Fermo is a town and comune
In Italy, the comune is the basic administrative division, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality.-Importance and function:...

of the Marche
The population density in the region is below the national average. In 2008, it was 161.5 inhabitants per km2, compared to the national figure of 198.8. It is highest in the province of Ancona , and lowest in the province of Macerata...

, Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, in the Province of Fermo
Province of Fermo
The Province of Fermo is a province in the Marche, central Italy, constituted in 2004. The province came into existence in 2009. The administrative centre is the city of Fermo...


Fermo is located on a hill, the Sabulo (elevation 319 m) with a fine view, on a branch from Porto San Giorgio
Porto San Giorgio
Porto San Giorgio is a comune in the Province of Fermo, in the Marche region of Italy. It has approximately 16,200 inhabitants and it is located on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.-History:...

 on the Adriatic coast railway.


The great antiquity of the city is attested by the remains of its cyclopean walls. The ancient Firmum Picenum was founded as a Latin colony, consisting of 6000 men, in 264 BC, after the conquest of the Picentes
The Picentes or Picentini are Latin exonyms for the people who lived in Picenum in the northern Adriatic coastal plain of ancient Italy. The endonym, if any, and its language are not known for certain....

, as the local headquarters of the Roman power, to which it remained faithful. It was originally governed by five quaestor
A Quaestor was a type of public official in the "Cursus honorum" system who supervised financial affairs. In the Roman Republic a quaestor was an elected official whereas, with the autocratic government of the Roman Empire, quaestors were simply appointed....

s. It was made a colony with full rights after the battle of Philippi
Battle of Philippi
The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian and the forces of Julius Caesar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia...

, the 4th Legion
Legio IV Flavia Felix
Legio quarta Flavia Felix , was a Roman legion levied by Vespasian in 70, from the ashes of the Legio IV Macedonica. The legion was active in Moesia Superior in the first half of the 4th century...

 being settled there. It lay at the junction of roads to Pausulae, Urbs Salvia, and Asculum
Asculum, also known as Ausculum, was the ancient name of two Italian cities.The first is Ascoli Piceno, the Ausculum in ancient Picenum . It is situated in the valley of the Truentus river on the via Salaria. It was originally a Sabine city . Following its defeat by the Romans in 268 BC...

, connected to the coast road by a short branch road from Castellum Firmanum (Porto S. Giorgio).

With the Pentapolis
A pentapolis, from the Greek words , "five" and , "city" is a geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities...

, in the 8th century it passed under the authority of the Holy See was thenceforth subject to the vicissitudes of the March of Ancona
March of Ancona
The March of Ancona or marca Anconitana was a frontier march centred on the city of Ancona and, then, Macerata in the Middle Ages...

. In the 10th century it became the capital of the Marchia Firmana. Under the predecessors of Honorius III (1216–27) the bishops of city became prince-bishop
A Prince-Bishop is a bishop who is a territorial Prince of the Church on account of one or more secular principalities, usually pre-existent titles of nobility held concurrently with their inherent clerical office...

s, first with the secular rights of counts, and later as princes of Fermo.

In 1199 it became a free city, and remained independent until 1550, when it was annexed to the Papal States
Papal States
The Papal State, State of the Church, or Pontifical States were among the major historical states of Italy from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia .The Papal States comprised territories under...


In the contest between the Hohenstaufen
The House of Hohenstaufen was a dynasty of German kings in the High Middle Ages, lasting from 1138 to 1254. Three of these kings were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor. In 1194 the Hohenstaufens also became Kings of Sicily...

 and the papacy, Fermo was besieged and captured several times; in 1176 by Archbishop Christian of Mainz, in 1192 by Emperor Henry Vl, in 1208 by Marcuald, Duke of Ravenna, in 1241 by Emperor Frederick II, and in 1245 by Manfred of Sicily
Manfred of Sicily
Manfred was the King of Sicily from 1258 to 1266. He was a natural son of the emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen but his mother, Bianca Lancia , is reported by Matthew of Paris to have been married to the emperor while on her deathbed.-Background:Manfred was born in Venosa...

. After this it was governed by different lords, who ruled as more or less legitimate vassals of the Holy See, e.g. the Monteverdi, Giovanni Visconti and Francesco Sforza (banished 1446), Oliverotto Euffreducci (murdered in 1503 by Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia , Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal. He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei. He was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia; Giovanni Borgia , Duke of Gandia; and Gioffre Borgia , Prince of Squillace...

), who was succeeded by his son Ludovico, killed at the battle of Montegiorgio
Montegiorgio is a comune in the Province of Fermo in the Italian region Marche, located about 70 km south of Ancona and about 80 km north of Ascoli Piceno...

 in 1520, when Fermo became again directly subjected to the Holy See.

Fermo is now the capital city of the new province of Fermo
Province of Fermo
The Province of Fermo is a province in the Marche, central Italy, constituted in 2004. The province came into existence in 2009. The administrative centre is the city of Fermo...

, effective since 2009.

Main sights

Fermo's attractions include:
  • The cathedral, reconstructed in 1227 by Giorgio da Como, has a Gothic facade made of Istrian stone
    Istrian stone
    Istrian stone, pietra d'Istria, the characteristic group of building stones in the architecture of Venice and Dalmatia, is a dense type of impermeable limestones that was quarried in Istria, between Portorož and Pula....

    , divided by light pilaster
    A pilaster is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile....

    s and with a central rose window
    Rose window
    A Rose window is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style and being divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery...

     (1348), a bell tower from the same age, and a side portal. The rose-window over the main door dates from 1348. In the vestibule are several tombs, including one from 1366 by Tura da Imola, and also the modern monument to Giuseppe Colucci
    Giuseppe Colucci (antiquarian)
    Giuseppe Colucci was a prolific regional historian of the Marche and writer on the antiquities of central Italy; his works include Antichità Picene in 30 volumes, and Antichità Ascolane.- Sources :*...

