Mumbai
Overview
 
Mumbai formerly known as Bombay (b) in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, is the capital of the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 population of approximately 20.5 million. Along with the neighbouring urban areas
Mumbai metropolitan area
The Mumbai Metropolitan Region /Mumbai Metropolitan Area is the metropolitan area consisting of the metropolis of Mumbai and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of seven municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils...

, including the cities of Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai is a Planned Satellite City on the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was developed in 1972 as a twin city of Mumbai, and is the largest planned city on the planet, with under the jurisdiction of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation and a total area of . Navi Mumbai...

 and Thane
Thane
Thane , is a city in Maharashtra, India, part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, northeastern suburb of Mumbai at the head of the Thane Creek. It is the administrative headquarters of Thane district. On 16 April 1853, G.I.P...

, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world.
Encyclopedia
Mumbai formerly known as Bombay (b) in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, is the capital of the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 population of approximately 20.5 million. Along with the neighbouring urban areas
Mumbai metropolitan area
The Mumbai Metropolitan Region /Mumbai Metropolitan Area is the metropolitan area consisting of the metropolis of Mumbai and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of seven municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils...

, including the cities of Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai is a Planned Satellite City on the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was developed in 1972 as a twin city of Mumbai, and is the largest planned city on the planet, with under the jurisdiction of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation and a total area of . Navi Mumbai...

 and Thane
Thane
Thane , is a city in Maharashtra, India, part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, northeastern suburb of Mumbai at the head of the Thane Creek. It is the administrative headquarters of Thane district. On 16 April 1853, G.I.P...

, it is one of the most populous urban regions in the world. Mumbai lies on the west
Konkan
The Konkan also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad to Mangalore...

 coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. As of 2009, Mumbai was named an Alpha world city. Mumbai is also the richest city in India, and has the highest GDP of any city in South
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

, West or Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

.

The seven islands
Seven islands of Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were an archipelago of islands that were, over a span of five centuries, connected to form the area of the modern city of Mumbai in India. The seven islands were gradually physically united through land reclamation projects...

 that came to constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies. For centuries, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese
Portuguese Empire
The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or the Portuguese Colonial Empire , was the first global empire in history...

 and subsequently to the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

. During the mid-18th century, Mumbai was reshaped by the British with large-scale civil engineering projects
Hornby Vellard
The Hornby Vellard was a project to build a causeway uniting all seven islands of Bombay into a single island with a deep natural harbour. The project was started by the governor William Hornby in 1782 and all islands were linked by 1838...

, and emerged as a significant trading town. Economic and educational development characterised the city during the 19th century. It became a strong base for the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

 during the early 20th century. When India became independent in 1947, the city was incorporated into Bombay State
Bombay State
The Bombay State was a state of India, dissolved with the formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat states on May 1, 1960.-History:During British rule, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the Bombay Presidency...

. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement
Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti
http://ekmarathimanoos.blogspot.com/2009/01/belgaum-border-dispute-bleeding-wound.htmlSanyukta Maharashtra Samiti , roughly translated as United Maharashtra Committee, was an organisation that spearheaded the demand in the 1950s for the creation of a separate Marathi-speaking state out of the ...

, a new state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

 was created with Bombay as capital. The city was renamed Mumbai in 1996.

Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India, it is also one of the world's top 10 centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 5% of India's GDP, and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Trust
Mumbai Port Trust
Mumbai Port, earlier known as Bombay Port, lies midway on the West coast of India, on the natural deep-water harbor of Mumbai. The harbor spread over is protected by the mainland of Konkan to its east and north and by the island city of Mumbai to its west...

 & JNPT), and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy
Economy of India
The Economy of India is the ninth largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth largest by purchasing power parity . The country is a part of the G-20 major economies and the BRICS, in addition to being partners of the ASEAN. India has a per capita GDP of $3,608 as per 2010 figures, making it...

. Mumbai is home to important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India
Reserve Bank of India
The Reserve Bank of India is the central banking institution of India and controls the monetary policy of the rupee as well as US$300.21 billion of currency reserves. The institution was established on 1 April 1935 during the British Raj in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of...

, the Bombay Stock Exchange
Bombay Stock Exchange
The Bombay Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located on Dalal Street, Mumbai and is the oldest stock exchange in Asia. The equity market capitalization of the companies listed on the BSE was 1.63 trillion as of December 2010, making it the 4th largest stock exchange in Asia and the 8th largest...

, the National Stock Exchange of India
National Stock Exchange of India
The National Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located at Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is the 9th largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization and largest in India by daily turnover and number of trades, for both equities and derivative trading. NSE has a market capitalization...

, the SEBI
Securities and Exchange Board of India
The Securities and Exchange Board of India is the regulator for the securities market in India.-History:It was formed officially by the Government of India in 1992 with SEBI Act 1992 being passed by the Indian Parliament...

 and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. It houses some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is India's primary nuclear research facility based in Mumbai. It has a number of nuclear reactors, all of which are used for India's nuclear power and research programme.- History :...

, NPCL
Nuclear Power Corporation of India
The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited is a government-owned corporation of India based in Mumbai. One of the public sector undertakings, it is wholly owned by the Union Government and is responsible for the generation of nuclear power for electricity. NPCIL is administered by the...

, IREL
Indian Rare Earths Limited
Indian Rare Earths Limited ' is a government-owned corporation in India based in Mumbai. It was incorporated as a private limited company and jointly owned by the Government of India and Government of Travancore Cochin. Government of India took control of IREL in 1963 under the administrative...

, TIFR
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research is a research institution in India dedicated to basic research in mathematics and the sciences. It is a Deemed University and works under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India. It is located at Navy Nagar, Colaba, Mumbai...

, AERB
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board
The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board was constituted on November 15, 1983 by the President of India by exercising the powers conferred by Section 27 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 to carry out certain regulatory and safety functions under the Act...

, AECI
Atomic Energy Commission of India
The Atomic Energy Commission is a governing body functioning under the Department of Atomic Energy , Government of India. The DAE is under the direct charge of the Prime Minister.- History :...

, and the Department of Atomic Energy
Department of Atomic Energy (India)
The Department of Atomic Energy is a department directly under the Prime Minister of India with headquartered in Mumbai. The department is responsible for nuclear technology, including nuclear power and research....

. The city also houses India's Hindi (Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

) and Marathi
Marathi cinema
Marathi cinema refers to films produced in the Marathi language in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is the oldest and pioneer film industry in India...

 film and television industry. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living
Standard of living in India
With one of the fastest growing economies in the world, clocked at a growth rate of 8.3% in 2010, India is fast on its way to becoming a large and globally important consumer economy. The Indian middle class, estimated to be 150 million people, by McKinsey is fast becoming used to Western culture....

, attract migrants from all over India and, in turn, make the city a potpourri
Potpourri
Potpourri is a mixture of dried, naturally fragrant plant material, used to provide a gentle natural scent in houses. It is usually placed in a decorative wooden bowl, or tied in small sachet made from sheer fabric....

 of many communities and cultures
Culture of India
India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from place to place within the country, but nevertheless possess a commonality....

.

City name

The name Mumbai is derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba—the name of the Koli
KOLI
KOLI is a radio station serving Wichita Falls, Texas and Vicinity with a country music format. It operates on FM frequency 94.9 MHz and is under ownership of Cumulus Media. It is the radio flagship station for the Wichita Falls Wildcats hockey team....

 goddess Mumbadevi—and Aai, "mother" in the language of Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

.

The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. Ali Muhammad Khan, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi (1507) referred to the city as Manbai. In 1508, Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 writer Gaspar Correia
Gaspar Correia
Gaspar Correia or Gaspar Corrêa was a Portuguese historian, author of "Lendas da Índia , one of the earliest and most important works about Portuguese rule in Asia, being referred to as a Portuguese Polybius.- Biography :There is little information about the life of the author...

 used the name Bombaim, in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India"). This name possibly originated as the Old Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese
Galician-Portuguese or Old Portuguese was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. It was first spoken in the area bounded in the north and west by the Atlantic Ocean and the Douro River in the south but it was later extended south...

 phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa
Duarte Barbosa
Duarte Barbosa was a Portuguese writer and Portuguese India officer between 1500 and 1516–17, with the post of scrivener in Cannanore factory and sometimes interpreter of the local language...

 used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane
Thane
Thane , is a city in Maharashtra, India, part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, northeastern suburb of Mumbai at the head of the Thane Creek. It is the administrative headquarters of Thane district. On 16 April 1853, G.I.P...

 and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.
Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), and Boon Bay (1690). After the British
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

 name was officially anglicised as Bombay.

By the late 20th century, the city was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi language, Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

, Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

, Kannada
Kannada language
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...

 and Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

 speakers and as Bambai in Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 and Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

. The English name was officially changed to Mumbai in November 1995. This came at the insistence of the Marathi language nationalist Shiv Sena party that had just won the Maharashtra state elections and mirrored similar name changes across the country.
A theory was proposed suggesting that "Bombay" was a corrupted English version of "Mumbai" and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule. The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region. However, the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and Indians from other regions as well. However, mentions of the city by the name other than Mumbai have been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature.

A widespread popular etymology of Bombay holds that it was derived from a Portuguese name meaning "good bay". This is based on the facts that bom is Portuguese for "good" and baía (or the archaic spelling bahia) means "bay". However, this literal translation
Literal translation
Literal translation, or direct translation, is the rendering of text from one language to another "word-for-word" rather than conveying the sense of the original...

 would have been incorrect in grammatical gender
Grammatical gender
Grammatical gender is defined linguistically as a system of classes of nouns which trigger specific types of inflections in associated words, such as adjectives, verbs and others. For a system of noun classes to be a gender system, every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be...

, as bom is masculine, while baia is feminine; a correct Portuguese rendering of "good bay" would be boa ba(h)ia. Having said this, baim is an archaic, masculine word for "little bay".

Portuguese scholar José Pedro Machado in his Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa (1981; "Portuguese Dictionary of Onomastics and Etymology"), seems to reject the "Bom Bahia" hypothesis, suggesting that the presence of a bay was a coincidence (rather than a basis of the toponym) and led to a misconception, that the noun (bahia; "bay") was an integral part of the Portuguese name.

Early history

Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands
Seven islands of Bombay
The seven islands of Bombay were an archipelago of islands that were, over a span of five centuries, connected to form the area of the modern city of Mumbai in India. The seven islands were gradually physically united through land reclamation projects...

: Bombay Island
Isle of Bombay
thumb|right|The original islandsIsle of Bombay was one of Seven islands of Bombay that were merged to create the city of Bombay. The island has a natural harbour to the east and Malabar hills to west.- References:*...

, Parel
Parel
Lower Parel or Parel is central part of Mumbai. It is also lends its name to two railway stations on the Mumbai suburban railway. Most of the mills in Mumbai used to be in this area till some years ago...

, Mazagaon
Mazagaon
Mazagaon, also spelled Mazgaon and Mazagon , and pronounced by the Catholics as 'Mazgon' or 'Maz-a-gon' and the Marathi-speakers as Mazhgav. It is one of the seven islands of Mumbai. It is part of South Mumbai and can be reached by Byculla Station on the Central railway line and Dockyard Road...

, Mahim
Mahim
Mahim is a neighbourhood in Mumbai. It is also the name of a railway station in Mahim area, on the Mumbai suburban railway on the Western Railway railway line. In ancient times, the area was known as Maijim, Mejambu, Mahikawati....

, Colaba
Colaba
Colaba is a part of the city of Mumbai, India, and also a Lok Sabha constituency. During Portuguese rule in the 16th century, the island was known as Candil...

, Worli
Worli
-History:Worli was one of the original seven islands that constituted the city of Mumbai. Although primarily a fishing village, the Worli Fort, a British fort that is now in ruins, is located there. Its original resident was the legendary Dishankeshwar Kalsi who has also been recognized in several...

, and Old Woman's Island
Old Woman's Island
The Old Woman's Island, also known as Little Colaba is one of the seven islands composing the city of Mumbai, India, and part of the historic Old Bombay....

 (also known as Little Colaba). It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. Pleistocene
Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

 sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali
Kandivali
Kandivali, or Kandivli is the name of a suburb of Mumbai, India. It is also the name of the railway station in Kandivali suburb, on the Western Railway line of the Mumbai suburban railway.- History :...

 in northern Mumbai by archaeologist Todd in 1939 suggest that the islands were inhabited since the Stone Age
South Asian Stone Age
The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia. Evidence for the most ancient anatomically modern Homo sapiens in South Asia has been found in the cave sites of Batadomba lena and Beli lena in Sri Lanka.In Mehrgarh, in what is today western...

. Perhaps at the beginning of the Common era
Common Era
Common Era ,abbreviated as CE, is an alternative designation for the calendar era originally introduced by Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th century, traditionally identified with Anno Domini .Dates before the year 1 CE are indicated by the usage of BCE, short for Before the Common Era Common Era...

