, is widely considered the greatest English poet
of the Middle Ages
and was the first poet to have been buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey
. While he achieved fame during his lifetime as an author
, philosopher, alchemist
, composing a scientific treatise on the astrolabe for his ten year-old son Lewis, Chaucer also maintained an active career in the civil service as a bureaucrat
The lyf so short, the craft so longe to lerne.Th’ assay so hard, so sharp the conquerynge,The dredful joye, alwey that slit so yerne;Al this mene I be love.
For out of olde feldes, as men seith,Cometh al this new corn fro yeer to yere;And out of olde bokes, in good feith,Cometh al this newe science that men lere.
Soun is noght but air ybroken,And every speche that is spoken,Loud or privee, foul or fair,In his substaunce is but air;For as flaumbe is but lighted smoke,Right so soun is air ybroke.
For I am shave as neigh as any frere.But yit I praye unto youre curteisye:Beeth hevy again, or elles moot I die.
Ye knowe eek, that in forme of speche is chaungeWithinne a thousand yeer, and wordes thoThat hadden prys, now wonder nyce and straungeUs thinketh hem; and yet they spake hem so,And spedde as wel in love as men now do;Eek for to winne love in sondry ages,In sondry londes, sondry ben usages.
For which he wex a litel red for shame,Whan he the peple upon him herde cryen,That to beholde it was a noble game,How sobreliche he caste doun his yen.Criseyda gan al his chere aspyen,And let so softe it in her herte sinkeThat to herself she seyde, “Who yaf me drinke?”
Or as an ook comth of a litel spir,So thorugh this lettre, which that she hym sente,Encressen gan desir, of which he brente.
It is nought good a slepyng hound to wake.
For of fortunes sharp adversiteeThe worst kynde of infortune is this,A man to han ben in prosperitee,And it remembren, whan it passed is.
Oon ere it herde, at tothir out it wente.
, is widely considered the greatest English poet
of the Middle Ages
and was the first poet to have been buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey
. While he achieved fame during his lifetime as an author
, philosopher, alchemist
, composing a scientific treatise on the astrolabe for his ten year-old son Lewis, Chaucer also maintained an active career in the civil service as a bureaucrat
. Among his many works, which include The Book of the Duchess
, the House of Fame, the Legend of Good Women and Troilus and Criseyde
, he is best loved today for The Canterbury Tales
. Chaucer is a crucial figure in developing the legitimacy of the vernacular
, Middle English
, at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were French
s; several previous generations had been merchants in Ipswich
. (His family name derives from the French chausseur, meaning "shoemaker".) In 1324 John Chaucer, Geoffrey's father, was kidnapped by an aunt in the hope of marrying the twelve-year-old boy to her daughter in an attempt to keep property in Ipswich. The aunt was imprisoned and the £250 fine levied suggests that the family was financially secure—bourgeois, if not elite. John Chaucer married Agnes Copton, who, in 1349, inherited properties including 24 shops in London from her uncle, Hamo de Copton, who is described in a will dated April 3, 1354 and listed in the City Hustings Roll as "moneyer
"; he was said to be moneyer at the Tower of London
. In the City Hustings Roll 110, 5, Ric II, dated June 1380, Geoffrey Chaucer refers to himself as me Galfridum Chaucer, filium Johannis Chaucer, Vinetarii, Londonie' .
While records concerning the lives of his contemporary poets, William Langland
and the Pearl Poet
are practically non-existent, since Chaucer was a public servant, his official life is very well documented, with nearly five hundred written items testifying to his career. The first of the "Chaucer Life Records" appears in 1357, in the household accounts of Elizabeth de Burgh
, the Countess of Ulster
, when he became the noblewoman's page through his father's connections. She was married to Lionel, Duke of Clarence
, the second surviving son of the king, Edward III
, and the position brought the teenage Chaucer into the close court circle, where he was to remain for the rest of his life. He also worked as a courtier, a diplomat, and a civil servant, as well as working for the king, collecting and inventorying scrap metal.
In 1359, in the early stages of the Hundred Years' War
, Edward III
invaded France and Chaucer travelled with Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence
, Elizabeth's husband, as part of the English army
. In 1360, he was captured during the siege of Rheims. Edward paid £16 for his ransom, a considerable sum, and Chaucer was released.
After this, Chaucer's life is uncertain, but he seems to have travelled in France, Spain, and Flanders
, possibly as a messenger and perhaps even going on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela
. Around 1366, Chaucer married Philippa (de) Roet
. She was a lady-in-waiting to Edward III's queen, Philippa of Hainault
, and a sister of Katherine Swynford
, who later (ca. 1396) became the third wife of John of Gaunt. It is uncertain how many children Chaucer and Philippa had, but three or four are most commonly cited. His son, Thomas Chaucer
, had an illustrious career, as chief butler
to four kings, envoy to France, and Speaker of the House of Commons
. Thomas' daughter, Alice, married the Duke of Suffolk
. Thomas' great-grandson (Geoffrey's great-great-grandson), John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, was the heir to the throne designated by Richard III
before he was deposed. Geoffrey's other children probably included Elizabeth Chaucy, a nun at Barking Abbey
. Agnes, an attendant at Henry IV
's coronation; and another son, Lewis Chaucer.
Chaucer probably studied law in the Inner Temple
(an Inn of Court) at this time. He became a member of the royal court of Edward III as a varlet de chambre, yeoman
, or esquire
on 20 June 1367, a position which could entail a wide variety of tasks. His wife also received a pension for court employment. He travelled abroad many times, at least some of them in his role as a valet. In 1368, he may have attended the wedding of Lionel of Antwerp
to Violante Visconti
, daughter of Galeazzo II Visconti
, in Milan
. Two other literary stars of the era were in attendance: Jean Froissart
. Around this time, Chaucer is believed to have written The Book of the Duchess
in honour of Blanche of Lancaster
, the late wife of John of Gaunt, who died in 1369.
