologneEau de CologneEau de Cologne or simply Cologne is a toiletry, a perfume in a style that originated from Cologne, Germany. It is nowadays a generic term for scented formulations in typical concentration of 2-5% essential oils. However as of today cologne is a blend of extracts, alcohol, and water...
- Römisch-Germanisches MuseumRömisch-Germanisches MuseumThe Roman-Germanic Museum is an important archaeological museum in Cologne, Germany. It has a large collection of Roman artifacts from the Roman settlement of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, on which modern Cologne is built...
(English: Roman-Germanic Museum) for ancient Roman and Germanic culture.
- Wallraf-Richartz MuseumWallraf-Richartz MuseumThe Wallraf-Richartz-Museum is one of the three major museums in Cologne, Germany. It houses an art gallery with a collection of fine art from the medieval period to the early twentieth century...
for European painting from the 13th to the early 20th century.
- Museum LudwigMuseum LudwigMuseum Ludwig, located in Cologne, Germany, houses a collection of modern art. It includes works from PopArt, Abstract and Surrealism, and has one of the largest Picasso collections in Europe. It also features many works by Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein....
for modern art.
- Museum Schnütgen for medieval art.
- Museum für Angewandte KunstMuseum für Angewandte Kunst (Cologne)The Museum für Angewandte Kunst Köln is a decorative arts museum in Cologne, Germany. The collections include jewellery, porcelain, furniture, weaponry and architectural exhibits...
for applied art.
- Kolumba Kunstmuseum des Erzbistums KölnKolumbaThe Kolumba is an art museum in Cologne, Germany. It is located on the site of the former St. Columba church, and run by the Archdiocese of Cologne...
(Art museum of the archbishopric of CologneArchbishopric of CologneThe Electorate of Cologne was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire and existed from the 10th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the temporal possessions of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne . It was ruled by the Archbishop in his function as prince-elector of...
), modern art museum built around medieval ruins, completed 2007.
- Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" in the historic underground vaults of the Cathedral
- EL-DE HausEL-DE HausEL-DE Haus, officially the Nazism Documentation Center, located in Cologne, is the former headquarters of the Gestapo and now a museum documenting the Third Reich....
, the former local headquarters of the GestapoGestapoThe Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...
houses a museum documenting Nazi rule in Cologne with a special focus on the persecution of political dissenters and minorities.
- German Sports and Olympic Museum, with exhibitions about sports from antiquity until the present.
- Chocolate Museum, officially called Imhoff-SchokoladenmuseumImhoff-SchokoladenmuseumThe Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum was opened by Hans Imhoff on 31 October 1993. It is situated in the Cologne quarter of Altstadt-Süd on the Rheinauhafen peninsula...
- Forum for Internet Technology in Contemporary Art - collections of Internet based art, corporate part of (NewMediaArtProjectNetwork):cologne - the experimental platform for art and New Media.
- Flora und Botanischer Garten KölnFlora und Botanischer Garten KölnThe Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln is a municipal formal park and botanical garden located adjacent to Cologne Zoological Garden at Amsterdamer Straße 34, Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
, the city's formal park and main botanical gardenBotanical gardenA botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...
- Forstbotanischer Garten KölnForstbotanischer Garten KölnThe Forstbotanischer Garten Köln is an arboretum and woodland botanical garden located at Schillingsrotterstraße 100, Rodenkirchen, Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany...
, an arboretumArboretumAn arboretum in a narrow sense is a collection of trees only. Related collections include a fruticetum , and a viticetum, a collection of vines. More commonly, today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study...
and woodland botanical gardenBotanical gardenA botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...
Music fairs and festivalsThe city was home to the internationally famous Ringfest
, and now to the C/o pop festival.