 (2000 years ago), or possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.

In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 of Magadha
Magadha
Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas or kingdoms in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganga; its first capital was Rajagriha then Pataliputra...

. The Kanheri Caves
Kanheri Caves
The Kanheri Caves are a group of rock-cut monuments, located north of Borivali on the western outskirts of Mumbai, India, deep within the green forests of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park. It is 6 km from the National Park Main Gate & 7 km from Borivali Station. Tourists can go in after...

 in Borivali
Borivali
Borivali or Borivli a suburban area located in the north-west section of Mumbai island. Borivali is approximately from Mumbai Airport and from Churchgate Railway Station...

 were excavated in the mid-third century BCE, and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times. The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek is the stage of the Greek language in the periods spanning the times c. 9th–6th centuries BC, , c. 5th–4th centuries BC , and the c. 3rd century BC – 6th century AD of ancient Greece and the ancient world; being predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek...

: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy , was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the...

 in 150 CE.

Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India...

, Abhiras, Vakatakas, Kalachuri
Kalachuri
Kalachuri Empire is this the name used by two kingdoms who had a succession of dynasties from the 10th-12th centuries, one ruling over areas in Central India and were called Chedi or Haihaya and the other southern Kalachuri who ruled over parts of Karnataka...

s, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas
Chalukya dynasty
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi from the...

 and Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakuta Dynasty
The Rashtrakuta Empire was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and the 10th centuries. During this period they ruled as several closely related, but individual clans. Rastrakutas in inscriptions represented as descendants of Satyaki, a Yadava well known...

, before being ruled by the Silhara dynasty
Silhara dynasty
The Hindu Silhara dynasty ruled the region around present-day Mumbai between 810 and 1240.They were split into three branches; one branch ruled North Konkan, the second South Konkan , while the third ruled what is now known as modern districts of Satara, Kolhapur and Belgaon between 940 to 1215...

 from 810 to 1260. Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are, Jogeshwari Caves
Jogeshwari Caves
The Jogeshwari Caves are some of the earliest Buddhist cave temples sculptures located in the Mumbai suburb of Jogeshwari, India. The caves date back to 520 to 550 CE. The caves are located off the Western Express Highway, and are surrounded by encroachments. The caves are used as a temple by the...

 (between 520 to 525), Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
The Elephanta Caves are a network of sculpted caves located on Elephanta Island, or Gharapuri in Mumbai Harbour, to the east of the city of Mumbai in the Indian state of Maharashtra...

 (between the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple
Walkeshwar Temple
Walkeshwar Temple , also known as the Baan Ganga Temple, is a temple dedicated to the Hindu god, Shiva located in Walkeshwar, near Malabar Hill neighborhood, in South Mumbai precinct of the city of Mumbai, India...

 (10th century), and Banganga Tank
Banganga Tank
Banganga or Banganga Tank is an ancient water tank which is part of the Walkeshwar Temple Complex in Malabar Hill area of Mumbai in India.-History:...

 (12th century).

King Bhimdev
Raja Bhimdev
Bhimdev II or Raja Bhimdev also known as Raja Bimba was a 11th century king who had his capital in Mahikawati, the present-day Mahim, in Mumbai, India....

 founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century, and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim
Mahim
Mahim is a neighbourhood in Mumbai. It is also the name of a railway station in Mahim area, on the Mumbai suburban railway on the Western Railway railway line. In ancient times, the area was known as Maijim, Mejambu, Mahikawati....

). The Pathare Prabhu
Pathare prabhu
Pathare Prabhu is one of the Hindu communities in the city of Mumbai . These people are among earliest settlers in the city. They are known to have one of the oldest academic traditions amongst Hindus on par with Brahmins. They were amongst the first of the Hindus to adopt to British educational...

s, one of the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev. The Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

 annexed the islands in 1347–48, and controlled it till 1407. During this time, the islands were administered by the Muslim Governors of Gujarat, who were appointed by the Delhi Sultanate.
The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate
Gujarat Sultanate
The Gujarat Sultanate was an independent kingdom established in the early 15th century in Gujarat. The founder of the ruling Muzaffarid dynasty, Zafar Khan was appointed as governor of Gujarat by Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq IV in 1391, the ruler of the principal state in north India at the...

, which was established in 1407. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah
Haji Ali Dargah
The Haji Ali Dargah is a mosque and dargah located on an islet off the coast of Worli in the Southern part of Mumbai. Near the heart of the city proper, the dargah is one of the most recognisable landmarks of Mumbai....

 in Worli
Worli
-History:Worli was one of the original seven islands that constituted the city of Mumbai. Although primarily a fishing village, the Worli Fort, a British fort that is now in ruins, is located there. Its original resident was the legendary Dishankeshwar Kalsi who has also been recognized in several...

, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan. In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani
Bahadur Khan Gilani
Bahadur Khan Gilani was an officer of the Gujarat Sultanate. During 1491–1494, the islands of Bombay were wrested from Gilani's control by the Bahamani general Mahmud Gavan....

 of the Bahamani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands, but was defeated.

European rule

The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

 during the mid-16th century. Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 emperor Humayun
Humayun
Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled present day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but with Persian aid, he eventually regained an even larger one...

, Sultan Bahadur Shah
Bahadur Shah of Gujarat
Sultan Qutb-ud-Din Bahadur Shah , who reigned 1526-1535 and 1536-1537, was a sultan of Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval independent kingdom in India.-Early years:...

 of the Gujarat Sultanate was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein
Treaty of Bassein (1534)
The Treaty of Bassein was signed by Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat and Portugal on December 23, 1534 while on board the galleon São Mateus. Based on the terms of the agreement, the Portuguese Empire gained control of the city of Bassein, as well as its territories, islands, and seas...

 with the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or the Portuguese Colonial Empire , was the first global empire in history...

 on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the seven islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535. The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay.

Some of the oldest Catholic churches in the city such as the St. Michael's Church
St. Michael's Church (Mumbai)
St. Michael's Church is one of the oldest Catholic churches as well as one of oldest existing Portuguese buildings in Mumbai. The church is situated in Mahim, located at the intersection of L.J. Road and Mahim Causeway. Due to its location, it is also informally known as Mahim Church...

 at Mahim
Mahim
Mahim is a neighbourhood in Mumbai. It is also the name of a railway station in Mahim area, on the Mumbai suburban railway on the Western Railway railway line. In ancient times, the area was known as Maijim, Mejambu, Mahikawati....

 (1534), St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579), St. Andrew's Church
St. Andrew's Church (Mumbai)
St. Andrew's Church is one of the oldest churches in Bombay built by the Portuguese Jesuits. It was built in 1575. It stands on the sea-shore of the Bandra suburb of Bombay.-References:*...

 at Bandra (1580), and Gloria Church
Gloria Church
Gloria Church is one of the oldest Roman Catholic churches in Mumbai built by the Portuguese Franciscans in 1632...

 at Byculla (1632), date from the Portuguese era. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 and Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza was a Portuguese infanta and queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King Charles II.She married the king in 1662...

, daughter of King John IV of Portugal
John IV of Portugal
|-|John IV was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 1640 to his death. He was the grandson of Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, who had in 1580 claimed the Portuguese crown and sparked the struggle for the throne of Portugal. John was nicknamed John the Restorer...

, placed the islands in possession of the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. However, Salsette
Salsette Island
Salsette Island is an island in Maharashtra state on India's west coast. The metropolis of Mumbai and the city of Thane lie on this island, making it the 14th most populous island and the fourth most densely populated island in the world, after Migingo Island in Kenya, Ap Lei Chau in Hong Kong,...

, Bassein, Mazagaon
Mazagaon
Mazagaon, also spelled Mazgaon and Mazagon , and pronounced by the Catholics as 'Mazgon' or 'Maz-a-gon' and the Marathi-speakers as Mazhgav. It is one of the seven islands of Mumbai. It is part of South Mumbai and can be reached by Byculla Station on the Central railway line and Dockyard Road...

, Parel
Parel
Lower Parel or Parel is central part of Mumbai. It is also lends its name to two railway stations on the Mumbai suburban railway. Most of the mills in Mumbai used to be in this area till some years ago...

, Worli
Worli
-History:Worli was one of the original seven islands that constituted the city of Mumbai. Although primarily a fishing village, the Worli Fort, a British fort that is now in ruins, is located there. Its original resident was the legendary Dishankeshwar Kalsi who has also been recognized in several...

, Sion, Dharavi
Dharavi
Dharavi is a slum and administrative ward, over parts of Sion, Bandra, Kurla and Kalina suburbs of Mumbai, India. It is sandwiched between Mahim in the west and Sion in the east, and spread over an area of 175 hectares, or...

, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the British managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.

These islands were in turn leased to the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 in 1668 for a sum of £
Pound sterling
The pound sterling , commonly called the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, its Crown Dependencies and the British Overseas Territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, British Antarctic Territory and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence...

10 per annum by the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668
Royal Charter of 27 March 1668
The Royal Charter of 27 March 1668 was an agreement between the British Empire and the British East India Company. It led to the transfer of Bombay from Charles II of England to the British East India Company for an annual rent of £10...

. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The islands were subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan
Yakut Khan
Yakut Khan was a Siddi Naval Admiral and administrator of Janjira Fort who first served under Bijapur Sultanate and later under the Mughal Empire. His real name was Siddi Qasim Khan but was given the title of Yakut Khan by Emperor Alamgir...

, the Siddi
Siddi
The Siddi, Siddhi, or Sheedi , also known as Habshi, are an Indian and Pakistani ethnic group of Afro-Arab and/or Black African descent. The Siddi population is currently estimated to be 20,000–55,000, with Gujarat and Hyderabad in India the main population centre. Siddis are mainly Sufi Muslims,...

 admiral of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

, in October 1672, Rickloffe van Goen
Rickloffe van Goen
Rickloffe van Goen was the Governor-General of the Dutch East India Company. On 20 February 1673, he with his fleet of 6,000 men attacked Bombay. Soon, The Treaty of Westminster concluded between England and the Netherlands in 1674, relieved the British settlements in Bombay of further apprehension...

, the Governor-General of Dutch India
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia...

 on 20 February 1673, and Siddi
Siddi
The Siddi, Siddhi, or Sheedi , also known as Habshi, are an Indian and Pakistani ethnic group of Afro-Arab and/or Black African descent. The Siddi population is currently estimated to be 20,000–55,000, with Gujarat and Hyderabad in India the main population centre. Siddis are mainly Sufi Muslims,...

 admiral Sambal
Siddi Sambal
Siddi Sambal was the Siddi admiral of the Mughal Empire. On 10 October 1673, he and his fleet entered Bombay without permission from the British. They destroyed the Pen and Nagothan rivers which were very important for the British and the Maratha King Shivaji....

 on 10 October 1673.

In 1687, the British East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat
Surat
Surat , also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper...

 to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
The Bombay Presidency was a province of British India. It was established in the 17th century as a trading post for the English East India Company, but later grew to encompass much of western and central India, as well as parts of post-partition Pakistan and the Arabian Peninsula.At its greatest...

. Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's establishments in India. Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90. The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Maratha
Maratha Empire
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of South Asia, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km²....

s under Peshwa
Peshwa
A Peshwa is the titular equivalent of a modern Prime Minister. Emporer Shivaji created the Peshwa designation in order to more effectively delegate administrative duties during the growth of the Maratha Empire. Prior to 1749, Peshwas held office for 8-9 years and controlled the Maratha army...

Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
Shrimant Baji Rao Balaji Bhatt , also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati Shahu from 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorale Baji Rao...

 captured Salsette
Salsette Island
Salsette Island is an island in Maharashtra state on India's west coast. The metropolis of Mumbai and the city of Thane lie on this island, making it the 14th most populous island and the fourth most densely populated island in the world, after Migingo Island in Kenya, Ap Lei Chau in Hong Kong,...

 in 1737, and Bassein in 1739.

By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India. Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. With the Treaty of Surat
Treaty of Surat
The Treaty of Surat was a treaty by which Raghunathrao, one of the claimants to the throne of the Peshwa, agreed to cede Salsette and Bassein Fort to the English, in consideration of being himself restored to Poona. The military operations that followed are known as the First Maratha War...

 (1775), the British formally gained control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War
First Anglo-Maratha War
The First Anglo-Maratha War was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire in India. The war began with the Treaty of Surat and ended with the Treaty of Salbai.-Background:...

. The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas without violence through the Treaty of Purandar
Treaty of Purandar (1776)
The Treaty of Purandar was a doctrine signed on March 1, 1776 by the peshwa of the Maratha people and the supreme government of the British East India Company in Calcutta. Based on the terms of the accord, the British were able to secure Salsette.-Sources:**Sugden, John. Nelson: A Dream of Glory,...

 (1776), and later through the Treaty of Salbai
Treaty of Salbai
The Treaty of Salbai was signed on May 17, 1782, by representatives of the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company after long negotiations to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War. Under its terms, the Company retained control of Salsette and acquired guarantees that the...