Chaucer travelled to Picardy
the next year as part of a military expedition, and visited Genoa
in 1373. Numerous scholars such as Skeat, Boitani, and Rowland suggested that, on this Italian trip, he came into contact with Petrarch or Boccaccio
. They introduced him to medieval
, the forms and stories of which he would use later. The purposes of a voyage in 1377 are mysterious, as details within the historical record conflict. Later documents suggest it was a mission, along with Jean Froissart, to arrange a marriage between the future King Richard II
and a French princess, thereby ending the Hundred Years War. If this was the purpose of their trip, they seem to have been unsuccessful, as no wedding occurred.
In 1378, Richard II sent Chaucer as an envoy (secret dispatch) to the Visconti and to Sir John Hawkwood
, English condottiere (mercenary leader) in Milan
. It has been speculated that it was Hawkwood on whom Chaucer based his character the Knight in the Canterbury Tales, for a description matches that of a fourteenth-century condottiere.
granted Chaucer "a gallon of wine daily for the rest of his life" for some unspecified task. This was an unusual grant, but given on a day of celebration, St George's Day
, 1374, when artistic endeavours were traditionally rewarded, it is assumed to have been another early poetic work. It is not known which, if any, of Chaucer's extant works prompted the reward, but the suggestion of him as poet to a king places him as a precursor to later poets laureate. Chaucer continued to collect the liquid stipend until Richard II came to power, after which it was converted to a monetary grant on 18 April 1378.
Chaucer obtained the very substantial job of Comptroller
of the Customs for the port of London, which he began on 8 June 1374. He must have been suited for the role as he continued in it for twelve years, a long time in such a post at that time. His life goes undocumented for much of the next ten years, but it is believed that he wrote (or began) most of his famous works during this period. He was mentioned in law papers of 4 May 1380, involved in the raptus of Cecilia Chaumpaigne. What raptus means is unclear, but the incident seems to have been resolved quickly and did not leave a stain on Chaucer's reputation. It is not known if Chaucer was in the city of London at the time of the Peasants' Revolt
, but if he was, he would have seen its leaders pass almost directly under his apartment window at Aldgate
While still working as comptroller, Chaucer appears to have moved to Kent
, being appointed as one of the commissioners of peace for Kent, at a time when French invasion was a possibility. He is thought to have started work on The Canterbury Tales
in the early 1380s. He also became a Member of Parliament
for Kent in 1386. There is no further reference after this date to Philippa, Chaucer's wife, and she is presumed to have died in 1387. He survived the political upheavals caused by the Lords Appellant
s, despite the fact that Chaucer knew some of the men executed over the affair quite well.
On 12 July 1389, Chaucer was appointed the clerk of the king's works, a sort of foreman
organising most of the king's building projects. No major works were begun during his tenure, but he did conduct repairs on Westminster Palace, St. George's Chapel, Windsor, continue building the wharf at the Tower of London
, and build the stands for a tournament held in 1390. It may have been a difficult job, but it paid well: two shilling
s a day, more than three times his salary as a comptroller. Chaucer was also appointed keeper of the lodge at the King’s park in Feckenham
, which was a largely honorary appointment.
In September 1390, records say that he was robbed, and possibly injured, while conducting the business, and it was shortly after, on 17 June 1391, that he stopped working in this capacity. Almost immediately, on 22 June, he began as deputy forester in the royal forest
of North Petherton
. This was no sinecure
, with maintenance an important part of the job, although there were many opportunities to derive profit. He was granted an annual pension of twenty pounds by Richard II in 1394. It is believed that Chaucer stopped work on the Canterbury Tales sometime towards the end of this decade.
Not long after the overthrow of his patron, Richard II, in 1399, Chaucer's name fades from the historical record. The last few records of his life show his pension renewed by the new king, and his taking of a lease on a residence within the close of Westminster Abbey
on 24 December 1399. Although Henry IV
renewed the grants assigned to Chaucer by Richard, Chaucer's own The Complaint of Chaucer to his Purse hints that the grants might not have been paid. The last mention of Chaucer is on 5 June 1400, when some monies owed to him were paid.
He is believed to have died of unknown causes on 25 October 1400, but there is no firm evidence for this date, as it comes from the engraving on his tomb, erected more than one hundred years after his death. There is some speculation—most recently in Terry Jones
' book Who Murdered Chaucer? : A Medieval Mystery
—that he was murdered by enemies of Richard II or even on the orders of his successor Henry IV, but the case is entirely circumstantial. Chaucer was buried in Westminster Abbey
in London, as was his right owing to his status as a tenant of the Abbey's close. In 1556, his remains were transferred to a more ornate tomb, making Chaucer the first writer interred in the area now known as Poets' Corner
WorksChaucer's first major work, The Book of the Duchess
, was an elegy for Blanche of Lancaster
(who died in 1369). It is possible that this work was commissioned by her husband John of Gaunt, as he granted Chaucer a £10 annuity on 13 June 1374. This would seem to place the writing of The Book of the Duchess between the years 1369 and 1374. Two other early works by Chaucer were Anelida and Arcite
and The House of Fame
. Chaucer wrote many of his major works in a prolific period when he held the job of customs comptroller for London (1374 to 1386). His Parlement of Foules
, The Legend of Good Women
and Troilus and Criseyde
all date from this time. Also it is believed that he started work on The Canterbury Tales
in the early 1380s. Chaucer is best known as the writer of The Canterbury Tales
, which is a collection of stories told by fictional pilgrims on the road to the cathedral at Canterbury
; these tales would help to shape English literature.