EconomyAs the largest city in the Rhine-Ruhr
metropolitan region, Cologne benefits from a large market structure
. In competition for location factors with Düsseldorf
, the economy of Cologne is primarily based on insurance and media industries, while the city is also an important cultural and research centre and home to a number of corporate headquarters
Among the largest media companies based in Cologne are Westdeutscher Rundfunk
, RTL Television
(with subsidiaries), n-tv
, Brainpool TV and publishing houses like J. P. Bachem, Taschen
, Tandem Verlag
and M. DuMont Schauberg
. Several clusters of media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state agencies work partly with private and government funded cultural instititutions. Among the insurance companies based in Cologne are Central, DEVK, DKV, Generali Deutschland, Gothaer, HDI Gerling and national headquarters of AXA
Insurance and Zurich Financial Services
, the German flag carrier, and Lufthansa CityLine
have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne. Largest employer in Cologne is Ford Europe
, which has its European headquarters and a factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH
). Toyota Motorsport GmbH (TMG), Toyota's official motorsports team, responsible for Toyota rally cars, and then Formula One
cars has headquarters and workshops in Cologne. Other large companies based in Cologne include the REWE Group
, TÜV Rheinland
, Deutz AG
and a number of Kölsch
breweries. Cologne has the country's highest density of pubs per capita. The three largest Kölsch breweries are Reissdorf, Gaffel and Früh.
|brewery||established||annual output in hectolitre|
| Gaffel Becker & Co
Gaffel Becker & Co
The private brewery Gaffel Becker & Co was founded in 1908 by the Becker Brothers in Cologne. It produces a top-fermented beer called Gaffel Kölsch.-External links:*...
| Cölner Hofbräu Früh
Cölner Hofbräu Früh
Cölner Hofbräu Früh is a private brewery for top-fermented beer called Kölsch. The brewery was founded in Cologne in 1904 by Peter Joseph Früh.-External links:*...
Historically, Cologne has always been an important trade city, with land, air, and sea connections. The city has five Rhine ports, the second largest inland port
in Germany and one of the largest in Europe. Cologne-Bonn Airport is the second largest freight terminal in Germany
. Today, the Cologne trade fair
(Koelnmesse) ranks as a major European trade fair location with over 50 trade fairs and other large cultural and sports events. In 2008, Cologne had 4.31 million overnight accommodations booked and 2.38 million arrivals. Cologne's largest daily newspaper is the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger
. The first German limited access road was constructed after 1929 between Cologne and Bonn
. Today, this is the Bundesautobahn 555
. In 1965, Cologne became the first German city to be fully encircled by a freeway belt. Roughly at the same time a downtown bypass freeway (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups. The completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a which begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and A 3 at the interchange Cologne East. Nevertheless, it is referred to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive") was actually completed, a new four/six lane downtown thoroughfare, which had already been anticipated by planners like Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.
In 2005, the first stretch of an eight-lane freeway in North Rhine-Westphalia
was opened to traffic on Bundesautobahn 3, part of the eastern section of the Cologne Beltway between the interchanges Cologne East and Heumar.
CyclingLike most German cities, Cologne has a traffic layout designed to be bicycle-friendly
. There is an extensive cycle network, featuring pavement-edge cycle lanes linked by cycle priority crossings. In some of the narrow one-way central streets, cyclists are explicitly allowed to cycle both ways.
Rail transportCologne has a railway service with Deutsche Bahn
-trains stopping at Köln Hauptbahnhof
(Cologne Central Station), Köln Messe/Deutz and Cologne/Bonn Airport. ICE and TGV Thalys
high-speed trains link Cologne with Amsterdam
(in 1h47, 6 departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day). There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to London
via the Channel Tunnel
are planned for 2013.
The Cologne city railway
operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB) is an extensive light rail
system that is partially underground (referred to as U-Bahn) and serves Cologne and a number of neighboring cities. Nearby Bonn
is linked by both the city railway and Deutsche Bahn trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine. Düsseldorf
is also linked by S-Bahn
trains which are operated by Deutsche Bahn.
There are also frequent buses covering most of the city and surrounding suburbs, and Eurolines
coaches to London via Brussels
Water transportHäfen und Güterverkehr Köln (Cologne Ports and Railways) (HGK) is one of the largest operators for inland port
s in Germany. Ports include Köln-Deutz, Köln-Godorf and Köln-Niehl I and II. Köln-Düsseldorfer offers Rhine river cruise
s along the entire Rhine.