 (1782), signed to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.

From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands into a single amalgamated mass. This project, known as Hornby Vellard
Hornby Vellard
The Hornby Vellard was a project to build a causeway uniting all seven islands of Bombay into a single island with a deep natural harbour. The project was started by the governor William Hornby in 1782 and all islands were linked by 1838...

, was completed by 1784. In 1817, the British East India Company under Mountstuart Elphinstone
Mountstuart Elphinstone
Mountstuart Elphinstone was a Scottish statesman and historian, associated with the government of British India. He later became the Governor of Bombay where he is credited with the opening of several educational institutions accessible to the Indian population...

 defeated Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II
Baji Rao II was the last Peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy, and governed from 1796 to 1818. His reign was marked by confrontations with the British.-Biography:...

, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in the Battle of Khadki
Battle of Khadki
The Battle of Khadki took place at Khadki on November 5, 1817 between the forces of the British East India Company and those of Bajirao II, the Peshwa of the Maratha Empire...

. Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came under British suzerainty, and were incorporated in Bombay Presidency. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan witnessed the freedom of Bombay from all attacks by native powers.

By 1845, the seven islands were coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project. On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thane
Thane
Thane , is a city in Maharashtra, India, part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, northeastern suburb of Mumbai at the head of the Thane Creek. It is the administrative headquarters of Thane district. On 16 April 1853, G.I.P...

. During the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.

The opening of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
The Suez Canal , also known by the nickname "The Highway to India", is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigation...

 in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

. In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic
Mumbai plague epidemic
The Mumbai plague epidemic was a bubonic plague epidemic that stuck the city of Mumbai in the late nineteenth century. The plague killed thousands, and many fled the city leading to a drastic fall in the population of the city.-Causes:...

 where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected. As the capital of the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
The Bombay Presidency was a province of British India. It was established in the 17th century as a trading post for the English East India Company, but later grew to encompass much of western and central India, as well as parts of post-partition Pakistan and the Arabian Peninsula.At its greatest...

, it witnessed the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

, with the Quit India Movement
Quit India Movement
The Quit India Movement , or the August Movement was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi's call for immediate independence. Gandhi hoped to bring the British government to the negotiating table...

 in 1942 and The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
The Royal Indian Navy mutiny encompasses a total strike and subsequent mutiny by Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay harbour on 18 February 1946...

 in 1946 being its most notable events.

Independent India

After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State
Bombay State
The Bombay State was a state of India, dissolved with the formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat states on May 1, 1960.-History:During British rule, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the Bombay Presidency...

. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. On April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District
Mumbai Suburban District
The Mumbai Suburban district is a district of the state of Maharashtra in western India. Its headquarters is in Bandra . It consists of three administrative subdivisions or tehsils: Kurla, Andheri, and Borivali. The district along with Mumbai City district make up the metropolis of Mumbai...

 and Bombay City
Mumbai City District
Mumbai City District is a district of Maharashtra in Konkan Division. As a city district, it has no headquarters or subdivisions. It, along with the Mumbai Suburban District make up the metropolis of Mumbai. The city area is called the "island city" or South Mumbai or Old Mumbai. It extends from...

 to form Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.

The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. In the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

discussions in 1955, the Congress party
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. The States Reorganisation
States Reorganisation Act
The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries and governance of India's states and territories. The act reorganised the boundaries of India's states along linguistic lines, and amended the Indian Constitution to replace the three types of states, known as Parts A, B,...

 Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. Bombay Citizens' Committee
Bombay Citizens' Committee
Bombay Citizens' Committee was an advocacy group which lobbied to keep Bombay city out of Maharashtra during the state reorganisation. The group was headed by a leading cotton industrialist Purshottamdas Thakurdas. J.R.D. Tata was one of the members and the committee was composed mostly of...

, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati
Gujarati people
Gujarati people , or Gujaratis are an ethnic group that is traditionally Gujarati-speaking and can trace their ancestry to the state of Gujarat in western India...

 industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status.

Following protests during the movement in which 105 people were killed by police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960. Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat. Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar
Central Provinces and Berar
The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India. The province comprised British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India, and covered much of present-day Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra states. Its capital was Nagpur. The Central Provinces was formed in...

, five districts from Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
-After Indian independence :When India gained independence in 1947 and Pakistan came into existence in 1947, the British left the local rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one of the new dominions or to remain independent...

, and numerous princely states enclosed between them. As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk
Hutatma Chowk
Hutatma Chowk is the official name of a square in South Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.The square hosts Flora Fountain and was known by that name until 1960. It was officially renamed in 1960 in memory of the members of Samyukta Maharashtra Samiti, who lost their lives when police fired upon their...

(Martyr's Square), and a memorial was erected.

The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point
Nariman Point
Nariman Point is Mumbai's premier business district and country's first central business district. It was named after Khursheed Framji Nariman, a Parsi visionary. The area is situated on land reclaimed from the sea. It had the distinction of having the highest commercial real estate rental space...

 and Cuffe Parade
Cuffe Parade
Cuffe Parade is an upmarket neighbourhood in South Mumbai. It is in the southernmost region of the city just north of Navy Nagar. To the north of Cuffe Parade lies Badhwar Park, Ambedkar Nagar the slum area of the Cuffe Parade.-History:...

 were reclaimed and developed. The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority
Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority
Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority , commonly abbreviated as MMRDA, is a body of the Government of Maharashtra that is responsible for the infrastructure development of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region...

 (BMRDA) was set up on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra
Government of Maharashtra
Government of Maharashtra is the government for the state of Maharashtra in Western India.It is an elected government with 288 MLAs elected to the legislative assembly for a 5 year term.-Ministers:...

 as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region
Mumbai metropolitan area
The Mumbai Metropolitan Region /Mumbai Metropolitan Area is the metropolitan area consisting of the metropolis of Mumbai and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of seven municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils...

. In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai is a Planned Satellite City on the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was developed in 1972 as a twin city of Mumbai, and is the largest planned city on the planet, with under the jurisdiction of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation and a total area of . Navi Mumbai...

 was founded by City and Industrial Development Corporation
City and Industrial Development Corporation
The City and Industrial Development Corporation of Maharashtra or CIDCO is a city planning organization created by the Government of Maharashtra. CIDCO was formed on 17 March 1970 under the Indian Companies Act of 1956...

 (CIDCO) across Thane and Raigad district
Raigad district
Raigad District , also known as Raigarh District, is a district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is located in the Konkan region. The district was renamed after Raigad, the fort which was the former capital of the Maratha leader Shivaji, and is located in the interior regions of the district,...

s to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population. Textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the massive 1982 Great Bombay Textile Strike
Great Bombay Textile Strike
The Great Bombay Textile Strike was a textile strike called on 18 January 1982 by the mill workers of Bombay under trade union leader Dutta Samant. The purpose of the strike was to obtain bonus and wage increases...

, in which nearly 250,000 workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike. Mumbai's defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense redevelopment
Redevelopment of Mumbai mills
The redevelopment of Mumbai's cotton mills is a process that commenced in 1992, whereby the numerous cotton mills that once dotted the landscape of Mumbai, India, were demolished and replaced by new residential and commercial buildings, as part of the wider modernization of Mumbai.- The cotton mill...

.

The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55–60% of India's containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 at Nhava Sheva
Nhava Sheva
Nhava Sheva, officially Jawaharlal Nehru Port, is the 6th largest port and the largest container port in India. Located in Maharashtra, the port on the Arabian Sea is accessed via Thane Creek.- History :...

 with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour
Mumbai Harbour
Mumbai Harbour , or Front Bay, is a natural deep-water harbor in the southern portion of the Ulhas River estuary. The narrower, northern part of the estuary is called Thane Creek. The harbor opens to the Arabian Sea to the south...

 and to serve as a hub port for the city. The geographical limits of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban, though they were administered by same Municipal Administration.

The past two decades have seen an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93
Bombay Riots
The Bombay Riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai, in December 1992 and January 1993, in which around 900 people died. An estimated 575 Muslims and 275 Hindus died, and 2,000 people were injured in the riots. . An investigative commission was formed under Justice B.N. Srikrishna, but the...

 in which more than 1,000 people were killed. On 12 March 1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries. In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains
Mumbai Suburban Railway
The Mumbai Suburban Railway system, part of the public transport system of Mumbai, is provided for by the state-run Indian Railways' two zonal Western Railways and Central Railways. The system carries more than 6.99 million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger densities of any...

. In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to a couple of heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. The blasts that occurred at the Opera House, Zaveri Bazaar, and Dadar on 13th July 2011 were the latest in the series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai.

Today, Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub. For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment. From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia's largest city and home of the world's most prolific film industry.

Geography

Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district
Mumbai City District
Mumbai City District is a district of Maharashtra in Konkan Division. As a city district, it has no headquarters or subdivisions. It, along with the Mumbai Suburban District make up the metropolis of Mumbai. The city area is called the "island city" or South Mumbai or Old Mumbai. It extends from...

 and Mumbai Suburban district
Mumbai Suburban District
The Mumbai Suburban district is a district of the state of Maharashtra in western India. Its headquarters is in Bandra . It consists of three administrative subdivisions or tehsils: Kurla, Andheri, and Borivali. The district along with Mumbai City district make up the metropolis of Mumbai...

, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai
South Mumbai
South Mumbai , sometimes incorrectly referred to by English Media as "SoBo" , the southern-most precinct of the city of Mumbai, India, comprises the city's main business localities and its adjoining areas...

. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) under the administration of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The remaining area belongs to Defence, Mumbai Port Trust, Atomic Energy Commission and Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the BMC.

Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River
Ulhas River
The Ulhas River is a river of western India. It originates near Karjat in the Western Ghats Range, and flows westward through Raigad and Thane districts of Maharashtra between Kulgaon-Badlapur, north to Ulhasnagar and on to Kalyan, where it turns west to Thane...

 on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan
Konkan
The Konkan also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad to Mangalore...

. It sits on Salsette Island
Salsette Island
Salsette Island is an island in Maharashtra state on India's west coast. The metropolis of Mumbai and the city of Thane lie on this island, making it the 14th most populous island and the fourth most densely populated island in the world, after Migingo Island in Kenya, Ap Lei Chau in Hong Kong,...

, partially shared with the Thane district
Thane District
Thane is a district in northern Maharashtra state in western India. As of 2011 it is the most populated district in the nation. The headquarters of the district is the city of Thane. Other major cities in the district are Navi Mumbai , Kalyan-Dombivli, Mira-Bhayander, Bhiwandi, Ulhasnagar,...

. Mumbai is bounded by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 to the west. Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft); the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai
Powai
Powai is a suburb situated in the north-east of the city of Mumbai, India. The word Powai comes from Padmavati a Hindu Goddess , whose temple is situated on the banks of Lake Powai...

-Kanheri ranges. Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Sanjay Gandhi National Park
Sanjay Gandhi National Park , previously Borivali National Park, is a large protected area in the northern part of suburban Mumbai city in Maharashtra State in India...

 (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district
Mumbai Suburban District
The Mumbai Suburban district is a district of the state of Maharashtra in western India. Its headquarters is in Bandra . It consists of three administrative subdivisions or tehsils: Kurla, Andheri, and Borivali. The district along with Mumbai City district make up the metropolis of Mumbai...

, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).

Apart from the Bhatsa Dam
Bhatsa Dam
Bhatsa Dam, is an earthfill and gravity dam on Bhatsa river near Shahapur in state of Maharashtra in India.-Specifications:The height of the dam above lowest foundation is while the length is . The volume content is and gross storage capacity is ....

, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar
Vihar Lake
Vihar Lake is located near Vihar village on the Mithi River within the precincts of the Borivali National Park, also called the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, in North Mumbai. When built in 1860 , it was considered as the largest lake in Mumbai in the Salsette group of islands. It is hemmed between...

, Lower Vaitarna
Middle Vaitarna Dam
Middle Vaitarna Dam will be the tallest dam in Maharashtra, a state in India, planned to be built on the Vaitarna river in Thane's Kochale village by 2012. The dam will stand at a height of 102 meter when completed and will hold up 455 million liter of water vital for Mumbai's growing water demand....

, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi
Tulsi Lake
Tulsi Lake is a fresh water lake in northern Mumbai. It is stated to be the second largest lake in Mumbai and supplies part of the city’s potable water.http://mumbai.clickindia.com/travel/tulsilake.html, Travel, Tulsi lake This is one of the three lakes located in the Salsette Island; the other two...

, Tansa and Powai
Powai
Powai is a suburb situated in the north-east of the city of Mumbai, India. The word Powai comes from Padmavati a Hindu Goddess , whose temple is situated on the banks of Lake Powai...

. Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city's limits. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Three small rivers, the Dahisar River
Dahisar River
Dahisar River is a river in the northern suburbs of Mumbai near the suburb of Dahisar. It originates in the Tulsi Lake in the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in the northern reaches of the city. The river is currently highly polluted with the dumping of industrial effluents from workshops, and sewage...

, Poinsar (or Poisar)
Poisar River
Poisar River is a river in Mumbai, India. It begins in the Sanjay Gandhi National Park and empties into the Marve Creek and finally into the Arabian Sea. The river is nothing more than a mere stream when it begins and is contaminated with industrial effluents and sewage...

 and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara)
Oshiwara River
Oshiwara River is a river in Mumbai, India. It begins in the Aarey Milk Colony, cuts through the Goregaon hills, across the Aarey Milk Colony before emptying into the Malad Creek. On the way it is joined by another creek near Swami Vivekanand Road, before picking up industrial effluents and sewage...

 originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River
Mithi River
The Mithi River is a river in Salsette Island, the island of the city of Mumbai. It is a confluence of tail water discharges of Powai and Vihar lakes. The river is seasonal and rises during the monsoons. The overflowing lakes also contribute to the river flow which is stopped by a dam in other times...

 originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks
Creek (tidal)
A tidal creek, tidal channel, or estuary is the portion of a stream that is affected by ebb and flow of ocean tides, in the case that the subject stream discharges to an ocean, sea or strait. Thus this portion of the stream has variable salinity and electrical conductivity over the tidal cycle...

 and bays, stretching from Thane creek
Thane Creek
Thane Creek is part of the estuary of the Ulhas River in western India opening into Mumbai Harbour. It comprises the area stretching from Mumbra Retibunder to the Mankhurd-Vashi Bridge. It has been recognised as an Important Bird Area by the Bombay Natural History Society, as it is home to...

 on the
eastern to Madh Marve on the western front. The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove
Mangrove
Mangroves are various kinds of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes N and S...

 swamp
Swamp
A swamp is a wetland with some flooding of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water. A swamp generally has a large number of hammocks, or dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodical inundation. The two main types of swamp are "true" or swamp...

s, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.

Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
The Cretaceous , derived from the Latin "creta" , usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide , is a geologic period and system from circa to million years ago. In the geologic timescale, the Cretaceous follows the Jurassic period and is followed by the Paleogene period of the...

 and early Eocene
Eocene
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from about 56 to 34 million years ago , is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene spans the time from the end of the Palaeocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene Epoch. The start of the...

 eras. Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone
Seismology
Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake effects, such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic,...

 owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity. The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region
Earthquake hazard zoning of India
The Indian subcontinent has a history of devastating earthquakes. The major reason for the high frequency and intensity of the earthquakes is that India is driving into Asia at a rate of approximately 47 mm/year. Geographical statistics of India show that almost 54% of the land is vulnerable...

, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.

Climate


Mumbai has a tropical climate
Tropical climate
A tropical climate is a climate of the tropics. In the Köppen climate classification it is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above...

, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate
Tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and '"As."...

 under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July. The cooler season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.

Between June and September, the south west monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3452 mm (136 in) for 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37 in) on 26 July 2005. The average total annual rainfall is 2146.6 mm (85 in) for the Island City, and 2457 mm (97 in) for the suburbs.

The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81 °F), and the average annual precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 is 2167 mm (85 in). In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88 °F), while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (75 °F). In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84 °F) to 33.3 °C (92 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C (61 °F) to 26.2 °C (79 °F). The record high is 40.2 °C on 28 March 1982, and the record low is 7.4 °C on 27 January 1962.

Economy

Mumbai is India's largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP. It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax
Income tax
An income tax is a tax levied on the income of individuals or businesses . Various income tax systems exist, with varying degrees of tax incidence. Income taxation can be progressive, proportional, or regressive. When the tax is levied on the income of companies, it is often called a corporate...

 collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and in corporate tax
Corporate tax
Many countries impose corporate tax or company tax on the income or capital of some types of legal entities. A similar tax may be imposed at state or lower levels. The taxes may also be referred to as income tax or capital tax. Entities treated as partnerships are generally not taxed at the...

es.

As of 2008, Mumbai's GDP is , and its per-capita income in 2009 was , which is almost three times the national average. Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen and Toubro, State Bank of India
State Bank of India
The State Bank of India is the largest Indian banking and financial services company with its headquarters in Mumbai, India. It is state-owned. The bank traces its ancestry to British India, through the Imperial Bank of India, to the founding in 1806 of the Bank of Calcutta, making it the oldest...

, Life Insurance Corporation of India
Life Insurance Corporation of India
The Life Insurance Corporation of India is the largest state-owned life insurance company in India, and also the country's largest investor. It is fully owned by the Government of India. It also funds close to 24.6% of the Indian Government's expenses. It has assets estimated of...

, Tata Group
Tata Group
Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Tata Group is one of the largest companies in India by market capitalization and revenue. It has interests in communications and information technology, engineering, materials, services, energy,...

, Godrej
Godrej Group
The Godrej Group is an Indian conglomerate headquartered in Mumbai, India. It was founded by Ardeshir Godrej and Pirojsha Godrej in 1897, Lalbaug, Mumbai...

 and Reliance
Reliance Industries
Reliance Industries Limited is an Indian conglomerate company headquartered at Mumbai, India. The company operates through three business segments: petrochemicals, refining, and oil and gas, other segment of the company includes textile, retail business, special economic zone development and...

), and five of the Fortune Global 500
Fortune Global 500
The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue. The list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine....

 companies are based in Mumbai. Many foreign banks and financial institutions also have branches in this area, with the World Trade Centre being the most prominent one.

Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since been diversified to include engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology. As of 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

. Mumbai is the 3rd most expensive office market in the world. Mumbai was ranked among the fastest cities in the country for business startup in 2009.

State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar
Blue collar
Blue collar can refer to:*Blue-collar worker, a traditional designation of the working class*Blue-collar crime, the types of crimes typically associated with the working class*A census designation...

 professions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India. In Dharavi
Dharavi
Dharavi is a slum and administrative ward, over parts of Sion, Bandra, Kurla and Kalina suburbs of Mumbai, India. It is sandwiched between Mahim in the west and Sion in the east, and spread over an area of 175 hectares, or...

, in central Mumbai, there is an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.

Most of India's major television and satellite networks, as well as its major publishing houses, are headquartered in Mumbai. The centre of the Hindi movie industry, Bollywood, is the largest film producer in India and one of the largest in the world as well as centre of Marathi Film Industry. Along with the rest of India, Mumbai, its commercial capital, has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in 2000s.

Mumbai has been ranked 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index
Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index
Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index is an index of world's cities by Mastercard. Using seven evaluative dimensions, it provides rankings for 75 leading commercial cities.-2008 rankings:...

 2008. In April 2008, Mumbai was ranked seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

magazine, and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth.

Civic administration

Mumbai, extending from Colaba
Colaba
Colaba is a part of the city of Mumbai, India, and also a Lok Sabha constituency. During Portuguese rule in the 16th century, the island was known as Candil...

 in the south, to Mulund and Dahisar
Dahisar
Dahisar is a suburb of Mumbai. It is also the name of a railway station on the Mumbai suburban railway on the Western Railway railway line, situated in Dahisar suburb. Located on the city limits of Mumbai, Dahisar is the last suburb and railway station within the Mumbai Suburban District; past...

 in the north, and Mankhurd
Mankhurd
Mankhurd is a suburban neighbourhood in eastern Mumbai, India. Mankhurd is serviced by the Harbour Line of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. It is the last stop on the line on Salsette Island before leaving for Navi Mumbai on mainland Maharashtra.-Geography:...

 in the east, is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The BMC is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. The Mayor is usually chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years.

The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner
Municipal Commissioner of Mumbai
The Municipal Commissioner of Mumbai is the chief of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Though the Mayor is the head of the house, his role is largely ceremonial and almost all powers are vested in the Commissioner...

 who is an Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service is the administrative civil service of the Government of India. It is one of the three All India Services....

 (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.

The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector
District collector
The District Collector is the district head of administration of the bureaucracy in a state of India. Though he/she is appointed and is under general supervision of the state government, he/she has to be a member of the elite IAS recruited by the Central Government...

. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

, and oversee the national elections held in the city.

The Mumbai Police
Mumbai Police
The Mumbai Police is the police force of the city of Mumbai, India. It has the primary responsibilities of law enforcement and investigation within the limits of Mumbai. The department's motto is ""...

 is headed by a Police Commissioner
Police Commissioner of Mumbai
The Police Commissioner of Mumbai is the chief of the Mumbai Police. The commissioner is appointed by the Maharashtra State Government. The headquarters are opposite Crawford Market in South Mumbai. The commissioner is an Indian Police Service officer....

, who is an Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
The Indian Police Service , simply known as Indian Police or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India...

 (IPS) officer. The Mumbai Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police
Mumbai traffic police
Mumbai traffic police is the organisation entrusted with the task of managing vehicular traffic in Mumbai, India....

 zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Fire Brigade
Mumbai Fire Brigade
The Mumbai Fire Brigade is responsible for the provision of fire protection in the City of Greater Mumbai as well as responding to building collapses, drowning cases, gas leakage, oil spillage, road and rail accidents, bird and animal rescues, fallen trees and taking appropriate action during...

 department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers.

Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court at Mumbai, Maharashtra, is the High Court of India with jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra & Goa, and, the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli...

, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa
Goa
Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

, and the Union Territories
Union Territory
A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India, in the federal framework of governance. Unlike the states of India, which have their own elected governments, union territories are ruled directly by the federal government; the President of India appoints an Administrator or...

 of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court
Small Causes Court
In Indian cities, the Small Causes Court is responsible for adjudicating matters related to civil cases. The court is responsible for cases relating to tax, , property disputes and other such cases...

 for civil matters, and the Sessions Court
Sessions Court
A Sessions Court is a court of law which exists in several Commonwealth countries.-India:In Indian cities, the Sessions Court is responsible for adjudicating matters related to criminal cases. The court is responsible for cases relating to murders, theft, dacoity, pick-pocketing and other such cases...

 for criminal cases. Mumbai also has a special TADA (Terrorist and Disruptive Activities) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.

Politics

Mumbai has been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

, also known as the Congress Party. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885. The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its
first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

 during the 20th century.

The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena
Shiv Sena , is a political party in India founded on 19 June 1966 by Balasaheb Thackeray. It is currently headed by Thackeray's son, Uddhav Thackeray...

 on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people
Marathi people
The Marathi people or Maharashtrians are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, that inhabit the Maharashtra region and state of western India. Their language Marathi is part of the southern group of Indo-Aryan languages...

 in Bombay. The party headed a campaign to expel South Indian and North Indian migrants by force. The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay municipal corporation elections.

In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party ,; translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament...

 (BJP), a major national political party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly
Vidhan Sabha
The Vidhan Sabha or the Legislative Assembly is the lower house or the sole house of the provincial legislature in the different states of India. The same name is also used for the lower house of the legislatures for two of the union territories, Delhi and Pondicherry...

 elections. In 1999, the Nationalist Congress Party
Nationalist Congress Party
The Nationalist Congress Party is a centre to centre left political party primarily based in the state of Maharashtra, India.-Background:...

 (NCP) separated from the Congress, but later allied with the Congress, to form a joint venture known as the Democratic Front
Democratic Front (India)
Democratic Front is the name of the current governing coalition in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Its core constituents are Nationalist Congress Party and Indian National Congress....

. Currently, other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena
The Maharashtra Navnirman Sena is a political party based in Maharashtra operating on the motto of "Sons of the Soil". It was founded on the March 9, 2006 in Mumbai by Raj Thackeray after he left the Shiv Sena due to differences with Uddhav Thackeray and sidelining in major decisions like...

 (MNS), Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party
Samajwadi Party is a political party in India. It is based in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It describes itself as a democratic socialist party...

 (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party
Bahujan Samaj Party
The Bahujan Samaj Party is a centrist national political party in India with socialist leanings. It was formed to chiefly represent Bahujans , referring to people from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes as well as Buddhists. The party claims to be inspired by the...

 (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city.

In the Indian national elections
Elections in India
India has a quasi federal government, with elected officials at the federal , state and local levels. On a national level, the head of government, the Prime Minister, is elected directly by the people, through a general election. All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly...

 held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: Mumbai North
Mumbai North (Lok Sabha Constituency)
Mumbai North Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 48 Lok Sabha constituencies of Maharashtra state in western India.-Assembly segments:...

, Mumbai North West
Mumbai North West (Lok Sabha Constituency)
Mumbai North West Lok Sabha constituency is a constituency represented in the Lok Sabha of the Parliament of India, having approximately 1.6 million voters. The seat is currently represented by Gurudas Kamat-Assembly segments:...

, Mumbai North East
Mumbai North East (Lok Sabha Constituency)
Mumbai North East Lok Sabha constituency is a Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency of Maharashtra.-Assembly segments:...