The Canterbury Tales
contrasts with other literature of the period in the naturalism of its narrative, the variety of stories the pilgrims tell and the varied characters who are engaged in the pilgrimage. Many of the stories narrated by the pilgrims seem to fit their individual characters and social standing, although some of the stories seem ill-fitting to their narrators, perhaps as a result of the incomplete state of the work. Chaucer drew on real life for his cast of pilgrims: the innkeeper shares the name of a contemporary keeper of an inn in Southwark, and real-life identities for the Wife of Bath, the Merchant, the Man of Law and the Student have been suggested. The many jobs that Chaucer held in medieval society—page, soldier, messenger, valet, bureaucrat, foreman and administrator—probably exposed him to many of the types of people he depicted in the Tales. He was able to shape their speech and satirise their manners in what was to become popular literature among people of the same types.
Chaucer's works are sometimes grouped into first a French period, then an Italian period and finally an English period, with Chaucer being influenced by those countries' literatures in turn. Certainly Troilus and Criseyde
is a middle period work with its reliance on the forms of Italian poetry, little known in England at the time, but to which Chaucer was probably exposed during his frequent trips abroad on court business. In addition, its use of a classical
subject and its elaborate, courtly language sets it apart as one of his most complete and well-formed works. In Troilus and Criseyde Chaucer draws heavily on his source, Boccaccio
, and on the late Latin philosopher Boethius
. However, it is The Canterbury Tales, wherein he focuses on English subjects, with bawdy jokes and respected figures often being undercut with humour, that has cemented his reputation.
Chaucer also translated
such important works as Boethius'
Consolation of Philosophy and The Romance of the Rose by Guillaume de Lorris
(extended by Jean de Meun). However, while many scholars maintain that Chaucer did indeed translate part of the text of Roman de la Rose
as The Romaunt of the Rose
, others claim that this has been effectively disproved. Many of his other works were very loose translations of, or simply based on, works from continental Europe. It is in this role that Chaucer receives some of his earliest critical praise. Eustache Deschamps
wrote a ballade on the great translator and called himself a "nettle in Chaucer's garden of poetry". In 1385 Thomas Usk
made glowing mention of Chaucer, and John Gower
, Chaucer's main poetic rival of the time, also lauded him. This reference was later edited out of Gower's Confessio Amantis and it has been suggested by some that this was because of ill feeling between them, but it is likely due simply to stylistic concerns.
One other significant work of Chaucer's is his Treatise on the Astrolabe
, possibly for his own son, that describes the form and use of that instrument
in detail and is sometimes cited as the first example of technical writing
in the English language. Although much of the text may have come from other sources, the treatise indicates that Chaucer was versed in science in addition to his literary talents. Another scientific work discovered in 1952, Equatorie of the Planetis, has similar language and handwriting compared to some considered to be Chaucer's and it continues many of the ideas from the Astrolabe. Furthermore, it contains an example of early European encryption
. The attribution of this work to Chaucer is still uncertain.
, a style which had developed since around the twelfth century as an alternative to the alliterative
Anglo-Saxon metre. Chaucer is known for metrical innovation, inventing the rhyme royal
, and he was one of the first English poets to use the five-stress line, a decasyllabic cousin to the iambic pentameter
, in his work, with only a few anonymous short works using it before him. The arrangement of these five-stress lines into rhyming couplet
s, first seen in his The Legend of Good Women
, was used in much of his later work and became one of the standard poetic forms in English. His early influence as a satirist is also important, with the common humorous device, the funny accent of a regional dialect
, apparently making its first appearance in The Reeve's Tale
The poetry of Chaucer, along with other writers of the era, is credited with helping to standardise the London Dialect of the Middle English
language from a combination of the Kentish and Midlands dialects. This is probably overstated; the influence of the court, chancery
and bureaucracy—of which Chaucer was a part—remains a more probable influence on the development of Standard English
. Modern English
is somewhat distanced from the language of Chaucer's poems owing to the effect of the Great Vowel Shift
some time after his death. This change in the pronunciation
of English, still not fully understood, makes the reading of Chaucer difficult for the modern audience. The status of the final -e in Chaucer's verse is uncertain: it seems likely that during the period of Chaucer's writing the final -e was dropping out of colloquial English and that its use was somewhat irregular. Chaucer's versification suggests that the final -e is sometimes to be vocalised, and sometimes to be silent; however, this remains a point on which there is disagreement. When it is vocalised, most scholars pronounce it as a schwa
. Apart from the irregular spelling, much of the vocabulary is recognisable to the modern reader. Chaucer is also recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary
as the first author to use many common English words in his writings. These words were probably frequently used in the language at the time but Chaucer, with his ear for common speech, is the earliest manuscript source. Acceptable, alkali, altercation, amble, angrily, annex, annoyance, approaching, arbitration, armless, army, arrogant, arsenic, arc, artillery and aspect are just some of the many English words first attested in Chaucer
LiteraryWidespread knowledge of Chaucer's works is attested by the many poets who imitated or responded to his writing. John Lydgate
was one of the earliest poets to write continuations of Chaucer's unfinished Tales while Robert Henryson
's Testament of Cresseid completes the story of Cressida
left unfinished in his Troilus and Criseyde. Many of the manuscripts of Chaucer's works contain material from these poets and later appreciations by the romantic era poets were shaped by their failure to distinguish the later "additions" from original Chaucer. Seventeenth and eighteenth century writers, such as John Dryden
, admired Chaucer for his stories, but not for his rhythm and rhyme, as few critics could then read Middle English and the text had been butchered by printers, leaving a somewhat unadmirable mess. It was not until the late 19th century that the official Chaucerian canon, accepted today, was decided upon, largely as a result of Walter William Skeat
's work. One hundred and fifty years after his death, The Canterbury Tales was selected by William Caxton
to be one of the first books to be printed in England.