Air transportCologne's international airport is Cologne/Bonn Airport
(CGN). It is also called Konrad Adenauer Airport after Germany's first post-war Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
, who was born in the city and was mayor of Cologne from 1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the neighbouring city of Bonn
. Cologne is headquarter to the European Aviation Safety Agency
(EASA). The airport is also the main hub of the airline Germanwings
EducationCologne is home to numerous universities and colleges, and host to some 72,000 students. Its oldest university, the University of Cologne
(originally founded in 1388) is the largest university in Germany, as the Cologne University of Applied Sciences
is the largest university of Applied Sciences
in the country. The Cologne University of Music and Dance is the largest conservatory
Former colleges include:
MediaWithin Germany, Cologne is known as an important media centre. Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk
and VOX, have their headquarters in the city. Film and TV production is also important. The city is "Germany's capital of TV crime stories". A third of all German TV productions are produced in the Cologne region
. Further, the city hosts the Cologne Comedy Festival
, which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe.
SportsCologne hosts Bundesliga
club 1. FC Köln
. 1. FC Köln plays its home matches in RheinEnergieStadion
which also hosted 5 matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup
. The International Olympic Committee
and Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V. gave RheinEnergieStadion a bronze medal for "being one of the best sporting venues in the world".
The city is also home of the ice hockey team Kölner Haie
, in the highest ice hockey league in Germany, the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. They are based at the Lanxess Arena.
Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse
since 1897, the annual Cologne Marathon
was started in 1997. From 2002-2009, the Panasonic Toyota Racing Formula One
team was based in the Marsdorf suburb, at the Toyota Motorsport GmbH facility.
Cologne is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany". The first golf club in North Rhine-Westphalia
was founded in Cologne in 1906. The city offers the most options and top events in Germany
The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup
, 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2007 World Men's Handball Championship
, 2010 IIHF World Championship
and 2010 Gay Games
Twin towns — sister citiesCologne is "twinned
" with the following cities:
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, England, since 1952 Lille
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, France, since 1958 Liège, Belgium, since 1958 Rotterdam
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, Netherlands, since 1958 Turin
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, Italy, since 1958 Burgas
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, Bulgaria since 1991 Esch-sur-Alzette
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, Luxembourg, since 1958 Kyoto
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, Japan, since 1963 Tunis
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, Tunisia, since 1964
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, Germany, since 1967 Tel Aviv
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, Israel, since 1979 Barcelona
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, Spain, since 1984 Beijing
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People's Republic of China
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, since 1987 Cork
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, Ireland, since 1988 Thessaloniki
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, Greece, since 1988 Corinto
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, Nicaragua, since 1988 Indianapolis
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, United States, since 1988
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, Russia, since 1988 Treptow-Köpenick
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, Germany, since 1990 Katowice
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, Poland, since 1991 Bethlehem
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, Palestinian Territories
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, since 1996 Istanbul
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, Turkey, since 1997 Cluj-Napoca
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, Romania, since 1999 Batangas
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, Philippines Saskatoon
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, Canada Rio de Janeiro
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Additionally, the districts of Rodenkirchen
, Lindenthal and Porz
continue to maintain individual town-partnerships, established during their time as independent municipalities.
Born in CologneNotable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:
- Adenauer, KonradKonrad AdenauerKonrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...
(5 January 1876 - 19 April 1967), politician, mayor of Cologne (1917–1933, 1945) and first West German Federal Chancellor
- Agrippa, Heinrich CorneliusHeinrich Cornelius AgrippaHeinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim was a German magician, occult writer, theologian, astrologer, and alchemist.-Life:Agrippa was born in Cologne in 1486...
(1486–1535), alchemist, occultist, and author of Three Books of Occult Philosophy
- Agrippina the YoungerAgrippina the YoungerJulia Agrippina, most commonly referred to as Agrippina Minor or Agrippina the Younger, and after 50 known as Julia Augusta Agrippina was a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty...