, Mumbai North Central
Mumbai North Central (Lok Sabha Constituency)
Mumbai North Central Lok Sabha constituency is a Lok Sabha constituency of Maharashtra state in western India.-Assembly segments:...

, Mumbai South Central
Mumbai South Central (Lok Sabha Constituency)
Mumbai South Central Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 48 Lok Sabha constituencies in Maharashtra state in western India.-Assembly segments:...

, and Mumbai South
Mumbai South (Lok Sabha Constituency)
Mumbai South Lok Sabha constituency is one of the 48 Lok Sabha constituencies of Maharashtra state in western India.-Assembly segments:...

. A Member of Parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies. In the 2009 national elections
Indian general election, 2009
India held general elections to the 15th Lok Sabha in five phases between 16 April 2009 and 13 May 2009. With an electorate of 714 million , it was the largest democratic election in the world to date.By constitutional requirement, elections to the Lok Sabha must be...

, out of the six parliamentary constituencies, five were won by the Congress, and one by the NCP. In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.

A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
The Vidhan Sabha or the Legislative Assembly is the lower house or the sole house of the provincial legislature in the different states of India. The same name is also used for the lower house of the legislatures for two of the union territories, Delhi and Pondicherry...

(Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies. In the 2009 state assembly elections
Maharashtra state assembly elections, 2009
The 13th Assembly elections were held in Maharashtra, India on October 13, 2009. The ruling Democratic Front contested the elections against the alliance of Shiv Sena and Bharatiya Janata Party ....

, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 17 were won by the Congress, 6 by the MNS, 5 by the BJP, 4 by the Shiv Sena, 3 by the NCP and 1 by SP. Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the BMC.

The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards
Administrative divisions of Mumbai
The city of Mumbai, India, is divided into administrative divisions.Greater Mumbai is the urban agglomeration of 18 million people which comes under the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai employs 1,40,626 people...

, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a Mayor
Mayor of Mumbai
The Mayor of Mumbai is the first citizen of the Indian city of Mumbai. The person is the chief of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, but his/her role is largely ceremonial as the real powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner. The Mayor also plays a functional role in deliberating over...

 whose role is mostly ceremonial. In the 2007 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 111 seats, holding power in the BMC, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 85 seats. The tenure of the Mayor
Mayor of Mumbai
The Mayor of Mumbai is the first citizen of the Indian city of Mumbai. The person is the chief of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, but his/her role is largely ceremonial as the real powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner. The Mayor also plays a functional role in deliberating over...

, Deputy Mayor, and Municipal Commissioner
Municipal Commissioner of Mumbai
The Municipal Commissioner of Mumbai is the chief of the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Though the Mayor is the head of the house, his role is largely ceremonial and almost all powers are vested in the Commissioner...

 is two and a half years.

Public transport

Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway
Mumbai Suburban Railway
The Mumbai Suburban Railway system, part of the public transport system of Mumbai, is provided for by the state-run Indian Railways' two zonal Western Railways and Central Railways. The system carries more than 6.99 million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger densities of any...

, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport
Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport
The BEST ) is Mumbai's public transport service and electricity provider....

 (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow metre taxis, auto rickshaw
Auto rickshaw
An auto rickshaw or three-wheeler is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw...

s and ferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008. Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai.

Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

, and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport. Mumbai had about 1.53 million vehicles in 2008, 56,459 black and yellow taxis, and 102,224 auto rickshaws, as of 2005.

Road

Mumbai is served by National Highway 3
National Highway 3 (India)
National Highway 3 , commonly referred to as the Mumbai-Agra Highway, is a major Indian National Highway that runs through the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra states in India...

, National Highway 4
National Highway 4 (India)
National Highway 4 is a major National Highway in Western and Southern India. NH 4 links four of the 10 most populous Indian cities - Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore and Chennai. NH 4 is in length and passes through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.NH 4 constitutes...

, National Highway 17
National Highway 17 (India)
National Highway 17, commonly referred to as NH 17, now renamed as NH 66, is a busy National Highway in India that runs roughly north-south along the western coast of India, parallel to western ghats. It connects Panvel, near Mumbai to Kochi, passing through the states of Maharashtra, Goa,...

, National Highway 222
National Highway 222 (India)
National Highway 222 is an Indian National Highway running within the states of Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh connecting the city of Kalyan near Mumbai in Maharashtra to Nirmal near Adilabad in Andhra Pradesh....

 and National Highway 8 of India's National Highways system. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway
Mumbai-Pune Expressway
The Mumbai Pune Expressway , officially the Yashwantrao Chavan Expressway is India's first six-lane concrete, high-speed, access controlled tolled expressway. It spans a distance of connecting Mumbai, the administrative capital of Maharashtra and the financial capital of India, with Pune, an...

 was the first expressway built in India, while the Mumbai Nashik Expressway
Mumbai Nashik Expressway
Mumbai Nashik Expressway will be a long expressway connecting Mumbai to Nashik. The total cost of the project will be . At the time when this project was awarded, it was the largest BOT road project in India...

, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway
Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway
The Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway is an expressway scheduled to be constructed between the cities of Vadodara, and Mumbai, . The cost of the project is expected to be . The expressway will be about 380 km long. It will be built as part of the Golden Quadrilateral Project by NHAI....

, Western Freeway and Eastern Freeway
Eastern Freeway Mumbai
The Eastern Freeway project is an under-construction freeway to provide a direct link between the Eastern Express Highway and south Mumbai.The Eastern Freeway will be a 22-km high-speed corridor from Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya right up to Eastern Express Highway through the...

 is under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link
Bandra-Worli Sea Link
The Bandra–Worli Sea Link , also known as the Rajiv Gandhi Sea Link , is a cable-stayed bridge with pre-stressed concrete-steel viaducts on either side, that links Bandra and the western suburbs of Mumbai with Worli...

 bridge, along with Mahim Causeway
Mahim Causeway
The Mahim Causeway is a vital link road connecting the city of Mumbai with its northern suburbs. The causeway links the neighbourhoods of Mahim to the south with Bandra to the north....

, links the island city to the western suburbs. The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway
Eastern Express Highway
The Eastern Express Highway is a city express highway serving the city of Mumbai. It is one of the busiest and most important roads in the Mumbai Metropolitan Area and is a part of the National Highway 3. It is generally 6 lanes wide with over a dozen flyovers/grade separators...

 from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway
Sion Panvel Expressway
The Sion Panvel Expressway is a city highway serving the city of Mumbai, India currently under construction. It is one of the busiest and most important roads in the Mumbai Metropolitan Area and connects the city with National Highway 4. It is generally 12 lanes wide . The highway begins at BARC...

 from Sion to Panvel
Panvel
Panvel is city and a municipal council in Raigad district in the state of Maharashtra. Panvel is also known as the gateway of Konkan region. It adjoins Navi Mumbai, and is just after the Thane district border. Panvel is located on the Yashwantrao Chavan Expressway about 21 kilometres from...

 and the Western Express Highway
Western Express Highway
The Western Express Highway is a major north-south 8-10 lane arterial road in Mumbai, India, stretching from the suburb of Bandra to Dahisar. The highway begins near the Mahim Creek and extends to the Mira-Dahisar toll booth in the northern limit of the city. Beyond the city limits, it continues...

 from Bandra to Borivali
Borivali
Borivali or Borivli a suburban area located in the north-west section of Mumbai island. Borivali is approximately from Mumbai Airport and from Churchgate Railway Station...

.

Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008. Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai is a Planned Satellite City on the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was developed in 1972 as a twin city of Mumbai, and is the largest planned city on the planet, with under the jurisdiction of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation and a total area of . Navi Mumbai...

, Mira-Bhayandar
Mira-Bhayandar
Mira-Bhayander is a suburb of Mumbai city, located to The North of Mumbai administered by Mira-Bhayander Municipal Corporation .-History:...

 and Thane. The BEST operates a total of 4,608 buses with CCTV Camera installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes. Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant Compressed Natural Gas
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

 powered buses. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC) buses provide intercity transport and connect Mumbai with other major cities of Maharashtra and India. Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) also operate its Volvo
Volvo
AB Volvo is a Swedish builder of commercial vehicles, including trucks, buses and construction equipment. Volvo also supplies marine and industrial drive systems, aerospace components and financial services...

 buses in Mumbai, from Navi Mumbai to Bandra, Dindoshi and Borivali.

Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.

The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. Mumbai BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai, with buses running on seven routes as of March 2009. Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion
Traffic congestion
Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction...

. Mumbai's transport system has been categorised as one of the most congested in the world.
  • Mumbai Skywalks

Because of congestion on roads due to hawkers and parked vehicles, MMRDA has initiated the Mumbai Skywalks project to provide quick and safe pedestrian dispersal from highly congested areas such as Mumbai Suburban Railway
Mumbai Suburban Railway
The Mumbai Suburban Railway system, part of the public transport system of Mumbai, is provided for by the state-run Indian Railways' two zonal Western Railways and Central Railways. The system carries more than 6.99 million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger densities of any...

 stations to heavily targeted destinations.

Rail

Mumbai is the headquarters of two of Indian Railways
Indian Railways
Indian Railways , abbreviated as IR , is a departmental undertaking of Government of India, which owns and operates most of India's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India....

' zones: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus , is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and historic railway station in Mumbai which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. Situated in the Bori Bunder area of Mumbai, it was built as a new railway station on the location of the Bori Bunder Station in 1887...

 (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR)
Western Railway (India)
The Western Railway is one of the 16 zones of Indian Railways, and is among the busiest railway networks in India. The major railway routes of Indian Railways which come under Western Railways are: Ratlam - Mumbai Central, Surat - Mumbai, Surat - Ahmedabad, Ahmedabad - Vadodara and Palanpur -...

 headquartered at Churchgate
Churchgate
Churchgate is an area in downtown South Mumbai. During the eighteenth and up to the mid 19th century, Bombay was a walled city. The city walls had three gates, and Church Gate, named after St. Thomas Cathedral, Mumbai was one of the gates. The gate was situated near the present day location of...

. The backbone of the city's transport, the Mumbai Suburban Railway
Mumbai Suburban Railway
The Mumbai Suburban Railway system, part of the public transport system of Mumbai, is provided for by the state-run Indian Railways' two zonal Western Railways and Central Railways. The system carries more than 6.99 million commuters on a daily basis. It has the highest passenger densities of any...

, consists of three separate rail networks: Central, Western, and Harbour Line, running the length of the city, in the north-south direction.

Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007, which is more than half of the Indian Railways daily carrying capacity. Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours. The Mumbai rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route kilometres. 191 rakes(ratin-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilised to run a total of 2226 train services.

Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
Indian Railways , abbreviated as IR , is a departmental undertaking of Government of India, which owns and operates most of India's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India....

. Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus , is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and historic railway station in Mumbai which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. Situated in the Bori Bunder area of Mumbai, it was built as a new railway station on the location of the Bori Bunder Station in 1887...

, Dadar
Dadar
Dadar is a place in Mumbai, and is also a railway station on both the Western and Central lines of the Mumbai Suburban Railway network. Dadar is situated in the heart of Mumbai, and Dadar station is the only railway station common to both the Central and Western lines...

 Station, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus
Lokmanya Tilak Terminus
Lokmanya Tilak Terminus , formerly known as Kurla Terminus , is a railhead in a suburb of Mumbai, India. LTT is managed by the Central Railway...

, Mumbai Central
Mumbai Central
Mumbai Central , previously known as Bombay Central, is a major intercity railway station and a commuter station in Mumbai. It was designed by the british architect Claude Batley. It serves as the terminal for several long distance trains operated by Western Railway. The station is located in south...

 Station, Bandra Terminus, Andheri and Borivali.
  • Mumbai Metro

Mumbai Metro
Mumbai Metro
The Mumbai Metro is a rapid transit system being built in Mumbai, India's largest city. The system is designed to reduce the rapidly-growing city's congestion problems, and will be built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021...

 is an underground and elevated rapid transit system currently under construction.
  • Mumbai Monorail

The Mumbai Monorail
Mumbai Monorail
The Mumbai Monorail is a monorail system currently under construction for the city of Mumbai, India. Once completed it will be world’s second longest Monorail corridor. It is being contracted by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority and will be the first monorail in India...

, currently under construction, will eventually run from Jacob Circle to Wadala.

Air

The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. In 2007, it catered to over 25 million passengers. An upgrade plan initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually by 2010, is expected to be completed on time.

The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport
Navi Mumbai International Airport
The proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport is a new international airport, which is to come up at Kopra-Panvel area, is being built through public-private partnership — with private sector partner getting 74% equity while Airports Authority of India and Govt of Maharashtra holding 13% each...

 to be built in the Kopra-Panvel
Panvel
Panvel is city and a municipal council in Raigad district in the state of Maharashtra. Panvel is also known as the gateway of Konkan region. It adjoins Navi Mumbai, and is just after the Thane district border. Panvel is located on the Yashwantrao Chavan Expressway about 21 kilometres from...

 area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.

