Japanese occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak
Throughout much of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, British Malaya
British Malaya
British Malaya loosely described a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the Island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries...

, North Borneo
North Borneo
North Borneo was a British protectorate under the sovereign North Borneo Chartered Company from 1882 to 1946. After the war it became a crown colony of Great Britain from 1946 to 1963, known in this time as British North Borneo. It is located on the northeastern end of the island of Borneo. It is...

 and Sarawak
Kingdom of Sarawak
The Kingdom of Sarawak was a state in Borneo established by Sir James Brooke in 1842 by receiving independent kingdom status from the Sultanate of Brunei as a reward for helping fight piracy and insurgency...

 were under Japanese occupation.

The Japanese Empire
Empire of Japan
The Empire of Japan is the name of the state of Japan that existed from the Meiji Restoration on 3 January 1868 to the enactment of the post-World War II Constitution of...

 commenced the Pacific War with the invasion of Kota Bahru in Kelantan
Kelantan is a state of Malaysia. The capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu. The Arabic honorific of the state is Darul Naim, ....

 on 8 December 1941 at 00:25, about 90 minutes before the Attack on Pearl Harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941...

 in Hawaii at 07:48 on 7 December Hawaii time, or 01:48 on 8 December Malayan time. They then invaded the island of Borneo in mid December 1941, landing on the west coast near Miri
Miri is a city in northern Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It is the second largest city in Sarawak, with a population of about 300,000, and the government administrative centre of Miri District in Miri Division....

 in Sarawak; invasion was completed by 23 January 1942 when they landed at Balikpapan
Battle of Balikpapan (1942)
This article concerns the naval and land battles of Balikpapan in 1942. For information on the 1945 landings by Australian forces in the same area, see Second Battle of Balikpapan....

 in Dutch Borneo on the east coast. During the occupation an estimated 100,000 people were killed.

8–18 December 1941

The Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
-Foundation:During the Meiji Restoration, the military forces loyal to the Emperor were samurai drawn primarily from the loyalist feudal domains of Satsuma and Chōshū...

 landed at Padang Pak Amat beach just after midnight on 8 December 1941, triggering a ferocious battle with the British Indian Army
British Indian Army
The British Indian Army, officially simply the Indian Army, was the principal army of the British Raj in India before the partition of India in 1947...

 only an hour before the attack on Pearl Harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941...

. This battle marked the official start of the Pacific War
Pacific War
The Pacific War, also sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War refers broadly to the parts of World War II that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, then called the Far East...

 and the history of the landing of the Japanese in Malaya. The Japanese experienced high fatality rates, but wave after wave of attackers storming the beach forced the British to retreat. The Japanese then regathered their forces, before moving on to seize Kota Bharu
Kota Bharu
Kota Bharu is a city in Malaysia, is the state capital and Royal City of Kelantan. It is also the name of the territory in which Kota Bharu City is situated. The name means 'new city' or 'new castle/fort' in Malay. Kota Bharu is situated in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia, and lies...

 airport. At the same time, the Japanese attacked Singapore, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, and Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor, known to Hawaiians as Puuloa, is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet...

 by air.

The Japanese succeeded in capturing Sungai Patani, Butterworth
- People with the surname :* Arthur Butterworth , English composer* Bob Butterworth, former Florida attorney general* Brad Butterworth , yachtsman from New Zealand...

, and Alor Star
Alor Star
Alor Setar, known as Alor Star between 2004 and 2008, is the state capital of Kedah, Malaysia, and Kota Setar District's Administrative Centre. It is also a distribution center for manufacturing and agricultural products such as paddy, and the royal seat of the Kedah state since the establishment...

 airports on 9 December 1941. On 10 December 1941, the battleship
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of heavy caliber guns. Battleships were larger, better armed and armored than cruisers and destroyers. As the largest armed ships in a fleet, battleships were used to attain command of the sea and represented the apex of a...

s HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse
HMS Repulse (1916)
HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser of the Royal Navy built during the First World War. She was originally laid down as an improved version of the s. Her construction was suspended on the outbreak of war on the grounds she would not be ready in a timely manner...

 sailed along the east coast of Malaya towards the area of the Japanese landings in Kuantan
Kuantan is the state capital of Pahang, the 3rd largest state in Malaysia. It is situated near the mouth of the Kuantan River and faces the South China Sea. If one measures the distance along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, it is located roughly halfway between Singapore and Kota Bharu...