EnglishChaucer is sometimes considered the source of the English vernacular tradition and the "father" of modern English literature. His achievement for the language can be seen as part of a general historical trend towards the creation of a vernacular literature
, after the example of Dante
, in many parts of Europe. A parallel trend in Chaucer's own lifetime was underway in Scotland through the work of his slightly earlier contemporary, John Barbour, and was likely to have been even more general, as is evidenced by the example of the Pearl Poet
in the north of England.
Although Chaucer's language is much closer to modern English than the text of Beowulf
, it differs enough that most publications modernise his idiom. Following is a sample from the prologue of "The Summoner's Tale" that compares Chaucer's text to a modern translation:
|This frere bosteth that he knoweth helle,||This friar boasts that he knows hell,|
|And God it woot, that it is litel wonder;||And God knows that it is little wonder;|
|Freres and feendes been but lyte asonder.||Friars and fiends are seldom far apart.|
|For, pardee, ye han ofte tyme herd telle||For, by God, you have ofttimes heard tell|
|How that a frere ravyshed was to helle||How a friar was taken to hell|
|In spirit ones by a visioun;||In spirit, once by a vision;|
|And as an angel ladde hym up and doun,||And as an angel led him up and down,|
|To shewen hym the peynes that the were,||To show him the pains that were there,|
|In al the place saugh he nat a frere;||In all the place he saw not a friar;|
|Of oother folk he saugh ynowe in wo.||Of other folk he saw enough in woe.|
|Unto this angel spak the frere tho:||Unto this angel spoke the friar thus:|
|Now, sire, quod he, han freres swich a grace||"Now sir", said he, "Have friars such a grace|
|That noon of hem shal come to this place?||That none of them come to this place?"|
|Yis, quod this aungel, many a millioun!||"Yes", said the angel, "many a million!"|
|And unto sathanas he ladde hym doun.||And unto Satan the angel led him down.|
|--And now hath sathanas,--seith he,--a tayl||"And now Satan has", he said, "a tail,|
|Brodder than of a carryk is the sayl.||Broader than a galleon's sail.|
|Hold up thy tayl, thou sathanas!--quod he;||Hold up your tail, Satan!" said he.|
|--shewe forth thyn ers, and lat the frere se||"Show forth your arse, and let the friar see|
|Where is the nest of freres in this place!--||Where the nest of friars is in this place!"|
|And er that half a furlong wey of space,||And before half a furlong of space,|
|Right so as bees out swarmen from an hyve,||Just as bees swarm out from a hive,|
|Out of the develes ers ther gonne dryve||Out of the devil's arse there were driven|
|Twenty thousand freres on a route,||Twenty thousand friars on a rout,|
|And thurghout helle swarmed al aboute,||And throughout hell swarmed all about,|
|And comen agayn as faste as they may gon,||And came again as fast as they could go,|
|And in his ers they crepten everychon.||And every one crept into his arse.|
|He clapte his tayl agayn and lay ful stille.||He shut his tail again and lay very still.|
Early criticismThe poet Thomas Hoccleve, who may have met Chaucer and considered him his role model, hailed Chaucer as "the firste fyndere of our fair langage." John Lydgate
referred to Chaucer within his own text The Fall of Princes as the "lodesterre ... off our language". Around two centuries later, Sir Philip Sidney
greatly praised Troilus and Criseyde in his own Defence of Poesie.
Manuscripts and audienceThe large number of surviving manuscripts of Chaucer's works is testimony to the enduring interest in his poetry prior to the arrival of the printing press. There are 83 surviving manuscripts of the Canterbury Tales (in whole or part) alone, along with sixteen of Troilus and Criseyde, including the personal copy of Henry IV
. Given the ravages of time, it is likely that these surviving manuscripts represent hundreds since lost. Chaucer's original audience was a courtly one, and would have included women as well as men of the upper social classes. Yet even before his death in 1400, Chaucer's audience had begun to include members of the rising literate, middle and merchant classes, which included many Lollard sympathizers who may well have been inclined to read Chaucer as one of their own, particularly in his satirical writings about friars, priests, and other church officials. In 1464, John Baron, a tenant farmer in Agmondesham, was brought before John Chadworth
, the Bishop of Lincoln, on charges he was a Lollard heretic; he confessed to owning a "boke of the Tales of Caunterburie" among other suspect volumes.
Printed editionsWilliam Caxton
, the first English printer, was responsible for the first two folio editions of The Canterbury Tales which were published in 1478 and 1483. Caxton's second printing, by his own account, came about because a customer complained that the printed text differed from a manuscript he knew; Caxton obligingly used the man's manuscript as his source. Both Caxton editions carry the equivalent of manuscript authority. Caxton's edition was reprinted by his successor, Wynkyn de Worde
, but this edition has no independent authority.