(6 November 15 - between 19 March and 23 March 59), Roman Empress (wife of Emperor ClaudiusClaudiusClaudius , was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy...
) and mother of Emperor NeroNeroNero , was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death....
- Birnbaum, HeinrichHeinrich BirnbaumHeinrich Birnbaum , also known as De Piro , was a pious and learned Carthusian German monk....
(1403–1473), a Catholic monk
- Blum, RobertRobert Blumthumb|Painting by August Hunger of Robert Blum between 1845 and 1848Robert Blum was a German democratic politician, publicist, poet, publisher, revolutionist and member of the National Assembly of 1848. In his fight for a strong, unified Germany he opposed ethnocentrism and it was his strong...
(10 November 1807 - 9 November 1848), politician and martyr of the 19th century democratic movement in Germany
- Böll, HeinrichHeinrich BöllHeinrich Theodor Böll was one of Germany's foremost post-World War II writers. Böll was awarded the Georg Büchner Prize in 1967 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1972.- Biography :...
(21 December 1917 - 16 July 1985), writer and winner of the Nobel prize for literature in 1972
- Bruch, MaxMax BruchMax Christian Friedrich Bruch , also known as Max Karl August Bruch, was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertoire.-Life:Bruch was born in Cologne, Rhine Province, where he...
(6 January 1838 - 2 October 1920) composer
- Calatrava, ÁlexAlex CalatravaAlex Patricio Calatrava is a former tour tennis player from Spain, who turned professional in 1993. The right-hander won one singles title...
(born 14 June 1973), Spanish professional tennis player
- Donnersmarck, Florian Henckel vonFlorian Henckel von DonnersmarckFlorian Maria Georg Christian, Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck is a German film director, best known for writing and directing the 2007 Oscar-winning film The Lives of Others and the 2010 film The Tourist.-Personal life and family:...
(born 2 May 1973), Academy Award-winning director and screenwriter
- Ernst, MaxMax ErnstMax Ernst was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was one of the primary pioneers of the Dada movement and Surrealism.-Early life:...
(2 April 1891 - 1 April 1976), artist
- Gossow, AngelaAngela GossowAngela Nathalie Gossow is the lead vocalist for the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy. Her previous bands include Asmodina and Mistress. She is considered to be one of the few successful female metal singers to use growling as her primary singing style...
(5 November 1974) The lead vocalist of the Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy
- Heidemann, BrittaBritta HeidemannBritta Heidemann is a German épée fencer. Heidemann had her biggest success on 13 August during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, when she defeated Ana Maria Brânză to win the gold medal, just minutes after fellow countryman Benjamin Kleibrink won the men's individual foil competition...
(born 22 December 1982), épée fencer and Olympic medalistOlympic medalistAn Olympic medal is awarded to successful competitors at one of the Olympic Games. There are three classes of medal: gold, silver and bronze. The winner is awarded the gold medal, the runner-up the silver medal, and the third place competitor is awarded the bronze medal...
- Herr, Trude (4 May 1927 - 16 March 1991), actress and singer
- Höner, Stefanie (born 2 August 1969), actress
- Kier, UdoUdo KierUdo Kier is a German actor, known primarily for his work in horror and exploitation movies.-Early life:...
(born 14 October 1944), actor
- Jutta KleinschmidtJutta KleinschmidtJutta Kleinschmidt is a competitor of offroad automotive racing events. She is known for her numerous showings in the Paris Dakar Rally, and notably for having won the event in 2001, becoming the first woman to win the race....
(born August 29, 1962), offroad automotive racingOff-road racingOff-road racing is a format of racing where various classes of specially modified vehicles compete in races through off-road environments.-North America:...
- Klemperer, WernerWerner KlempererWerner Klemperer was a comedic and dramatic actor, best known for his role as Colonel Klink on the CBS television sitcom, Hogan's Heroes.-Early life:...