. With the British lacking air support, Japanese aircraft were able to repeatedly attack the ships, and succeeded in sinking both. This effectively eliminated the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 from the battle for the Malayan peninsula.

Japanese soldiers landing at Kota Bharu divided into two separate forces, with one moving down the east coast towards Kuantan
Kuantan is the state capital of Pahang, the 3rd largest state in Malaysia. It is situated near the mouth of the Kuantan River and faces the South China Sea. If one measures the distance along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, it is located roughly halfway between Singapore and Kota Bharu...

, and the other southwards towards the Perak River
Perak River
Perak River is the second longest river in Peninsular Malaysia after Pahang River in Pahang, Malaysia. A number of towns are on the banks of the river including the royal town of Kuala Kangsar...

. On 11 December 1941, the Japanese started bombing Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

. Jitra
Jitra is a town in Kedah, Malaysia. It is located in the Kubang Pasu district.It is the fourth largest town in Kedah after Alor Setar, Sungai Petani and Kulim....

 and then Alor Star
Alor Star
Alor Setar, known as Alor Star between 2004 and 2008, is the state capital of Kedah, Malaysia, and Kota Setar District's Administrative Centre. It is also a distribution center for manufacturing and agricultural products such as paddy, and the royal seat of the Kedah state since the establishment...

 fell into Japanese hands on 12 December 1941. The British had to retreat to the south. On 16 December 1941, the British left Penang to the Japanese, who occupied it on the same day.

19 December 1941 – 31 January 1942

The Japanese continued to advance southwards, capturing Ipoh
Ipoh is the capital city of Perak state, Malaysia. It is approximately 200 km north of Kuala Lumpur on the North-South Expressway....

 on 26 December. Fierce resistance to Japanese progress in the Battle of Kampar
Battle of Kampar
The Battle of Kampar was an engagement of the Malayan Campaign during World War II, involving British and Indian troops from the 11th Indian Infantry Division and the Japanese 5th Division....

 lasted three days and three nights between 30 December 1941 and 2 January 1942, before the British had to retreat once again. On 7 January 1942, two brigades of the 11th Indian Infantry Division were defeated in the Battle of Slim River
Battle of Slim River
The Battle of Slim River occurred during the Malayan campaign in January 1942 between the Imperial Japanese Army and the British Indian Army on the west coast of Malaya.-Background:...

, giving the Japanese army easy passage to Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, the capital of Malaya. On 9 January, the British position was becoming more desperate and the ABDACOM
American-British-Dutch-Australian Command
The American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, or ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War in World War II...

 Supreme Commander, General Wavell
Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell
Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC was a British field marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during the Second World War. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army...

, decided to withdraw all the British and Commonwealth forces to north Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

, thus abandoning Kuala Lumpur (which was captured by the Japanese on 13 January).

The British defensive line was established in north Johor, from Muar
Muar may refer to* Muar District, a district in Johor, Malaysia* Muar , a town in the district of Muar.* Muar River * Muar River...

 in the west, through Segamat
Segamat is a town and district located in the north of the state of Johor in Malaysia, bordering two other states of Malaysia . It is located roughly 172 kilometres from Johor Bahru, the capital city of Johor State. It is 95 km travel distance via North-South Expressway from Johor Bahru to...

, and then to Mersing
Mersing is a town in Mersing District in the northeast corner of the state of Johor, Malaysia.Mersing town is a lively tourist town visited by Malaysians and foreign tourists....

 in the east. The 45th Indian Infantry Brigade
45th Indian Infantry Brigade
The 45th Indian Infantry Brigade was an Infantry formation of the Indian Army during World War II. The brigade was formed in June 1941, at Ahmednagar in India and assigned to the 17th Indian Infantry Division. It was transferred to Malaya Command in January 1942 where it was virtually destroyed in...

 were placed along the western part of the line between Muar and Segamat. The Australian Imperial Force
Second Australian Imperial Force
The Second Australian Imperial Force was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II. Under the Defence Act , neither the part-time Militia nor the full-time Permanent Military Force could serve outside Australia or its territories unless they volunteered to...