, the King's Printer under Henry VIII for about twenty years, was the first to collect and sell something that resembled an edition of the collected works of Chaucer, introducing in the process five previously printed texts that we now know are not Chaucer's. (The collection is actually three separately printed texts, or collections of texts, bound together as one volume.) There is a likely connection between Pynson's product and William Thynne's a mere six years later. Thynne had a successful career from the 1520s until his death in 1546, when he was one of the masters of the royal household. His editions of Chaucers Works in 1532 and 1542 were the first major contributions to the existence of a widely recognised Chaucerian canon. Thynne represents his edition as a book sponsored by and supportive of the king who is praised in the preface by Sir Brian Tuke. Thynne's canon brought the number of apocryphal works associated with Chaucer to a total of 28, even if that was not his intention. As with Pynson, once included in the Works, pseudepigraphic
texts stayed within it, regardless of their first editor's intentions.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Chaucer was printed more than any other English author, and he was the first author to have his works collected in comprehensive single-volume editions in which a Chaucer canon began to cohere. Some scholars contend that sixteenth-century editions of Chaucer's Works set the precedent for all other English authors in terms of presentation, prestige and success in print. These editions certainly established Chaucer's reputation, but they also began the complicated process of reconstructing and frequently inventing Chaucer's biography and the canonical list of works which were attributed to him.
Probably the most significant aspect of the growing apocrypha is that, beginning with Thynne's editions, it began to include medieval texts that made Chaucer appear as a proto-Protestant Lollard, primarily the Testament of Love and The Plowman's Tale
. As "Chaucerian" works that were not considered apocryphal until the late nineteenth century, these medieval texts enjoyed a new life, with English Protestants carrying on the earlier Lollard project of appropriating existing texts and authors who seemed sympathetic—or malleable enough to be construed as sympathetic—to their cause. The official Chaucer of the early printed volumes of his Works was construed as a proto-Protestant as the same was done, concurrently, with William Langland
and Piers Plowman
. The famous Plowman's Tale did not enter Thynne's Works until the second, 1542, edition. Its entry was surely facilitated by Thynne's inclusion of Thomas Usk
's Testament of Love in the first edition. The Testament of Love imitates, borrows from, and thus resembles Usk's contemporary, Chaucer. (Testament of Love also appears to borrow from Piers Plowman.) Since the Testament of Love mentions its author's part in a failed plot (book 1, chapter 6), his imprisonment, and (perhaps) a recantation of (possibly Lollard) heresy, all this was associated with Chaucer. (Usk himself was executed as a traitor in 1388.) Interestingly, John Foxe
took this recantation of heresy as a defence of the true faith, calling Chaucer a "right Wiclevian" and (erroneously) identifying him as a schoolmate and close friend of John Wycliffe
at Merton College, Oxford
. (Thomas Speght is careful to highlight these facts in his editions and his "Life of Chaucer.") No other sources for the Testament of Love exist—there is only Thynne's construction of whatever manuscript sources he had.
(1525–1605) was an antiquarian and also a chronicler.
His edition of Chaucer's Works in 1561 brought the apocrypha to more than 50 titles. More were added in the seventeenth century, and they remained as late as 1810, well after Thomas Tyrwhitt
pared the canon down in his 1775 edition. The compilation and printing of Chaucer's works was, from its beginning, a political enterprise, since it was intended to establish an English national identity and history that grounded and authorised the Tudor monarchy and church. What was added to Chaucer often helped represent him favourably to Protestant England.
- Yet it seemeth that [Chaucer] was in some trouble in the daies of King Richard the second, as it may appeare in the Testament of Loue: where hee doth greatly complaine of his owne rashnesse in following the multitude, and of their hatred of him for bewraying their purpose. And in that complaint which he maketh to his empty purse, I do find a written copy, which I had of Iohn Stow (whose library hath helped many writers) wherein ten times more is adjoined, then is in print. Where he maketh great lamentation for his wrongfull imprisonment, wishing death to end his daies: which in my iudgement doth greatly accord with that in the Testament of Love. Moreover we find it thus in Record.
Later, in "The Argument
" to the Testament of Love, Speght adds:
- Chaucer did compile this booke as a comfort to himselfe after great griefs conceiued for some rash attempts of the commons, with whome he had ioyned, and thereby was in feare to loose the fauour of his best friends.
Speght is also the source of the famous tale of Chaucer being fined for beating a Franciscan
in Fleet Street
, as well as a fictitious coat of arms
and family tree
. Ironically—and perhaps consciously so—an introductory, apologetic letter in Speght's edition from Francis Beaumont
defends the unseemly, "low", and bawdy bits in Chaucer from an elite, classicist position. Francis Thynne noted some of these inconsistencies in his Animadversions, insisting that Chaucer was not a commoner, and he objected to the friar-beating story. Yet Thynne himself underscores Chaucer's support for popular religious reform, associating Chaucer's views with his father William Thynne's attempts to include The Plowman's Tale and The Pilgrim's Tale in the 1532 and 1542 Works.
The myth of the Protestant Chaucer continues to have a lasting impact on a large body of Chaucerian scholarship. Though it is extremely rare for a modern scholar to suggest Chaucer supported a religious movement that didn't exist until more than a century after his death, the predominance of this thinking for so many centuries left it for granted that Chaucer was at least extremely hostile toward Catholicism. This assumption forms a large part of many critical approaches to Chaucer's works, including neo-Marxism.
Alongside Chaucer's Works, the most impressive literary monument of the period is John Foxe
's Acts and Monuments...
. As with the Chaucer editions, it was critically significant to English Protestant identity and included Chaucer in its project. Foxe's Chaucer both derived from and contributed to the printed editions of Chaucer's Works, particularly the pseudepigrapha. Jack Upland was first printed in Foxe's Acts and Monuments, and then it appeared in Speght's edition of Chaucer's Works. Speght's "Life of Chaucer" echoes Foxe's own account, which is itself dependent upon the earlier editions that added the Testament of Love and The Plowman's Tale to their pages. Like Speght's Chaucer, Foxe's Chaucer was also a shrewd (or lucky) political survivor. In his 1563 edition, Foxe "thought it not out of season ... to couple ... some mention of Geoffrey Chaucer" with a discussion of John Colet
, a possible source for John Skelton
's character Colin Clout.