(22 March 1920 - 6 December 2000), Emmy AwardEmmy AwardAn Emmy Award, often referred to simply as the Emmy, is a television production award, similar in nature to the Peabody Awards but more focused on entertainment, and is considered the television equivalent to the Academy Awards and the Grammy Awards .A majority of Emmys are presented in various...
-winning comedy actor
- Klibansky, ErichErich KlibanskyErich Klibansky was headmaster and teacher of Jawne, the first Jewish Gymnasium of Rhineland in Cologne.-Life:...
(28 November 1900 - 24 July 1942), Jewish headmaster and teacher
- Kober, AdolfAdolf KoberAdolf Kober was a rabbi and a historian.- Life :Kober studied History, Philosophy and Oriental Languages at the University of Wrocław and received a PhD there in 1903 with a thesis on the medieval history of the Jews in Cologne...
(3 September 1870 - 30 December 1958), Jewish rabbi and medievalist
- Gaby KösterGaby Köster- Awards :* 1996: Gilden Kölsch Award* 1998: Bambi in Category Publikumspreis Best Comedy Show for show 7 Tage, 7 Köpfe* 1998: Goldener Löwe for 7 Tage, 7 Köpfe* 1999: Deutscher Comedypreis in category best comedian...
(born 1961), German actress and comedian
- Krekel, Hildegard (born 2 June 1952), actress
- Krekel, Lotti (born 23 August 1941), actress and singer
- Krupp, UweUwe KruppUwe G. Krupp is a retired German professional hockey defenceman and current coach of the German national ice hockey team. Following Walt Tkaczuk, Krupp was only the second German-born player to have a lasting career in the National Hockey League...
(born 24 June 1965), professional (ice) hockeyIce hockeyIce hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...
- Kühn, HeinzHeinz KühnHeinz Kühn was a German politician and Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia . He was born in Cologne.- External links :*...
(18 February 1912 - 12 March 1992), Minister-PresidentMinister-PresidentA minister-president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments, in which a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government prevails, who presides over the council of ministers...
of North Rhine-WestphaliaNorth Rhine-WestphaliaNorth Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...
- Lauterbach, HeinerHeiner LauterbachHeiner Lauterbach is a German actor.- Life and work :Heiner Lauterbach was married to German actress Katja Flint who is the mother of his son Oscar . Later he had a relationship with Jenny Elvers. Since 7 September 2001 he has been married to Viktoria Skaf. They have two children: Maya and Vito...
(born 10 April 1953), actor
- Liebert, OttmarOttmar LiebertOttmar Liebert is a German-born composer and guitarist, born to a Chinese-German father and a Hungarian mother. As a child, he spent most of his time traveling Europe and Asia with his family...
(born 1 February 1961), musician
- Millowitsch, Marie-Luise (born 23 November 1955), actress
- Millowitsch, Peter (born 1 February 1949), actor, playwrightPlaywrightA playwright, also called a dramatist, is a person who writes plays.The term is not a variant spelling of "playwrite", but something quite distinct: the word wright is an archaic English term for a craftsman or builder...
and theatre director
- Millowitsch, WillyWilly MillowitschWilly Millowitsch was a German stage and TV actor and the director of the Volkstheater Millowitsch in Cologne.-Early life:...
(8 January 1909 - 20 September 1999), actor, playwright and theatre director
- Niedecken, WolfgangWolfgang NiedeckenWolfgang Niedecken is a German singer, musician and visual artist. He founded the Kölsch speaking rock group BAP at the end of the 1970s. He soon became famous with BAP all over Germany. He is the lead singer and only remaining founding member of BAP.- Life :Niedecken attended boarding school in...
(born 30 March 1951), singer, musician, artist and bandleader of BAPBAP (German band)Bap is a German rock group. With ten albums reaching the number one in the German record charts, Bap is one of the most successful rock acts in their home country....
- Neuhoff, Theodor von (25 August 1694 - 11 December 1756), briefly King Theodore of Corsica
- Offenbach, JacquesJacques OffenbachJacques Offenbach was a Prussian-born French composer, cellist and impresario. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann. He was a powerful influence on later composers of the operetta genre, particularly Johann Strauss, Jr....