 (AIF) were concentrated in the middle, from where they advanced north from Segamat, clashing with the advancing Japanese army at Gemas
Gemas is a small town in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, just near the Negeri Sembilan-Johor state border. The town is located approximately 165 km from the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur. It is the meeting place of Malaysian west and east coast rail lines operated by Malayan Railways. For this...

 on 14 January.

The 15th Division (forming the main Japanese force) arrived on 15 January, and forced the Australians back to Segamat. The Japanese then proceeded west towards the inexperienced 45th Indian Brigade, easily defeating them. The Allied command directed the Australian 2/19th and 2/29th Battalions to the west; the 2/19th Batallion engaged the Japanese on 17 January 1942 to the south of Muar.

Fighting continued until 18 January, and despite efforts by the 2/19th and 2/29th Battalions, the Johor defensive line collapsed. The Allies had to retreat across the Johor Causeway to Singapore. As 31 January 1942 approached, the whole of Malaya had fallen into Japanese hands.

1–15 February 1942

With the Japanese controlling the airspace, they were able to continually bomb Singapore. Civilians were evacuated; some left on the ship Felix Russell, which sailed on 6 February and berthed at Bombay (Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

), India, on 22 February. Other ships such as the Empress of Asia
RMS Empress of Asia
RMS Empress of Asia was an ocean liner built in 1912-1913 by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering at Govan on the Clyde in Scotland for Canadian Pacific Steamships...

were not as fortunate, and were sunk en route.

The British 18th Infantry Division and the Indian 11th Infantry Division retreated to Singapore in stages; fighting with the Japanese had severely reduced their numbers. The two divisions were merged with other units, and stationed along the northern coast of Singapore island.

Japanese cannon were hidden in the jungle facing the Johor Strait. Japanese artillery could be quickly transported through new paths constructed through the jungle, and with the maps they had of the defensive positions they could move rapidly to fire on strategic positions. At the same time, aerial bombing caused the continuous burning of the oil facilities, which it was feared would turn the Johor Strait into a sea of fire.

On 7 February 1942, the Japanese began their assault on Singapore, and landed on the small island Pulau Ubin
Pulau Ubin
Pulau Ubin is a small island situated in the north east of Singapore, to the west of Pulau Tekong. Granite quarrying supported a few thousand settlers on Pulau Ubin in the 1960s, but only about a hundred villagers live there today...

 to concentrate heavy fire on Changi
Changi is an area at the eastern end of Singapore. It is now the site of Singapore Changi Airport/Changi Air Base, Changi Naval Base and is also home to Changi Prison, site of the former Japanese Prisoner of War Camp during World War II which held Allied prisoners captured in Singapore and Malaysia...

. In the northwest, the Australian forces were bombed. On the following day, the Japanese traversed through the northwest, and closely engaged the Allied forces. In the morning of 10 February, the Japanese army succeeded in landing on Singapore island. In the northwest of Singapore, the Malay Regiment
Royal Malay Regiment
The Royal Malay Regiment is the premier unit of the Malaysian Army's two infantry regiments. At its largest, the Malay Regiment comprised 27 battalions. At present, two battalions are parachute trained and form part of the Malaysian Army Rapid Deployment Force...

 (commanded by Lieutenant Adnan bin Saidi
Adnan Bin Saidi
Adnan bin Saidi, , was a Malayan soldier of the 1st Infantry Brigade which fought the Japanese in the Battle of Singapore. He is regarded by Malaysians and Singaporeans today as a hero for his actions on Bukit Chandu.-Personal life:...

) fought fiercely despite dwindling supplies, but was overwhelmed with the death of almost all its men. The Japanese then advanced on the next target, the Central airport. During the battle for the airport, a new Japanese assault began from the Kranji
Kranji is a suburb in northwestern Singapore, located about from the city centre.-Etymology:Kranji is named after a local tree, the kranji or keranji . Its abundance has rapidly dwindled since the first half of the nineteenth century.-History:The first Singapore-Kranji railway from Tank Road to...

 estuary onto the Johor Causeway. From the Central airport, Japanese soldiers moved south, attacking Bukit Timah
Bukit Timah
Bukit Timah is an area in Singapore and a hill in that area. Bukit Timah is located near the centre of the Singapore main island. The hill stands at an altitude of 163.63 metres and is the highest point in the city-state of Singapore...

 on 10 February and capturing it on the next day.

