Glutelins proteins are soluble in dilute acid
An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have a pH of less than 7, where an acid of lower pH is typically stronger, and turn blue litmus paper red...

s or base
Base (chemistry)
For the term in genetics, see base A base in chemistry is a substance that can accept hydrogen ions or more generally, donate electron pairs. A soluble base is referred to as an alkali if it contains and releases hydroxide ions quantitatively...

s, detergent
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions." In common usage, "detergent" refers to alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are less affected by hard water...

s, chaotropic
Chaotropic agent
A denaturating agent is a substance which disrupts the three dimensional structure in macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, or RNA and denatures them. A denaturating agent is a chaotropic agent, but chaotropic agents aren't necessarily denaturating agents...

, or reducing agent
Reducing agent
A reducing agent is the element or compound in a reduction-oxidation reaction that donates an electron to another species; however, since the reducer loses an electron we say it is "oxidized"...

s. In general, they are prolamin
Prolamins are a group of plant storage proteins having a high proline content and found in the seeds of cereal grains: wheat , barley , rye , corn , sorghum and as a minor protein, avenin in oats. They are characterised by a high glutamine and proline content and are generally soluble only in...

-like protein
Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form, facilitating a biological function. A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of...

s in certain grass seeds. Glutenin
Glutenin is the glutelin derived from wheat. Gluteninis a protein best known for its role, along with gliadin, in the creation of gluten with its disulfide inter- and intra-molecule links. Glutenin consists of 20% HMW subunits, which are relatively low in sulfur...

 is the most common glutelin, as it is found in wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

 and is responsible for some of the refined baking properties in bread wheat
Common wheat
Common wheat, Triticum aestivum, is a cultivated wheat species.-Nomenclature and taxonomy of the variety and its cultivars:-Evolution:...

. The glutelins of barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

 and rye
Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain and as a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder...

 have also been identified.

Glutelins are also used as the primary energy storage in the endosperm of rice.

There are typically high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutelins in these species. They crosslink with themselves and other proteins during baking via disulfide bonds
Disulfide bond
In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a covalent bond, usually derived by the coupling of two thiol groups. The linkage is also called an SS-bond or disulfide bridge. The overall connectivity is therefore R-S-S-R. The terminology is widely used in biochemistry...


A HMW glutelin (glutenin) of the grass tribe Triticeae
Triticeae is a tribe within the Pooideae subfamily of grasses that includes genera with many domesticated species. Major crop genera are found in this tribe including wheat , barley, and rye; crops in other genera include some for human consumption and others used for animal feed or rangeland...

can be sensitizing agents for coeliac disease
Coeliac disease
Coeliac disease , is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages from middle infancy onward...

 in individuals possessing the HLA-DQ8
HLA-DQ8 is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ serotype group. DQ8 is a split antigen of the DQ3 broad antigen. DQ8 is determined by the antibody recognition of β8 and this generally detects the gene product of DQB1*0302....

 class II
MHC class II
MHC Class II molecules are found only on a few specialized cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells, all of which are professional antigen-presenting cells ....

An antigen is a foreign molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system. The immune system will then kill or neutralize the antigen that is recognized as a foreign and potentially harmful invader. These invaders can be molecules such as...

Immune receptor
An immune receptor is a receptor, usually on a cell membrane, which binds to a substance and causes a response in the immune system.-Types:...

A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains...

. (not yet characterized to the epitope level)
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