Department of Education (Philippines)
Overview
 
The Department of Education , is the executive department
Executive Departments of the Philippines
The Executive departments of the Philippines is the largest component of the national executive branch of the government of the Philippines. There are a total of nineteen executive departments. The departments comprise the largest part of the country's bureaucracy...

 of the Philippine government responsible for the management and governing of the Philippine system of basic education
Education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

. It is the chief formulator of Philippine educational policy and is responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school system. The Department of Education is also known by its old name, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Edukasyon, Kultura at Palakasan).
During the early Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 period, education in the Philippines was religion
Religion
Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

-oriented and was primarily for the elite, especially in the first years of Spanish colonization.
Encyclopedia
The Department of Education , is the executive department
Executive Departments of the Philippines
The Executive departments of the Philippines is the largest component of the national executive branch of the government of the Philippines. There are a total of nineteen executive departments. The departments comprise the largest part of the country's bureaucracy...

 of the Philippine government responsible for the management and governing of the Philippine system of basic education
Education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

. It is the chief formulator of Philippine educational policy and is responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school system. The Department of Education is also known by its old name, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Edukasyon, Kultura at Palakasan).

History

During the early Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 period, education in the Philippines was religion
Religion
Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

-oriented and was primarily for the elite, especially in the first years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school
Normal school
A normal school is a school created to train high school graduates to be teachers. Its purpose is to establish teaching standards or norms, hence its name...

 for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was secularized and free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. It was also through this decree that the Superior Commission of Primary Instruction was established, the seminal agency of the Department of Education.

The defeat of Spain by United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 forces paved the way for Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

's Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of the Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established. A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution. However, this first sovereign education system was interrupted with the Philippine–American War, and was finally dismantled.
A secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship was enforced by the Taft
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft was the 27th President of the United States and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States...

 Commission per instructions of President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 William McKinley
William McKinley
William McKinley, Jr. was the 25th President of the United States . He is best known for winning fiercely fought elections, while supporting the gold standard and high tariffs; he succeeded in forging a Republican coalition that for the most part dominated national politics until the 1930s...

. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction.

A highly centralized public school system was instituted in 1901 by the Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No. 74. Act No. 74 also established the Department of Public Instruction, which was headed by a General Superintendent. The implementation of this Act created a heavy shortage of teachers so much so that the Philippine Commission authorized the Superintendent of Public Instruction to bring 600 teachers from the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 to the Philippines. These would later be popularly known as the Thomasites
Thomasites
The Thomasites is a group of about five hundred pioneer American teachers sent by the U.S. government to the Philippines in August 1901.-Foundation, purpose and etymology:...

. The Organic Act of 1916 would reorganize the Department of Public Instruction, mandating that it be headed by a Secretary. This act also mandated the Filpinization of all department secretaries, except that of the Secretary of Public Instruction.
During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the department was reorganized once again through the Japanese's Military Order No. 2 in 1942, which established the Commission of Education, Health, and Public Welfare. With the establishment of the Japanese-sponsored Republic, the Ministry of Education was created on October 14, 1943. Under the Japanese, the teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character Education was given priority. Love for work and the dignity of labor were also emphasized. On February 27, 1945, the Department of Instruction was made part of the Department of Public Instruction.

In 1947, by virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the Department of Instruction was changed to Department of Education. During this period, the regulation and supervision of public and private schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.

In 1972, it became the Department of Education and Culture by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1 and subsequently became the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1397. Thirteen regional offices were created and major organizational changes were implemented in the educational system. The Education Act of 1982 created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, which later became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports in 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117 of President Corazon C. Aquino. The structure of DECS as embodied in EO No. 117 has practically remained unchanged until 1994, when the Commission on Higher Education
Commission on Higher Education (Philippines)
The Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines, , abbreviated as CHED. The CHED is attached to the Office of the President for administrative purposes...

 (CHED) was established, and in 1995, when the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (Philippines)
The Philippines' Technical Education and Skills Development Authority , abbreviated as TESDA, is an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Labor and Employment responsible for managing and supervising technical education and skills development in the Philippines.-History:The...

 (TESDA) was established to supervise tertiary degree programs and non-degree technical-vocational programs, respectively.

The trifocal education system refocused DECS’ mandate to basic education which covers elementary, secondary and nonformal education, including culture and sports. TESDA now administers the post-secondary, middle-level manpower training and development, while CHED is responsible for higher education.