The Allies were forced to retreat to the city of Singapore, where they were relentlessly bombed by the Japanese. On 15 February, the Japanese army focused on the city. The Allied forces continued to fight with perseverance, but found themselves in an increasingly desperate state. Finally, an order was given for the Allies to unconditionally surrender. At 6.10 p.m. 15 February 1942, General Arthur Ernest Percival
Arthur Ernest Percival
Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival, CB, DSO & Bar, OBE, MC, OStJ, DL was a British Army officer and World War I veteran...

 signed the surrender document.

Military response

During the occupation a guerilla resistance force battled the Japanese from the jungles of Malaya. Groups such as the Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army
Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army
The Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army was a resistance movement during Japanese-occupied Malaya during World War II. It originated among ethnic Chinese cadres of the Malayan Communist Party . Some units were trained by the British...

 (MPAJA) and Force 136
Force 136
Force 136 was the general cover name for a branch of the British World War II organization, the Special Operations Executive . The organisation was established to encourage and supply resistance movements in enemy-occupied territory, and occasionally mount clandestine sabotage operations...

 were involved in the bulk of anti-Japanese resistance during the occupation.

Living conditions

Living conditions under the Japanese were brutal with frequent reprisals against the ethnic Chinese population by both the occupying Japanese army and the secret police (Kempeitai
The was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. It was not an English-style military police, but a French-style gendarmerie...



In November 1942, the Japanese army set a world record for marching
See also: Loaded marchMarching refers to the organized, uniformed, steady and rhythmic walking forward, usually associated with military troops.Marching is often performed to march music, and often associated with military parades....

 endurance by covering 100 miles down the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north-south and, at its terminus, is the southern-most point of the Asian mainland...

 in 72 hours. It was so famous as a Japanese propaganda tool that the American magazine Reader's Digest
Reader's Digest
Reader's Digest is a general interest family magazine, published ten times annually. Formerly based in Chappaqua, New York, its headquarters is now in New York City. It was founded in 1922, by DeWitt Wallace and Lila Bell Wallace...

happened to come across it, publishing an article about it that same month. One person who read it was Lieutenant Colonel Robert Sink
Robert Sink
Lieutenant General Robert Frederick Sink was a United States Army officer during World War II, the Korean War, and early parts of the Vietnam War, though he was most famous for his command of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 101st Airborne Division...

, commander of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment.

In response, Easy Company
E Company, 506th Infantry Regiment (United States)
Easy Company, 2nd Battalion of the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 101st Airborne Division, the "Screaming Eagles", is one of the most well-known companies in the United States Army. Their experiences in World War II are the subject of the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers based on the book...

 (which became famous in the HBO miniseries Band of Brothers) marched from Toccoa, Georgia
Toccoa, Georgia
Toccoa is a city in Stephens County, Georgia, United States located approximately from Athens and approximately northeast of Atlanta. The population was 9,323 at the 2000 census...

 to Atlanta on December 1, covering 118 miles in 75 hours. Proud of the company, Colonel Sink told the press, "Not a man fell out, but when they fell, they fell face forward."

North Borneo

On 1 January 1942, the Japanese army invaded Labuan Island, one of the early actions in their campaign to capture Borneo. The sole Allied
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 infantry unit on the whole island of Borneo was the Indian Army
British Indian Army
The British Indian Army, officially simply the Indian Army, was the principal army of the British Raj in India before the partition of India in 1947...

's 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment
15th Punjab Regiment
The 15th Punjab Regiment was a regiment of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 1947. It was transferred to Pakistan Army on Partition of India in 1947, and amalgamated with the 1st, 14th and 16th Punjab Regiments in 1956 to form the Punjab Regiment....

, based in Kuching, Sarawak. For 10 weeks they resisted a Japanese independent brigade
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of two to five battalions, plus supporting elements depending on the era and nationality of a given army and could be perceived as an enlarged/reinforced regiment...

, known as the Kawaguchi Brigade, under Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi
Kiyotake Kawaguchi


Following the Allied surrender, on 16 May 1942, Borneo was under Japanese rule. Under the Japanese occupation, it was divided into two divisions; the west coast including the interior and Kudat
Kudat is a town in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the northern tip of Borneo island. It serves as the administrative center for the Kudat Division, which includes the towns of Kudat, Pitas, Kota Marudu, and some offshore islands....

 was named Sheikai Shiu and the east coast was called Tokai Shiu.