Probably referring to the 1542 Act for the Advancement of True Religion
, Foxe said that he "marvel[s] to consider ... how the bishops, condemning and abolishing all manner of English books and treatises which might bring the people to any light of knowledge, did yet authorise the works of Chaucer to remain still and to be occupied; who, no doubt, saw into religion as much almost as even we do now, and uttereth in his works no less, and seemeth to be a right Wicklevian, or else there never was any. And that, all his works almost, if they be thoroughly advised, will testify (albeit done in mirth, and covertly); and especially the latter end of his third book of the Testament of Love ... Wherein, except a man be altogether blind, he may espy him at the full: although in the same book (as in all others he useth to do), under shadows covertly, as under a visor, he suborneth truth in such sort, as both privily she may profit the godly-minded, and yet not be espied of the crafty adversary. And therefore the bishops, belike, taking his works but for jests and toys, in condemning other books, yet permitted his books to be read."
It is significant, too, that Foxe's discussion of Chaucer leads into his history of "The Reformation of the Church of Christ in the Time of Martin Luther" when "Printing, being opened, incontinently ministered unto the church the instruments and tools of learning and knowledge; which were good books and authors, which before lay hid and unknown. The science of printing being found, immediately followed the grace of God; which stirred up good wits aptly to conceive the light of knowledge and judgment: by which light darkness began to be espied, and ignorance to be detected; truth from error, religion from superstition, to be discerned."
Foxe downplays Chaucer's bawdy and amorous writing, insisting that it all testifies to his piety. Material that is troubling is deemed metaphoric, while the more forthright satire (which Foxe prefers) is taken literally.
produced the first edition of the complete works of Chaucer in a Latin font, published posthumously in 1721. Included were several tales, according to the editors, for the first time printed, a biography of Chaucer, a glossary of old English words, and testimonials of author writers concerning Chaucer dating back to the 16th century. According to A.S.G Edwards, "This was the first collected edition of Chaucer to be printed in roman type. The life of Chaucer prefixed to the volume was the work of the Reverend John Dart, corrected and revised by Timothy Thomas. The glossary appended was also mainly compiled by Thomas. The text of Urry's edition has often been criticised by subsequent editors for its frequent conjectural emendations, mainly to make it conform to his sense of Chaucer's metre. The justice of such criticisms should not obscure his achievement. His is the first edition of Chaucer for nearly a hundred and fifty years to consult any manuscripts and is the first since that of William Thynne in 1534 to seek systematically to assemble a substantial number of manuscripts to establish his text. It is also the first edition to offer descriptions of the manuscripts of Chaucer's works, and the first to print texts of 'Gamelyn' and 'The Tale of Beryn', works ascribed to, but not by, Chaucer."
Modern scholarshipAlthough Chaucer's works were admired for many years, serious scholarly work on his legacy did not begin until the nineteenth century. Scholars such as Frederick James Furnivall
, who founded the Chaucer Society in 1868, pioneered the establishment of diplomatic editions of Chaucer's major texts, along with careful accounts of Chaucer's language and prosody. Walter William Skeat
, who like Furnivall was closely associated with the Oxford English Dictionary
, established the base text of all of Chaucer's works with his edition, published by Oxford University Press. Later editions by John H. Fisher and Larry D. Benson have offered further refinements, along with critical commentary and bibliographies.
With the textual issues largely addressed, if not solved, the questions of Chaucer's themes, structure, and audience were addressed. In 1966, the Chaucer Review was founded, and has maintained its position as the preeminent journal of Chaucer studies.
- Powell and Pressburger's 1944 film A Canterbury Tale opens with a re-creation of Chaucer's Canterbury pilgrims; the film itself takes place on the road to, and in, wartime Canterbury.
- The plot of the detective novel Landscape with Dead Dons by Robert Robinson centres on the apparent rediscovery of The Book of the Leoun, and a passage from it (eleven lines of good Chaucerian pastiche) turn out to be the vital murder clue as well as proving that the "rediscovered" poem is an elaborate, clever forgery by the murderer (a Chaucer scholar).
- In Rudyard KiplingRudyard KiplingJoseph Rudyard Kipling was an English poet, short-story writer, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. Kipling received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Literature...
's story "Dayspring Mishandled", a writer plans an elaborate revenge on a former friend, a Chaucer expert, who has insulted the woman he loves, by fabricating a "mediaeval" manuscript sheet containing an alleged fragment of a lost Canterbury Tale (actually his own composition).
- Both an asteroid2984 Chaucer2984 Chaucer is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell in 1981. It is named after Geoffrey Chaucer, the medieval English poet....
and a lunar craterChaucer (crater)Chaucer is a lunar impact crater that is located to the west of the walled plain Hertzsprung, on the far side of the Moon. It lies to the northwest of the crater Vavilov and east of the Tsander–Kibal'chich crater pair. This is a circular crater with a slightly eroded outer rim...
have been named for Chaucer.
- Chaucer was portrayed by Paul BettanyPaul BettanyPaul Bettany is an English actor. He has appeared in a wide variety of films, including A Knight's Tale, A Beautiful Mind, and The Da Vinci Code...
in the movie A Knight's Tale.
- Kafka's SoupKafka's SoupKafka's Soup is a literary pastiche in the form of a cookbook. It contains 14 recipes each written in the style of a famous author from history. As of 2007 it had been translated into 18 languages and published in 27 countries. Excerpts from the book have appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald and...