(20 June 1819 - 5 October 1880), composer
- Ostermann, Wilhelm (1 October 1876 - 6 August 1936) composer
- Petras, KimKim PetrasKim Petras is a German teen pop singer. She creates electronic dance pop music and is signed to independent record label Joyce Records. She has been the subject of extensive worldwide news media reporting regarding her transgender medical history in the context of her young age.-Early life:Kim...
(born 27 August 1992), singer
- Prausnitz, Frederik WilliamFrederik PrausnitzFrederik William Prausnitz was a German-born American conductor and teacher. His grandfather, Wilhelm Prausnitz, was the dean of the medical school at Graz, as well as a Privy Counsellor...
(26 August 1920 - 12 November 2004), American conductor and teacher
- Päffgen, Christa aka NicoNicoNico was a German singer, lyricist, composer, musician, fashion model, and actress, who initially rose to fame as a Warhol Superstar in the 1960s...
(16 October 1938 - 18 July 1988), model, actress, singer and songwriter (see Velvet Underground) and Warhol SuperstarWarhol superstarWarhol superstars were a clique of New York City personalities promoted by Andy Warhol during the 1960s and early 1970s. These personalities appeared in Warhol's artworks and accompanied him in his social life...
- Raab, StefanStefan RaabStefan Konrad Raab is a German entertainer, television host, comedian and musician. Raab began his television career hosting the comedy show Vivasion in 1993 and has been hosting the late-night comedy show TV total since 1999. He became well-known in 1994 after composing a hit single spoofing...
(born 20 October 1966), GermanGermanyGermany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...
entertainer and host of ESC 2011Eurovision Song Contest 2011The Eurovision Song Contest 2011 was the 56th annual Eurovision Song Contest and was won by Eldar & Nigar performing "Running Scared" for Azerbaijan. The event took place in the Esprit Arena in Düsseldorf, Germany, following Germany's win in the previous year...
- Rüttgers, JürgenJürgen RüttgersJürgen Rüttgers is a German politician and former Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia, widely known for his views on immigration and the much-discussed phrase "Kinder statt Inder" which was a media interpretation of "Statt Inder an die Computer müssen unsere Kinder an die Computer"...
(born 26 June 1951), Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia 2005-2010
- Stockhausen, MarkusMarkus StockhausenMarkus Pirol Stockhausen is a German trumpeter and composer.-Biography:Born in Cologne, he is the son of composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. At age four he appeared as "child at play" in his father's theatre piece Originals. He received his first piano lessons at age six, and at age twelve he began to...
(born 2 May 1957), musician and composer
- Trips, Wolfgang Graf Berghe von, Formula One racing driver
- Vondel, Joost van denJoost van den VondelJoost van den Vondel was a Dutch writer and playwright. He is considered the most prominent Dutch poet and playwright of the 17th century. His plays are the ones from that period that are still most frequently performed, and his epic Joannes de Boetgezant , on the life of John the Baptist, has...
(17 November 1587 - 5 February 1679), Dutch poet and playwright
- Weimar, RobertRobert WeimarRobert Weimar is a German professor of law and psychologist.Weimar is particularly concerned with German and European commercial law, and deals with the psychological and neuro-scientific fundamentals of thinking and decision-making...
(born 13 May 1932), legal scientist and psychologist
- Stadtwerke KölnStadtwerke KölnStadtwerke Köln GmbH. is the infrastructure and services company of the City of Cologne.The company undertakes water supply and electrical, gas, heat and steam energy supply through the subsidiary RheinEnergie. Other subsidiaries provice waste management and housing services for the city, in...
, the municipal infrastructure company, operator of the city's railways, ports and utilities.
- History of the Jews in CologneHistory of the Jews in CologneThe history of the Jews in Cologne is documented from the year 321 AD, almost as long as the history of Cologne. Because of this historical continuity, today’s Jewish synagogue community calls itself the "oldest Jewish congregation North of the Alps"....