The occupation was resisted by guerilla groups. Among the rebellions were the Kinabalu Guerrillas led by Albert Kwok in the west and another led by Tun Datu Mustapha bin Datu Harun in the northern part. However, the Kinabalu Guerrillas movement ended with the mass killing of Kwok and its members at the current site of Petagas War Memorial
Petagas War Memorial
The Petagas War Memorial is a poignant reminder of all those who lost their lives defending Sabah against the Japanese Occupation during World War II, particularly those of the ill fated Kinabalu Guerillas....

 on 21 January 1944.

During 1942–45, Japanese positions on Borneo were bombed by Allied air forces from the South West Pacific Area
South West Pacific Area
South West Pacific Area was the name given to the Allied supreme military command in the South West Pacific Theatre of World War II. It was one of four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatres of World War II, during 1942–45...

 command, including devastating attacks on Sandakan
Sandakan is the second-largest city in Sabah, East Malaysia, on the north-eastern coast of Borneo. It is located on the east coast of the island and it is the administrative centre of Sandakan Division and was the former capital of British North Borneo...

, Jesselton and Labuan
Labuan is a federal territory in East Malaysia. It is an island off the coast of the state of Sabah. Labuan's capital is Victoria and is best known as an offshore financial centre offering international financial and business services via Labuan IBFC since 1990 as well as being an offshore support...


On 10 June 1945 the Australian 9th Division
Australian 9th Division
The 9th Division was a division of the Australian Army that served during World War II. It was the fourth division of the Second Australian Imperial Force and was formed in the United Kingdom in late 1940 from infantry brigades and support units which had been previously raised in Australia and...

 began landings at Brunei and at Labuan, preludes to a campaign to retake North Borneo
Battle of North Borneo
The Battle of North Borneo took place during the Second World War between Allied and Japanese forces. Part of the wider Borneo campaign of the Pacific War, it was fought between 10 June and 15 August 1945 in North Borneo...


The war in North Borneo ended with the official surrender of the Japanese 37th Army by Lieutenant General Baba Masao
Baba Masao
was a Lieutenant General of the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II, commanding the Japanese ground forces of the Borneo Campaign of 1945 in the closing months of the war. The campaign would be the last major Allied offensive of the war in the South West Pacific Area...

 on Labuan on 10 September 1945.


Before the Japanese invasion, the Brooke
Charles Vyner Brooke
Vyner, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG was the third and final White Rajah of Sarawak.-Early life:...

 family that ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak
Kingdom of Sarawak
The Kingdom of Sarawak was a state in Borneo established by Sir James Brooke in 1842 by receiving independent kingdom status from the Sultanate of Brunei as a reward for helping fight piracy and insurgency...

 had been abroad in Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. The one remaining member of the family, Donald Hudden, lost his life during the Japanese Occupation.

See also

  • Battle of Malaya
    Battle of Malaya
    The Malayan Campaign was a campaign fought by Allied and Japanese forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War. The campaign was dominated by land battles between British Commonwealth army units, and the Imperial Japanese Army...

  • Battle of Borneo (1941–42)
    Battle of Borneo (1941–42)
    For campaigns on eastern Borneo, see Battle of Tarakan and Battle of Balikpapan .The Battle of Borneo was a successful campaign by Japanese Imperial forces for control of Borneo island and concentrated mainly on the subjugation of the Kingdom of Sarawak, North Borneo, and the western part of...

  • Borneo campaign (1945)
    Borneo campaign (1945)
    The Borneo Campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between 1 May and 21 July, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. Allied naval and...

  • Japanese occupation of Singapore
    Japanese Occupation of Singapore
    The Japanese occupation of Singapore in World War II occurred between about 1942 and 1945 after the fall of Singapore on 15 February 1942. Military forces of the Empire of Japan occupied Singapore after defeating the combined Australian, British, Indian and Malayan garrison in the Battle of Singapore...

  • Weeratunge Edward Perera
    Weeratunge Edward Perera
    Weeratunge Edward Perera MBE was a Malaysian Sinhalese educator, businessman and social entrepreneur. He brought some semblance of peace to Teluk Anson during its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II and the Communist Insurgency War that followed. W. E...

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