, a literary pastiche in the form of a cookbook, contains a recipe for onion tart à la Chaucer.
WorksThe following major works are in rough chronological order but scholars still debate the dating of most of Chaucer's output and works made up from a collection of stories may have been compiled over a long period.
- Translation of Roman de la RoseRoman de la RoseThe Roman de la rose, , is a medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision. It is a notable instance of courtly literature. The work's stated purpose is to both entertain and to teach others about the Art of Love. At various times in the poem, the "Rose" of the title is seen as the...
, possibly extant as The Romaunt of the RoseThe Romaunt of the RoseThe Romaunt of the Rose is a partial translation into Middle English of the French allegory, the Roman de la Rose. In Geoffrey Chaucer's The Legend of Good Women he confirms that he has translated at least part of the poem but the extant work is of dubious authenticity...
- The Book of the DuchessThe Book of the DuchessThe Book of the Duchess, also known as The Deth of Blaunche, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910. Accessed March 11, 2008. is the earliest of Chaucer’s major poems, preceded only by his short poem, "An ABC," and possibly by his translation of The Romaunt of the Rose...
- The House of FameThe House of FameThe House of Fame is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer, probably written between 1379 and 1380, making it one of his earlier works.-Overview:The House of Fame is over 2,000 lines long in three books and takes the form of a dream vision composed in octosyllabic couplets. Upon falling asleep the poet finds...
- Anelida and ArciteAnelida and ArciteAnelida and Arcite is a 357 line poem by Geoffrey Chaucer. It tells the story of Anelida, queen of Armenia and her wooing by false Arcite from Thebes, Greece.Although short, it is a poem with a complex structure, with an invocation and then the main story...
- Parlement of FoulesParlement of FoulesThe "Parlement of Foules" is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer made up of approximately 700 lines. The poem is in the form of a dream vision in rhyme royal stanza and is interesting in that it is the first reference to the idea that St...
- Translation of BoethiusAnicius Manlius Severinus BoethiusAnicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius was a philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born in Rome to an ancient and important family which included emperors Petronius Maximus and Olybrius and many consuls. His father, Flavius Manlius Boethius, was consul in 487 after...
' Consolation of PhilosophyConsolation of PhilosophyConsolation of Philosophy is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524. It has been described as the single most important and influential work in the West on Medieval and early Renaissance Christianity, and is also the last great Western work that can be called Classical.-...
as BoeceBoece (Chaucer)Boece is Geoffrey Chaucer's translation into Middle English of The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius.The original work, written in Latin, stresses the importance of philosophy to everyday life and was one of the major works of philosophy in the Middle Ages...
- Troilus and CriseydeTroilus and CriseydeTroilus and Criseyde is a poem by Geoffrey Chaucer which re-tells in Middle English the tragic story of the lovers Troilus and Criseyde set against a backdrop of war in the Siege of Troy. It was composed using rime royale and probably completed during the mid 1380s. Many Chaucer scholars regard it...
- The Legend of Good WomenThe Legend of Good WomenThe Legend of Good Women is a poem in the form of a dream vision by Geoffrey Chaucer.The poem is the third longest of Chaucer’s works, after The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde and is possibly the first significant work in English to use the iambic pentameter or decasyllabic couplets...
- The Canterbury TalesThe Canterbury TalesThe Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at...
- Treatise on the AstrolabeTreatise on the AstrolabeA Treatise on the Astrolabe is a medieval essay on the astrolabe by Geoffrey Chaucer. It begins:or, in a more modern English spelling,According to the introduction, the work was to have five parts:#A description of the astrolabe...
- An ABC
- Chaucers Wordes unto Adam, His Owne Scriveyn
- The Complaint unto Pity
- The Complaint of Chaucer to his Purse
- The Complaint of Mars
- The Complaint of Venus
- A Complaint to His Lady
- The Former Age
- Lak of Stedfastnesse
- Lenvoy de Chaucer a Scogan
- Lenvoy de Chaucer a Bukton
- Balade to Rosemounde
- Womanly Noblesse
Poems of dubious authorship
- Against Women Unconstant
- A Balade of Complaint
- Complaynt D'Amours
- Merciles Beaute
- The Equatorie of the Planets – A rough translation of a Latin work derived from an Arab work of the same title. It is a description of the construction and use of a planetary equatorium, which was used in calculating planetary orbits and positions (at the time it was believed the sun orbited the Earth). The similar Treatise on the AstrolabeTreatise on the AstrolabeA Treatise on the Astrolabe is a medieval essay on the astrolabe by Geoffrey Chaucer. It begins:or, in a more modern English spelling,According to the introduction, the work was to have five parts:#A description of the astrolabe...
, not usually doubted as Chaucer's work, in addition to Chaucer's name as a gloss to the manuscript are the main pieces of evidence for the ascription to Chaucer. However, the evidence Chaucer wrote such a work is questionable, and as such is not included in The Riverside Chaucer. If Chaucer did not compose this work, it was probably written by a contemporary.
Presumedly lost works
- Of the Wreched Engendrynge of Mankynde, possible translation of Innocent IIIPope Innocent IIIPope Innocent III was Pope from 8 January 1198 until his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni....
's De miseria conditionis humanae
- Origenes upon the Maudeleyne
- The Book of the Leoun – The Book of the Leon is mentioned in Chaucer's retraction. It is likely he wrote such a work; one suggestion is that the work was such a bad piece of writing it was lost, but if that had been the case, Chaucer would not have mentioned it. A likely source dictates it was probably a 'redaction of Guillaume de MachautGuillaume de MachautGuillaume de Machaut was a Medieval French poet and composer. He is one of the earliest composers on whom significant biographical information is available....