The Juhu Aerodrome
Juhu Aerodrome
Juhu Aerodrome an airport serving Mumbai, was India's first civil aviation airport. It is currently used by small private aircraft and as a heliport....

 was India's first airport, and now hosts a flying club and a heliport.

Sea

Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust
Mumbai Port Trust
Mumbai Port, earlier known as Bombay Port, lies midway on the West coast of India, on the natural deep-water harbor of Mumbai. The harbor spread over is protected by the mainland of Konkan to its east and north and by the island city of Mumbai to its west...

 and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai is a Planned Satellite City on the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It was developed in 1972 as a twin city of Mumbai, and is the largest planned city on the planet, with under the jurisdiction of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation and a total area of . Navi Mumbai...

. Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India. It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerised cargo.

Mumbai is the headquarters of the Western Naval Command
Western Naval Command
The Western Naval Command is a formation of the Indian Navy. It has its HQ in Mumbai, Maharashtra and is commanded by the Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief, currently Vice Admiral D. K. Joshi...

, and also an important base for the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. The President of India serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. The Chief of Naval Staff , usually a four-star officer in the rank of Admiral, commands the Navy...

.

Ferries from Ferry Wharf
Ferry wharf
Ferry Wharf is a Ferry Wharf is a Ferry Wharf is a [[wharf] also called as Bhaucha Dhakka] along the [[Thane Creek]], along the coast of [[Dockyard Road]] on the Eastern seafront of [[Mumbai]], the capital of the [[India]]n state of [[Maharashtra]]. The wharf serves as the port for numerous...

 in Mazagaon
Mazagaon
Mazagaon, also spelled Mazgaon and Mazagon , and pronounced by the Catholics as 'Mazgon' or 'Maz-a-gon' and the Marathi-speakers as Mazhgav. It is one of the seven islands of Mumbai. It is part of South Mumbai and can be reached by Byculla Station on the Central railway line and Dockyard Road...

 allow access to islands near the city.

Utility services

Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai. Many localities have been named after them. The BMC
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai
The Brihanmumbai Mahanagar Palika is the civic body that governs the city of Mumbai and is India's richest municipal organisation. Its annual budget is even more than that of some of the small states of India. It is also known as Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai or the Brihanmumbai...

 supplies potable water to the city from six lakes, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway. The water is filtered at Bhandup
Bhandup
Bhandup is a suburb of Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, in the state of Maharashtra, India and is also the name of a railway station on the Mumbai suburban railway on the Central Railway line....

, which is Asia's largest water filtration plant. India's first underground water tunnel is being built in Mumbai.

About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai. Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste, is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai
Gorai
Gorai is a village in the North-western part of Mumbai, India. Gorai is accessed more usually by a ferry crossing the Manori Creek which separates Gorai from the island of Salsette or otherwise by the overland route through Bhayander....

 in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and Deonar
Deonar
Deonar is a neighbourhood in the eastern suburb of Mumbai, India. It has gained prominence for being the location of the largest dumping ground in Mumbai and also the location of city's largest abattoir, Deonar Municipal Abattoir -Important Landmarks:...

 in the east. Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli
Worli
-History:Worli was one of the original seven islands that constituted the city of Mumbai. Although primarily a fishing village, the Worli Fort, a British fort that is now in ruins, is located there. Its original resident was the legendary Dishankeshwar Kalsi who has also been recognized in several...

 and Bandra, and disposed off by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.11 mi) and 3.7 km (2.30 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.

Mumbai has highest number of internet users in India with 14.3 million users.

Electricity is distributed by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport
Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport
The BEST ) is Mumbai's public transport service and electricity provider....

 (BEST) in the island city, and by Reliance Energy
Reliance Energy
Reliance Infrastructure, formerly known as Reliance Energy and prior to that as Bombay Suburban Electric Supply , Its India's largest private sector enterprise in power utility and its a company under the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group banner, one of India's largest conglomerates. The...

, Tata Power
Tata Power
Tata Power is India’s oldest and largest private sector power utility with an installed generation capacity of over 2977 MW.On the 22 March 2011 it has announced partnership with Sunengy an Australian firm, to build India's first floating solar plant....

, and Mahavitaran (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd) in the suburbs. Consumption of electricity is growing faster than production capacity. The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL
Wireless local loop
Wireless local loop , is a term for the use of a wireless communications link as the "last mile / first mile" connection for delivering plain old telephone service and/or broadband Internet to telecommunications customers....

 services.

Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar
Vodafone Essar
Vodafone Essar, formerly Hutchison Essar, is a cellular operator in India that covers 23 telecom circles in India. It is based in Mumbai. On July 2011, Vodafone Group agreed terms for the buy-out of its partner Essar from its Indian mobile phone business. The UK firm paid $5.46 billion to its...

, Airtel, MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications
Reliance Communications
Reliance Communications Ltd. is an Indian broadband and telecommunications company headquartered in Navi Mumbai, India. RCOM is the world's 16th largest mobile phone operator with over 144 million subscribers. Established on 2004, a subsidiary of the Reliance Group...

, Idea Cellular
Idea cellular
Idea Cellular, usually referred to as Idea, is an Indian wireless telecom company based in Mumbai, India. Idea is the 3rd largest mobile services operator in India, in revenue terms, and recorded of over 98.4 million customers as of August 2011....

 and Tata Indicom
Tata Indicom
Tata Teleservices Limited is a Indian broadband and telecommunications provider based in Mumbai, India. It is a subsidiary of the Tata Group, an Indian conglomerate...

. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city. MTNL and Airtel also provide broadband internet service.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai was 12,479,608,. The population density is estimated to be about 20,482 persons per square kilometre. As Per 2011 census, Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the BMC, has a literacy rate of 94.7 %, higher than the national average of 86.7%.

The sex ratio was 838 (females per 1,000 males) in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.

Residents of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar
Mumbaikar
Mumbaikar is the Marathi word to signify a resident of Mumbai. Even though the term has been in use for quite some time it gained popularity after the formal renaming of the city to its original name Mumbai. The renaming and rise in the popularity of the term led to common adoption of the term...

, Mumbaiite or Bombayite. Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any other metropolitan city
Status of Indian cities
The Status of Indian cities comprises two ranking systems used by the Government of India to allocate compensatory allowances to the cities in the country...

 of India. Marathi , the official language of Maharashtra state, of which Mumbai is the capital, is widely spoken and understood in the city. Sixteen major languages of India
Languages of India
The languages of India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-European languages—Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages...

 are also spoken in Mumbai, most common being Marathi , Hindi, Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

 and English
English
English may refer to something of, from, or related to England, a country of the United Kingdom, especially:* The English language** The English language in England * The English people...

. English
English
English may refer to something of, from, or related to England, a country of the United Kingdom, especially:* The English language** The English language in England * The English people...

 is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city's white collar
White-collar worker
The term white-collar worker refers to a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work, in contrast with a blue-collar worker, whose job requires manual labor...

 workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya – a blend of Marathi , Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

, Konkani, Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

, Indian English
Indian English
Indian English is an umbrella term used to describe dialects of the English language spoken primarily in the Republic of India.As a result of British colonial rule until Indian independence in 1947 English is an official language of India and is widely used in both spoken and literary contexts...

 and some invented words – is spoken on the streets.

Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. With available space at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district. Dharavi
Dharavi
Dharavi is a slum and administrative ward, over parts of Sion, Bandra, Kurla and Kalina suburbs of Mumbai, India. It is sandwiched between Mahim in the west and Sion in the east, and spread over an area of 175 hectares, or...

, Asia's second largest slum
Slum
A slum, as defined by United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security. According to the United Nations, the percentage of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the...

 is located in central Mumbai and houses 800,000 people. With a literacy rate of 69%, the slums in Mumbai are the most literate in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

.

The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.

The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s (67.39%), Muslims (18.56%), Buddhists (5.22%), Jains (3.99%), Christians (4.2%), Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s (0.58%), with Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

s and Jews making up the rest of the population. The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (42%), Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts of India. The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra is a subsect of Ismāʿīlī Shīʿa Islām. While the Dawoodi Bohra is based in India, their belief system originates in Yemen, where it evolved from the Fatimid Caliphate and where they were persecuted due to their differences from mainstream Sunni Islam...

s, Khojas, and Konkani Muslims
Konkani Muslims
Konkani / Kokani Muslims is a Muslim sub-ethnic group of Maharashtrian Muslims living in the Konkan region of India. They speak the Konkani language. A good number of them live in Mumbai...

. Native Christians include East Indians (ethnic group) Catholics who were converted by the Portuguese, during the 16th century. The city also has a small native Bene Israel
Bene Israel
The Bene Israel are a group of Jews who migrated in the 19th century from villages in the Konkan area to the nearby Indian cities, primarily Mumbai, but also to Pune, and Ahmedabad. Prior to these waves of emigrations and to this day, the Bene Israel formed the largest sector of the subcontinent's...

i Jewish community, who migrated from the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 or Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

, probably 1600 years ago. Mumbai is also home to the largest population of Parsi
Parsi
Parsi or Parsee refers to a member of the larger of the two Zoroastrian communities in South Asia, the other being the Irani community....

 Zoroastrians in the world, with about 80,000 Parsis in Mumbai. Parsis migrated to India from Pars (Persia/Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

) following the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century AD.

Culture

Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions and cuisines coexisting in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period.

Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema—Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
Dhundiraj Govind Phalke, popularly known as Dadasaheb Phalke was an Indian producer-director-screenwriter, known as the father of Indian cinema...

 laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies
Marathi cinema
Marathi cinema refers to films produced in the Marathi language in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is the oldest and pioneer film industry in India...

—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century. Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The world's largest IMAX
IMAX
IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of proprietary cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems...

 dome theatre is in the Wadala neighbourhood. The Mumbai International Film Festival
Mumbai International Film Festival
Mumbai International Film Festival for Documentary, Short and Animation Films , is a festival organised in the city of Mumbai by the 'Film Division', Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. It has been organised since 1990, and focuses on documentary, short and animation...

 and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards
Filmfare Awards
The Filmfare Awards are presented annually by The Times Group to honour both artistic and technical excellence of professionals in the Hindi language film industry of India. The Filmfare ceremony is one of the oldest and most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India. The awards were...

, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai. Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.

Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery
Jehangir Art Gallery
The Jehangir Art Gallery is Mumbai ’s most famous art gallery and a tourist attraction. It was founded by Sir Cowasji Jehangir at the urging of K. K. Hebbar and Homi Bhabha. It was built in 1952...

 and the National Gallery of Modern Art
National Gallery of Modern Art
The National Gallery of Modern Art is the leading Indian art gallery. The main museum at New Delhi was established on March 29, 1954 by the Government of India, with subsequent branches at Mumbai and Bangalore...

. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay
Asiatic Society of Bombay
The Asiatic Society of Mumbai, a learned society in the field of Asian studies, is based in Mumbai, India. It can trace its origin to the Literary Society of Bombay which first met in Mumbai on November 26, 1804, and was founded by Sir James Mackintosh. It was formed with the intention of...

 is one of the oldest public libraries
Public library
A public library is a library that is accessible by the public and is generally funded from public sources and operated by civil servants. There are five fundamental characteristics shared by public libraries...

 in the city. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai
South Mumbai
South Mumbai , sometimes incorrectly referred to by English Media as "SoBo" , the southern-most precinct of the city of Mumbai, India, comprises the city's main business localities and its adjoining areas...

 which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.

Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan
Jijamata Udyaan
Jijamata Udyaan formerly Victoria Gardens, and also known as Veermata Jijabai Bhonsle Udyan, is a zoo and garden located at Byculla, in the heart of Mumbai, India. It was laid out in 1861.It is one of the oldest zoos in India.One can find a variety of species of birds and other creatures in this...

 (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga
Aravind Adiga
Aravind Adiga is an Indian writer and journalist. His debut novel, The White Tiger, won the 2008 Man Booker Prize.-Early life and education:...

. Marathi literature
Marathi literature
Marathi literature is the body of literature of Marathi, a Sanskrit-derived language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra and written in the Devanagari script.-Early Marathi Literature :...

 has been modernised in the works of Mumbai based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar
Anant Kanekar
Anant Atmaram Kanekar was a Marathi writer from Maharashtra, India.He was born in Mumbai on December 2, 1905.-Education and career:...

, and Gangadhar Gadgil
Gangadhar Gadgil
Gangadhar Gopal Gadgil was a Marathi writer from Maharashtra, India.He was born in Mumbai in 1923...

, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award
Sahitya Akademi Award
Sahitya Akademi Award is a literary honor in India which Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, annually confers on writers of outstanding works in one of the following twenty-four major Indian languagesAssamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, English, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri,...

, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters
Sahitya Akademi
The Sahitya Akademi ', India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India...