    , a famous writer on the antiquities of Picenum. The interior has been modernized, in particular after its destruction by Christian of Mainz in 1176 by order of [Frederick Barbarossa]]. The building is now surrounded by a garden. Excavations held in 1934-1935 under the church's pavement brought to light remains from the age of Antoninus Pius
    Antoninus Pius
    Antoninus Pius , also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii. He did not possess the sobriquet "Pius" until after his accession to the throne...

     (2nd century AD) and of a Palaeo-Christian basilica dating to the 6th century AD. This had three naves divided into four bays, with a raised presbytery. Of its mosaic decorations today only those in the apse are visible, depicting two peacocks near a kàntharos
    A kantharos or cantharus is a type of Greek pottery used for drinking. It is characterized by its high swung handles which extend above the lip of the pot.The god Dionysus had a kantharos which was never empty....

     surmounted by the chrismon
    A chrismon is one of number of Christian symbols intended to represent aspects of the Person, life or ministry of Jesus Christ and the life, ministry or history of the Church through a single image, emblem or monogram. The term "chrismon" comes from the Latin phrase "Christi Monogramma", meaning...

    , two typical examples of art in Ravenna
    Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and the second largest comune in Italy by land area, although, at , it is little more than half the size of the largest comune, Rome...

     at the time.

  • The Roman
    Ancient Rome
    Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

     theater; scant traces of an amphitheater also exist. Remains of the city wall, of rectangular blocks of hard limestone, may be seen just outside the Porta S. Francesco; whether the walling under the Casa Porti belongs to them is doubtful. The medieval embattled walls superposed on it are picturesque.
  • The Church of Saint Francis has a good tower and choir in brickwork of 1240, the rest having been restored in the 17th century.
  • Under the Dominican order
    Dominican Order
    The Order of Preachers , after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on 22 December 1216 in France...

     monastery is a very large Roman reservoir in two stories, belonging to the imperial period, divided into many chambers, at least 24 on each level, each 9 by 6 m., for filtration.
  • The Palazzo Comunale, restored in 1446, with a statue of Pope Sixtus V
    Pope Sixtus V
    Pope Sixtus V , born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope from 1585 to 1590.-Early life:The chronicler Andrija Zmajević states that Felice's family originated from modern-day Montenegro...

     in front of it. The Biblioteca Comunale contains a collection of inscriptions and antiquities.

The near municipality of Porto San Giorgio has a fine castle of 1269, blocking the valley that leads to Fermo.


Camera, Cantagallo, Capodarco, Cartiera di Tenna, Campiglione, Ete Palazzina, Faleriense, Gabbiano, Girola, Lido di Fermo, Madonnetta d'Ete, Marina Palmense, Moie, Molini Tenna, Montesecco, Parete, Pompeiana, Ponte Ete Vivo, Sacri Cuori, Salette, Salvano, San Biagio, San Lorenzo, San Marco, San Michele, San Tommaso, Santa Caterina, Torre di Palme, Villa San Claudio

Twin towns

Berat is a town located in south-central Albania. As of 2009, the town has an estimated population of around 71,000 people. It is the capital of both the District of Berat and the larger County of Berat...

, Albania Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca is a city located in the south-west of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, by the Atlantic Ocean, and seat of government of Bahía Blanca Partido. It has a population of 274,509 inhabitants according to the...

, Argentina Weihai
Weihai is a city in eastern Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. It is the easternmost prefecture-level city of the province and a major seaport. Between 1898 and 1930, the town was a British colony known as Weihaiwei or the Weihai Garrison , and sometimes as Port Edward...

, People's Republic of China Ansbach
Ansbach, originally Onolzbach, is a town in Bavaria, Germany. It is the capital of the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Ansbach is situated southwest of Nuremberg and north of Munich, on the Fränkische Rezat, a tributary of the Main river. As of 2004, its population was 40,723.Ansbach...

, Germany, since 2006 León, Mexico

Notable people

  • Blessed John of Fermo (Fermo, 1259 – La Verna
    La Verna
    La Verna, in Latin Alverna and geographically known as Monte Penna, is a locality on Mount Penna, an isolated mountain of 1,283 m situated in the centre of the Tuscan Apennines, rising above the valley of the Casentino, central Italy...

     in Tuscany, 10 August 1322), more often called John of La Verna
  • Fermo is the birthplace of poet Annibale Caro
    Annibale Caro
    Annibale Caro was an Italian poet.-Biography:Born in Civitanova Marche, province of Macerata, he became tutor to the wealthy family of Lodovico Gaddi in Florence, and then secretary to Lodovico's brother Giovanni...

     (June 6, 1507 - November 17, 1566).
  • Operatic baritone Francesco Graziani
    Francesco Graziani (baritone)
    Francesco Graziani was an Italian baritone and voice teacher. Graziani has been called the first modern baritone because his vocal attributes were well suited to the high-lying operatic parts composed by Giuseppe Verdi, with whom he worked.-Early life and career:Graziani was born in 1828 in Fermo,...

     (April 26, 1828 – June 30, 1901) was born in Fermo and also died there in 1901.
  • Celebrated physician and University teacher Augusto Murri
    Augusto Murri
    Augusto Murri was an Italian physician. Appointed to the Chair of Clinical Medicine at Bologna in 1875 he was regarded as one of the most illustrious clinical doctors and innovators of his times .Became also the Rector of the Alma Mater Studiorum, and...

    (Fermo, Italy, 8 September 1841; d. Bologna, Italy, 11 November 1932)
  • Master violin maker Andreas Postacchini (searching for BD/DD but best works are late 18th to mid-19th century)
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