's 'Dit dou lyon,' a story about courtly love, a subject about which Chaucer frequently wrote.
- The Pilgrim's TaleThe Pilgrim's TaleThe Pilgrim's Tale is an English anti-monastic poem. It was probably written ca. 1536–38, since it makes references to events in 1534 and 1536 — i.e., the Lincolnshire Rebellion — and borrows from The Plowman's Tale and the 1532 text by William Thynne of Chaucer's Romaunt of the...
– written in the sixteenth century with many Chaucerian allusions
- The Plowman's TaleThe Plowman's TaleThere are actually two pseudo-Chaucerian texts called The Plowman's Tale. In the mid-15th century a rhyme royal Plowman's Tale was added to the text of The Canterbury Tales in the Christ Church MS. This tale is actually an orthodox Roman Catholic, possibly anti-Lollard version of a Marian miracle...
or The Complaint of the Ploughman – a Lollard satireSatireSatire is primarily a literary genre or form, although in practice it can also be found in the graphic and performing arts. In satire, vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, and society itself, into improvement...
later appropriated as a Protestant text
- Pierce the Ploughman's CredePierce the Ploughman's Crede"Pierce the Ploughman's Crede" is a medieval alliterative poem of 855 lines, savagely lampooning the four orders of friars.-Textual History:Surviving in two complete forteenth-century manuscripts and two early printed editions, the Crede can be dated on internal evidence to the short period between...
– a Lollard satire later appropriated by Protestants
- The Ploughman's Tale – its body is largely a version of Thomas Hoccleve's "Item de Beata Virgine"
- "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" – Richard Roos's translation of a poem of the same name by Alain ChartierAlain ChartierAlain Chartier was a French poet and political writer.He was born at Bayeux, into a family marked by considerable ability. His eldest brother Guillaume became bishop of Paris; and Thomas became notary to the king. Jean Chartier, a monk of St Denis, whose history of Charles VII is printed in vol. III...
- The Testament of Love – actually by Thomas UskThomas UskThomas Usk was appointed the under-sheriff of London by Richard II in 1387.- Author of The Testament of Love :Born in London, he is the author of The Testament of Love, which was once thought to be by Geoffrey Chaucer.- Appeal :...
- Jack UplandJack UplandJack Upland or Jack up Lande is a polemical, probably Lollard, literary work which can be seen as a "sequel" to Piers Plowman, with Antichrist attacking Christians through corrupt confession...
– a Lollard satire
- The Floure and the LeafeThe Floure and the Leafe"The Floure and the Leafe", is an anonymous Middle English allegorical poem in 595 lines of rhyme royal, written around 1470. During the 17th, 18th, and most of the 19th century it was mistakenly believed to be the work of Geoffrey Chaucer, and was generally considered to be one of his finest poems...
– a 15th century allegory
- God Spede the PloughGod Spede the PloughGod Spede the Plough is the name of an early 16th-century manuscript poem which borrows twelve stanzas from Geoffrey Chaucer's Monk's Tale....
– Borrows twelve stanzas of Chaucer's Monk's Tale
- John V. FlemingJohn V. FlemingJohn V. Fleming is an American literary critic and the Louis W. Fairchild, '24 Professor of Literature and Comparative Literature, emeritus, at Princeton University.-Career:...
, eminent Chaucerian, emeritus, at Princeton UniversityPrinceton UniversityPrinceton University is a private research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The school is one of the eight universities of the Ivy League, and is one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution....
- Medieval literatureMedieval literatureMedieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages . The literature of this time was composed of religious writings as well as secular works...
- Middle English literatureMiddle English literatureThe term Middle English literature refers to the literature written in the form of the English language known as Middle English, from the 12th century until the 1470s, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, became widespread and the printing press regularized the language...
- Charles MuscatineCharles MuscatineCharles Muscatine was an academic specialising in medieval literature, particularly Chaucer. He participated in the D-day landing on Omaha Beach and was fired by UC Berkeley for refusing to sign a McCarthyite oath...
, a Chaucer scholar, deceased, formerly at University of California, BerkeleyUniversity of California, BerkeleyThe University of California, Berkeley , is a teaching and research university established in 1868 and located in Berkeley, California, USA...
- Early Editions of Chaucer
- eChaucer: Full Texts, Modern Translation, and Easy-To-Use Concordance
- BBC television adaptation of certain of the Canterbury Tales
- "Geoffrey Chaucer Hath a Blog" (A Chaucer parody blog)
- Chaucer at The Online Library of Liberty}}
- Geoffrey Chaucer – Radio broadcast, In Our TimeIn Our Time (BBC Radio 4)In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.. It is one of BBC radio's most successful discussion programmes, acknowledged to have "transformed the landscape for serious ideas at peak listening time"...
, 9 February 2006, BBC Radio 4BBC Radio 4BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station, operated and owned by the BBC, that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes, including news, drama, comedy, science and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967. The station controller is currently Gwyneth Williams, and the...
broadcast (includes link to Listen Again)
- Caxton's Chaucer Complete digitised texts of Caxton's two earliest editions of the Canterbury Tales from the British Library
- Caxton's Canterbury Tales: The British Library Copies An online edition with complete transcriptions and images captured by the HUMI Project
- Chaucer Metapage – Project in addition to the 33rd International Congress of Medieval Studies
- Chaucer Page by Harvard UniversityHarvard UniversityHarvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...
- Three near-contemporary portraits of Chaucer
- Astronomy & Astrology in Chaucer's Work
- Chaucer and his works: Introduction to Chaucer and his works | Descriptions of books with images