.
The architecture of the city
Architecture of Mumbai
The architecture of Mumbai blends Gothic, Victorian, Art Deco, Indo-Saracenic and contemporary architectural styles. Many buildings, structures and historical monuments remain from the colonial era...

 is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
The Indo-Saracenic Revival was an architectural style movement by British architects in the late 19th century in British India...

, Art Deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

, and other contemporary styles. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style. Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features. There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India
Gateway of India
Its design is a combination of both Hindu and Muslim architectural styles, the arch is in Muslim style while the decorations are in Hindu style. The Gateway is built from yellow basalt and reinforced concrete. The stone was locally obtained, and the perforated screens were brought from Gwalior.The...

. Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive
Marine Drive
Marine Drive is a 3-kilometre-long boulevard in South Mumbai in the city of Mumbai. It is a 'C'-shaped six-lane concrete road along the coast, which is a natural bay. The road links Nariman Point to Babulnath and Malabar Hill. Marine Drive is situated over reclaimed land facing west-south-west...

 and west of the Oval Maidan
Oval Maidan
The Oval Maidan is a large Grade I recreational ground situated in South Mumbai, India. It is named because of its oval shape and is situated just south of Churchgate. It is a popular recreation ground and most popular sports being played there are cricket and football . The ground measures...

. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009.

The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. Mumbai has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Elephanta Caves
Elephanta Caves
The Elephanta Caves are a network of sculpted caves located on Elephanta Island, or Gharapuri in Mumbai Harbour, to the east of the city of Mumbai in the Indian state of Maharashtra...

. Popular tourist attractions in the city are Nariman Point
Nariman Point
Nariman Point is Mumbai's premier business district and country's first central business district. It was named after Khursheed Framji Nariman, a Parsi visionary. The area is situated on land reclaimed from the sea. It had the distinction of having the highest commercial real estate rental space...

, Girgaum Chowpatti
Girgaum Chowpatti
Girgaum Chaupati , commonly known as just Chaupati , is one of the most famous public beaches adjoining Marine Drive in the Girgaum area of Mumbai, India. The beach is famous for Ganesh Chaturthi celebrations when hundreds of people from all over Mumbai come to immerse the idols of Lord Ganapati in...

, Juhu Beach, and Marine Drive
Marine Drive
Marine Drive is a 3-kilometre-long boulevard in South Mumbai in the city of Mumbai. It is a 'C'-shaped six-lane concrete road along the coast, which is a natural bay. The road links Nariman Point to Babulnath and Malabar Hill. Marine Drive is situated over reclaimed land facing west-south-west...

. Essel World
Essel World
Essel World is an amusement park in Gorai, Mumbai, India. It is spread over of land and attracts 10,000 visitors everyday. It can be reached from the suburbs of Borivali or Malad. Essel world was started by Subhash Chandra of the Essel Group in 1986...

 is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach, and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom.

Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

, Holi
Holi
Holi , is a religious spring festival celebrated by Hindus. Holi is also known as festival of Colours. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations following Hinduism, such as Suriname, Malaysia, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United...

, Eid
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday
Good Friday
Good Friday , is a religious holiday observed primarily by Christians commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. The holiday is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of...

, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi , also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi is the Hindu festival of Ganesha also called Vinayagar in Tamil Nadu, the son of Shiva and Parvati, who is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees in the duration of this festival...

, Durga Puja
Durga Puja
Durga puja ; দুর্গা পূজা,ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା,‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsava ; , is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and...

 and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival
Kala Ghoda Arts Festival
The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an annual festival, usually around nine days long, held in late January or early February, in the Kala Ghoda area of South Mumbai, India....

 is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. A week long annual fair known as Bandra Fair
Bandra Fair
Bandra Fair is a week long fair held annually in the Bandra suburb of Mumbai, India starting on the following Sunday after September 8. It is celebrated to commemorate the Nativity of Mary, mother of Jesus, on September 8 at the Mount Mary Church, Bandra....

, starting on the following Sunday after 8 September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate the Nativity of Mary
Nativity of Mary
The Nativity of Mary, or Birth of the Virgin and various permutations, is celebrated as a liturgical feast in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints and in most Anglican liturgical calendars on 8 September, nine months after the solemnity of her Immaculate Conception, celebrated on 8 December...

, mother of Jesus, on 8 September.

The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank
Banganga Tank
Banganga or Banganga Tank is an ancient water tank which is part of the Walkeshwar Temple Complex in Malabar Hill area of Mumbai in India.-History:...

 in Mumbai. The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the Elephanta Island
Elephanta Island
Elephanta Island is one of a number of islands in Mumbai Harbour, east of Mumbai, India...

s—is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country. Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day
Maharashtra Day
Maharashtra Day on May 1 is celebrated in Maharashtra, a state on western coast of India. Maharashtra attained statehood on 1st of May, 1960 when the then state Bombay state was divided into two states, Maharashtra and Gujarat on the basis of different languages, Marathi and Gujarati, under the...

 on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960, and Gudi Padwa
Gudi Padwa
Gudi Padwa or Gudhi Padwa , is the Marathi name for the Hindu holiday of Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. It is celebrated on the first day of the Chaitra month to mark the beginning of the New year according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar...

 which is the New Year's Day for Marathi people
Marathi people
The Marathi people or Maharashtrians are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, that inhabit the Maharashtra region and state of western India. Their language Marathi is part of the southern group of Indo-Aryan languages...

.

Media

Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers
Marathi-language newspapers
Marathi NewspapersThe Marathi language has long history of literature and culture. The first Indian newspaper Darpan was started in Marathi.List of Marathi Newspapers-Marathi Newspapers:*Ekmat*Marathwada Neta*Daily Aikya*Daily Kesari*Deshdoot...

 are Maharashtra Times
Maharashtra Times
Maharashtra Times , coloquially referred to as 'Ma Taa' from its Marathi initialism, is a Marathi newspaper based out of Mumbai, India. It is the 9th largest selling daily newspaper in the country. It is owned by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

, Navakaal
Nava Kaal
Nava Kaal is a Marathi daily newspaper. It is based in Mumbai, the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Its owner editor is Nilkanth Khadilkar. Robin Jeffery has called Khadilkar as one of the most remarkable and self-reliant owners of small newspapers...

, Lokmat
Lokmat
Lokmat is the largest read & circulated Marathi language newspaper. It is the fifth largest Indian daily and in Marathi, it is the largest selling daily with 1.58 million copies a day. As per IRS 2010 Q3, Lokmat has a total readership of 23.67 million...

, Loksatta
Loksatta (newspaper)
-Introduction:Launched on January 14, 1948, Loksatta has stood by its tradition of being a forum and voice of democracy in Maharashtra, India. Published by The Indian Express Group, a champion of change, Loksatta is known for its impartial coverage and nonconformist & liberal viewpoint...

, Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana
Saamana
Saamana is a Marathi language newspaper owned by the Shiv Sena, a right wing Hindu party in Maharashtra, India. The Chief editor is Bal Thackeray. The Executive editor is Sanjay Raut.-External links:**...

and Sakaal. Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha & Chitralekha. Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include the Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ....

, DNA, and Indian Express. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages. Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar
Bombay Samachar
The Mumbai Samachar is the oldest continuously published newspaper in India. It is published in Gujarati and is one of the most trusted newspapers of Mumbai-History:...

, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822. Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.

Numerous Indian
Television in India
Television is one of the major mass media of India and is a huge industry and has thousands of programmes in all the states of India. The small screen has produced numerous celebrities of their own kind some even attaining national fame. TV soaps are extremely popular with housewives as well as...

 and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan
DoorDarshan
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently, it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On September 15, 2009,...

, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.

The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi
Zee Marathi
Zee Marathi is India-based satellite television channel, which carries broadcasts in Marathi. Zee Network, India's leading infotainment network launched it in the year 1999. It is the most viewed television channel in Mumbai...

, Zee Talkies
Zee Talkies
Zee Talkies is a Marathi television channel broadcasting Marathi movies by Zee Entertainment. Its the only Marathi movie channel broadcasting old classics and latest Marathi movies 24 hours a day. Zee Talkies was launched on 25 August 2007 by Zee Network with the sole objective of maximising the...

, ETV Marathi
ETV Marathi
ETV Marathi is an Indian television channel that primarily broadcasts Marathi entertainment based in Mumbai.The Channel gained popularity with its Longest running Daily Soap Char Diwas Sasuche that has completed 5 years & more than 1200 episodes...

, Star Pravah
Star Pravah
: A Marathi Language Entertainment TV channel from STAR TV.-About the Channel:"Quality entertainment reflecting Maharashtrian culture, and values, also evoking pride in being Maharashtrian" is the mantra of STAR PRAVAH. Star India Pvt Ltd, India's largest entertainment conglomerate, announced the...

, Mi Marathi
Mi Marathi
Mi Marathi , is an entertainment television channel owned by Shri Adhikari Brothers in Marathi language.Mi Marathi programming primarily consists of family dramas, Cookery shows, News and Movies.-Important shows on this Channel :* Avaaj Maharshtracha* Nana-O-Nana...

, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels
Marathi language television
The Marathi language television industry was started in India in 1984. Although earlier confined to a half an hour slot in the national television Doordarshan, the industry has now expanded with many commercial TV channels currently on air...

), news channels such as Star Majha
Star Majha
STAR Majha is a 24-hour free-to-air Marathi news channel broadcast in India based in Mumbai. It was launched on 22 June 2007 and delivers news in the Marathi language. The channel is a joint venture between STAR Group and ABP Pvt. Ltd, which also runs two other news channels: STAR News and STAR...

, Lokmat IBN
IBN-Lokmat
IBN Lokmat is a Marathi-language news channel based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It is a joint venture between Network 18 and Lokmat Group, which runs the most read Marathi newspaper, Lokmat.IBN Lokmat was launched on 6 April 2008, the Gudi Padwa day...

, Zee 24 Taas
Zee 24 Taas
ZEE 24 TAAS is a 24-hour Marathi news channel broadcast in India based in Mumbai. It was launched on 12th Feb 2007. Zee 24 Taas created history by becoming the first 24/7 Marathi News Channel of India. Since its inception Zee 24 Taas has always been ahead in delivering quality and hardcore news...

, sports channels like ESPN
ESPN
Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, commonly known as ESPN, is an American global cable television network focusing on sports-related programming including live and pre-taped event telecasts, sports talk shows, and other original programming....

, Star Sports
STAR Sports
STAR Sports is a cable sports network owned by STAR TV and ESPN. It shows sports programs. In partnership with ESPN, its corporate name is ESPN STAR Sports. They are the official Asian station of the Barclays Premier League...

, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony
Sony Entertainment Television (India)
This article is about the SET channel in India. For the Indian version broadcasted worldwide, see Sony Entertainment Television Asia.Sony Entertainment Television, or SET, is a Hindi-language based general entertainment television channel in India. It was launched in October 1996 and is owned by...

 Zee TV
Zee TV
Zee TV is an India-based satellite television channel owned by Zee Entertainment Enterprises based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, which broadcasts various programmes in Hindi and other regional languages of India. Broadcasting is also present in various nations of South Asia, Europe, the Middle East,...

 and STAR Plus
STAR Plus
STAR Plus is a Hindi language general entertainment television channel based in India. The channel is part of the STAR TV network's bouquet of channels...

. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai. Zing
Zing (TV channel)
Zing, formerly known as Zee Muzic and Music Asia, is an India-based satellite music television channel owned by Zee Entertainment Enterprises, which carries broadcasts in Hindi and other regional languages of India. As well as broadcasting in South Asia, it also reaches audiences in Europe. It is...

 a popular Bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai.Satellite television
Direct broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television...

 (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs. Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV
Dish TV
Dish TV India Limited is an Indian company engaged in the business of providing direct-to-home satellite television service, which includes teleport service, customer support and transponder space leasing. Dishtv is a division of Zee Network Enterprise . It uses MPEG-2 digital compression...

 and Tata Sky
Tata Sky
TATA Sky is a direct broadcast satellite television provider in India, using MPEG-2 digital compression technology, transmitting using INSAT 4A at 83.0°E....

.

There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM
Frequency modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. This contrasts with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant...

 band, and three All India Radio
All India Radio
All India Radio , officially known since 1956 as Akashvani , is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks...

 stations broadcasting on the AM
Amplitude modulation
Amplitude modulation is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent...

 band. Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio
Commercial broadcasting
Commercial broadcasting is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship...

 providers such as WorldSpace
WorldSpace
1worldspace, formerly known as 'WorldSpace', is a currently defunct satellite radio network that provided service to over 170,000 subscribers in eastern and southern Africa, the Middle East, and much of Asia with 96% coming from India...