In August 2001, Republic Act
Republic Acts of the Philippines
This article contains a partial list of Philippine laws. Philippine laws have had various nomenclature designations at different periods in the history of the Philippines, as shown in the following table:...

 No. 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed renaming the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices, which include regional offices, division offices, district offices, and schools.
'

National Historical Institute, Records Management and Archives Office, and the National Library are now administratively attached to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (Philippines)
National Commission for Culture and the Arts (Philippines)
The National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Philippines is the official arts council for the Philippines.-History:In 1987, then President Corazon C. Aquino penned Executive Order No. 118 creating the Presidential Commission on Culture and Arts...

 (NCCA). These are no longer with the Department of Education. The program for school arts and culture, however, remains as part of the school curriculum.

With the enactment of the law, all functions, programs, and activities of the Department of Education related to sports competition were all transferred to the Philippine Sports Commission
Philippine Sports Commission
The Philippine Sports Commission was created through Republic Act No. 6847 in 1990 to serve as the "sole policy-making and coordinating body of all amateur sports development programs and institutions in the Philippines"...

 (PSC). The program for school sports and physical fitness, however, remains part of the basic education curriculum. In addition, the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports was abolished.
List of Secretaries of Education
Year started Year finished Name President(s)
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

 Served Under
Secretaries of Public Instruction
1935 1940 Sergio Osmeña Manuel Quezon
1940 1941 Jorge Bocobo
Secretaries of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare
1942 1944 Sergio Osmeña José P. Laurel
Jose P. Laurel
José Paciano Laurel y García was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945...

Commissioner of Public Instruction
1942 1943 Claro M. Recto Manuel Quezon
Minister of Public Instruction
1943 1945 Jorge Bocobo Manuel Quezon
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña y Suico was a Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65...

Secretary of Instruction
1946 1948 Dr. Manuel Gallego Manuel Roxas
Manuel Roxas
Manuel Acuña Roxas was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948...

Secretaries of Education, Culture and Sports
February 1986 December 1989 Lourdes Quisumbing Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

January 1990 June 1992 Isidro Cariño
July 1992 July 1994 Armand Fabella
Armand Fabella
Armand V. Fabella was a Filipino businessman and educator. He served as Secretary of Education from 1992 to 1994.Fabella was born in Paris, France to Filipino parents. His father, Vicente K. Fabella, was the founder of Jose Rizal College...

 
Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos , popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy.Prior to his election as...

August 1994 December 1997 Ricardo Gloria
January 1998 June 1998 Erlinda Pefianco
July 1998 January 2001 Br. Andrew González
Andrew Gonzalez
Brother Andrew Benjamin Gonzalez FSC PhD was a linguist, writer, educator, and a De La Salle Brother. He served as president of De La Salle University from 1979 to 1991 and from 1994 to 1998. From 1998 to 2001 he served as Secretary of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports under the...

 FSC
Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools
The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools is a Roman Catholic religious teaching congregation, founded in France by Saint Jean-Baptiste de la Salle and now based in Rome...

 
Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in...

February 2001 August 2001 Raúl Roco
Raul Roco
Raul Sagarbarria Roco was a political figure in the Philippines. He was the standard-bearer of Aksyon Demokratiko, which he founded in 1997 as a vehicle for his presidential bids in 1998 and 2004. He was a former senator and the Secretary of the Department of Education under the presidency of...

 
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

Secretaries of Education
August 2001 August 2002 Raúl Roco Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

September 2002 July 2004 Edilberto de Jesus
Edilberto De Jesus
Edilberto C. de Jesus, is currently the President of the Asian Institute of Management in Makati City, Philippines. On September 16, 2002, he was appointed by Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as Secretary of Education to replace Sec...

July 2004 July 2005 Florencio Abad
Florencio Abad
Florencio "Butch" Barsana Abad is the current Philippine Secretary of Budget and Management. On June 29, 2010, President Benigno Aquino III picked him as his Secretary of Budget and Management...

July 2005 September 2005 Ramón Bacani *
September 2005 July 2006 Fe Hidalgo *
July 2006 March 2010 Jesli Lapus
March 2010 June 2010 Mona Valisno
June 2010 present Br. Armin Luistro FSC
Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools
The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools is a Roman Catholic religious teaching congregation, founded in France by Saint Jean-Baptiste de la Salle and now based in Rome...

 
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III , also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010....



(*) Acting Capacity
See also
  • Education in the Philippines
    Education in the Philippines
    During the period of governance of Spain and the United States, education in the Philippines changed radically, mostly modeled on the system of education in the United States of the time...

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