, Sirius
Sirius Satellite Radio
Sirius Satellite Radio is a satellite radio service operating in North America, owned by Sirius XM Radio.Headquartered in New York City, with smaller studios in Los Angeles and Memphis, Sirius was officially launched on July 1, 2002 and currently provides 69 streams of music and 65 streams of...

 and XM
XM Satellite Radio
XM Satellite Radio is one of two satellite radio services in the United States and Canada, operated by Sirius XM Radio. It provides pay-for-service radio, analogous to cable television. Its service includes 73 different music channels, 39 news, sports, talk and entertainment channels, 21 regional...

. The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

 in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home
Direct broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television...

 (DTH) transmission service.

Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year. The name Bollywood is a portmanteau of Bombay and Hollywood
Cinema of the United States
The cinema of the United States, also known as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. Its history is sometimes separated into four main periods: the silent film era, classical Hollywood cinema, New Hollywood, and the contemporary period...

. The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation. Studios in Goregaon, including Film City
Film City
Film City is an integrated film studio complex situated near Sanjay Gandhi National Park at Goregaon, Mumbai in India. It has several recording rooms, gardens, lakes, theatres and grounds that serve as the venue of many Bollywood film shootings. It was built by the state government to provide...

, are the location for most movie sets. City also hosts Marathi film industry
Marathi cinema
Marathi cinema refers to films produced in the Marathi language in the state of Maharashtra, India. It is the oldest and pioneer film industry in India...

 which has seen increased popularity in recent years.

Education

Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the BMC) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated either with the Maharashtra State Board
Maharashtra State Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board
The Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education is a statutory and autonomous body established under the Maharashtra Secondary Boards Act 1965 ....

 (MSBSHSE), The all-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations
The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations is a private, non-governmental board of school education in India. It conducts two examinations in India: the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education and the Indian School Certificate...

 (CISCE), National Institute of Open Schooling
Nios
Nios may refer to:*National Institute of Open Schooling, Board of Education for school level in India *Nios embedded processor*Nios II*Lake Nyos, a crater lake in the Northwest Province of Cameroon in Africa...

 (NIOS) or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE) boards. Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction. The government run public schools lack many facilities, but are the only option for poorer residents who cannot afford the more expensive private schools.

Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enroll for two years in Junior College
Junior college
The term junior college refers to different educational institutions in different countries.-India:In India, most states provide schooling through 12th grade...

, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine. Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai
University of Mumbai
The University of Mumbai , is a state university located in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It was known as the University of Bombay until 1996 when the city of Bombay was renamed as Mumbai. The affiliated colleges of the university are spread throughout the city of Mumbai and four coastal districts in...

, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.

The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), University Institute of Chemical Technology (UICT)
which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, and SNDT Women's University
SNDT Women's University
Shreemati Nathibai Damodar Thackersey Women's University is a women's university in the city of Mumbai, India. The university headquarters are situated at Churchgate in South Mumbai, while the main campus is in Santacruz–Juhu area of Mumbai. SNDT has three campuses: two in Mumbai and one in...

 are the other autonomous universities in Mumbai. Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies
Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies
Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies is the Department of Management Studies of the University of Mumbai and is the third oldest business school in India...

 (JBIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research and several other management schools. Government Law College and Sydenham College
Sydenham College
Sydenham College or Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics is the first college of commerce in Asia.It is an institute in Mumbai , affiliated to the University of Bombay, and offering undergraduate degrees in commerce and undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in management...

, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai. The Sir J. J. School of Art
Sir J. J. School of Art
The Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy School of Art , is the oldest art institution in Mumbai, and is affiliated with the University of Mumbai...

 is Mumbai's oldest art institution.

Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research is a research institution in India dedicated to basic research in mathematics and the sciences. It is a Deemed University and works under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India. It is located at Navy Nagar, Colaba, Mumbai...

 (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is India's primary nuclear research facility based in Mumbai. It has a number of nuclear reactors, all of which are used for India's nuclear power and research programme.- History :...

 (BARC). The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay
Trombay
Trombay is a northeastern suburb in Mumbai, India, with Mankhurd as the closest railway station on the Harbour Line of the Mumbai Suburban Railway.-History:...

.

Sports

Cricket is the most popular sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as gully cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is also home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India
Board of Control for Cricket in India
The Board of Control for Cricket in India , headquartered at Mumbai, is the national governing body for all cricket in India. It's not the apex governing body in India. The board was formed in December 1928 as BCCI replaced Calcutta Cricket Club. BCCI is a society, registered under the Tamil Nadu...

 (BCCI) and Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League
The Indian Premier League is a professional league for Twenty20 cricket competition in India. It was initiated by the Board of Control for Cricket in India , headquartered in Mumbai, and is supervised by BCCI Vice President Rajeev Shukla, who serves as the league's Chairman and Commissioner...

 (IPL). The Mumbai cricket team
Mumbai cricket team
The Mumbai cricket team is a cricket team representing the city of Mumbai in Indian domestic cricket. It is the most successful team in the Ranji Trophy, India's top domestic cricket competition, with 39 titles, the most recent being in 2009–10. The team's home ground is the Wankhede Stadium in...

 represents the city in the Ranji Trophy
Ranji Trophy
The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between different city and state sides, equivalent to the County Championship in England and the Sheffield Shield in Australia...

 and has won 39 titles, the most by any team. The city is also represented by the Mumbai Indians
Mumbai Indians
Mumbai Indians , is a franchise cricket team representing Mumbai in the Indian Premier League. The team is one of the eight founding members of the IPL in 2008. Mumbai Indians are currently led by Sachin Tendulkar, who is the Icon Player for the team and is coached by Robin Singh...

 and the Pune Warriors in the Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League
The Indian Premier League is a professional league for Twenty20 cricket competition in India. It was initiated by the Board of Control for Cricket in India , headquartered in Mumbai, and is supervised by BCCI Vice President Rajeev Shukla, who serves as the league's Chairman and Commissioner...

.

The city has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium
Wankhede Stadium
The Sheshrao Krushnarao Wankhede Stadium is a cricket stadium in the Indian city of Mumbai. This ground was built after disputes between the Cricket Club of India, which owns the Brabourne Stadium, and the Mumbai Cricket Association over the allocation of tickets for cricket matches...

 and the Brabourne Stadium
Brabourne Stadium
The Brabourne Stadium is a cricket ground in the Indian city of Mumbai. It is located on 90,000 square yards of reclaimed land along Marine Drive near Churchgate railway station in South Mumbai. The stadium is owned by the Cricket Club of India . Brabourne Stadium is India's first permanent...

. The first cricket test match in India was played in Mumbai at Bombay Gymkhana
Bombay Gymkhana
Bombay Gymkhana ,, established in 1875, is one of the premiere gymkhanas in the city of Mumbai, India. It is located in the South Mumbai area and was originally built as a British-only club, designed by English architect, Claude Batley. The Gymkhana Grounds lie in the southern end of the Azad Maidan...

. The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the final
2011 Cricket World Cup Final
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup Final was played between India and Sri Lanka at the Wankhede Stadium in Mumbai on 2 April 2011. This was the 10th ICC Cricket World Cup. India won the match by six wickets, its second World Cup victory, having previously won in 1983. India became the third nation to...

 of the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the final
2006 ICC Champions Trophy Final
The final of the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy was played on 5 November 2006 at the Brabourne Stadium, Mumbai. -Road to the Final:Australia reached the final by defeating New Zealand in the semis while West Indies reached the finals by defeating South Africa....

 of an ICC Champions Trophy
ICC Champions Trophy
The ICC Champions Trophy is a One Day International cricket tournament, second in importance only to the Cricket World Cup. It was inaugurated as the ICC Knock Out tournament in 1998 and has been played every two years since, changing its name to the Champions Trophy in 2002...

 which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in 2006
2006 ICC Champions Trophy
The 2006 ICC Champions Trophy was a One Day International cricket tournament held in India from 7 October to 5 November 2006. It was the fifth edition of the ICC Champions Trophy...

. Eminent cricketers from Mumbai include Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar is an Indian cricketer widely regarded as one of the greatest batsmen in the history of cricket. He is the leading run-scorer and century maker in Test and one-day international cricket. He is the only male player to score a double century in the history of ODI cricket...

 and Sunil Gavaskar
Sunil Gavaskar
Sunil Manohar "Sunny" Gavaskar is a former cricketer who played during the 1970s and 1980s for Bombay and India. Widely regarded as one of the greatest opening batsmen in cricket history, Gavaskar set world records during his career for the most Test runs and most Test centuries scored by any...

.

Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
The FIFA World Cup, often simply the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association , the sport's global governing body...

 and the English Premier League being followed widely. In the I-League
I-League
The I-League is an Indian football league for association football clubs. At the top of the Indian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 14 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation of two teams each year with the I-League 2nd Division...

 (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground
Cooperage Ground
The Cooperage Ground is a football stadium in Mumbai, India. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of Mumbai F.C. and FC Air India. The stadium holds 12,000 people. The Western India Football Association also operates from the Cooperage Ground. The Mumbai...

), Mumbai is represented by three teams, Mumbai FC
Mumbai FC
Mumbai Football Club is an Indian football club based in Mumbai. The Club has many firsts to its credit and promises made have been duly fulfilled...

, Mahindra United
Mahindra United
Mahindra United Football Club was a professional football club based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Their home ground was the Cooperage Ground in Mumbai...

 and Air-India
Air India (football club)
Air India FC, is an Indian professional football club founded in 1952, based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. They are sponsored by Air India under the management of T.K. Singh and have enjoyed some success in the Maharashtrian Football and the NFL India. They play in the I-League and Mumbai Super Division...

. Field hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

 has declined in popularity, due to the rise of cricket. Mumbai is home to the Maratha Warriors
Maratha Warriors
The Maratha Warriors are the Premier Hockey League team from Maharashtra, led by Captain Viren Rasquinha.-Players:The squad as of December 20th 2006 is as follows....

, the only team from Maharashtra competing in the Premier Hockey League
Premier Hockey League
The now defunct Premier Hockey League was a professional league competition for field Hockey clubs in the top division of the Indian hockey system. There were seven teams in the PHL. The competition was held every year from 2005 till 2008.-History:...

.
When the Elite Football League of India
Elite Football League of India
The Elite Football League of India is a proposed men's professional American football league in India. When play begins in late 2012, there will be ten teams, located in various cities across India...

 was introduced in August 2011, Mumbai was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season. Named the Mumbai Gladiators, the team's first season will be played in Pune
Pune
Pune , is the eighth largest metropolis in India, the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after Mumbai, and the largest city in the Western Ghats. Once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire, it is situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the confluence of the Mula ...

, and it will be Mumbai's first professional American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 franchise.

Every February, Mumbai holds derby
Derby (horse race)
A derby is a type of horse race, named after the Derby Stakes, still run at Epsom Downs Racecourse in England. That was in turn named for Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby, who inaugurated the race in 1780...

 races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse
Mahalaxmi Racecourse
The Mahalaxmi Racecourse is a horse racing track in Mahalaxmi neighbourhood, of Mumbai. The track is oval shaped with 2400 m straight chute, spread over approx. of open land in the heart of Mumbai city. It was created out of a marshy land known as Mahalakshmi Flats. Built in 1883 and modelled on...

. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf club
Royal Western India Turf Club
Royal Western India Turf Club Ltd. is a Indian sports club, into horse racing, established in 1802, which runs the Mahalaxmi Racecourse in Mumbai, and the Pune Race Course.Its also runs an helipad at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse.- History :...

 in Mumbai. Interest in Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 racing has been rising in recent years, and in 2008, the Force India
Force India
Sahara Force India Formula One Team, the trading name of Force India Formula One Team Limited, is a Formula One racing team based in Silverstone, United Kingdom which currently holds an Indian licence. The team was formed in October 2007 when a consortium led by Indian businessman Vijay Mallya and...

 F1 team car was unveiled in Mumbai. The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan land. If approved, the track will be clubbed with a theme park and will spread over 400 to 500 acre (202 ha). In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship
F1 Powerboat Racing
F1 Powerboat World Championship is a competition of powerboats with rules similar to Formula One car racing. Each F1 powerboat race lasts approximately 45 minutes following a circuit marked out in a selected stretch of water, usually a lake, river, or sheltered bay.Qualifying periods decide the...

. In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon
Mumbai Marathon
The Mumbai Marathon is an annual international road running competition over the marathon distance that is held in Mumbai, India, each January. The course records set in 2011 were also the fastest times ever run for the marathon on Indian soil – 2:09:54 by Girma Assefa and 2:26:56 by the women's...

 was established in a bid to bring the sports discipline to the Indian public. Mumbai has also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open
Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open
The Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open was a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was part of the International Series of the ATP Tour...

, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour
Association of Tennis Professionals
The Association of Tennis Professionals or ATP was formed in 1972 by Donald Dell, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. Since 1990, the association has organized the worldwide tennis tour for men and linked the title of the tour with the...

, in 2006 and 2007.

Sister cities

Mumbai has sister city agreements with the following cities: Berlin, Germany London, United Kingdom Los Angeles, United States Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

, Germany Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

, Japan

See also

  • Outline of India


External links

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