Carcassonne is a fortified
Defensive wall
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city or settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements...

 French town in the Aude
Aude is a department in south-central France named after the river Aude. The local council also calls the department "Cathar Country".Aude is also a frequent feminine French given name in Francophone countries, deriving initially from Aude or Oda, a wife of Bertrand, Duke of Aquitaine, and mother...

 department, of which it is the prefecture
A prefecture is an administrative jurisdiction or subdivision in any of various countries and within some international church structures, and in antiquity a Roman district governed by an appointed prefect.-Antiquity:...

, in the former province
Provinces of France
The Kingdom of France was organised into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were roughly equivalent to the historic counties of England...

 of Languedoc
Languedoc is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées. It had an area of approximately 42,700 km² .-Geographical Extent:The traditional...


It is divided into the fortified Cité de Carcassonne
Cité de Carcassonne
The Cité de Carcassonne is a medieval fortified architectural group located in the French city of Carcassonne, in the department of Aude, in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon. It is located on the right bank of the Aude, on the hill, in the south-east part of the actual city. It was the historic...

and the more expansive lower city, the ville basse. Carcassone was founded by the Visigoths in the fifth century, though the Romans had fortified the settlement earlier. The fortress, which was thoroughly restored in 1853 by the theorist and architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc was a French architect and theorist, famous for his interpretive "restorations" of medieval buildings. Born in Paris, he was a major Gothic Revival architect.-Early years:...

, was added to the UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 list of World Heritage Sites in 1997.
The folk etymology – involving a châtelain
Châtelain was originally merely the French equivalent of the English castellan, i.e. the commander of a castle....

e named , a ruse ending a siege
A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault. The term derives from sedere, Latin for "to sit". Generally speaking, siege warfare is a form of constant, low intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static...

 and the joyous ringing of bells (" sona") – though memorialized in a neo-Gothic
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 sculpture of Mme. on a column near the Narbonne Gate, is of modern invention. The name can be derived as a hyperbole of the name Carcas. Similarly in the Italian language, there are derived names like Castellino (little castle) – Castello – Castellone (big castle), or Ombrellino (small umbrella) – Ombrello – Ombrellone (large umbrella). A double 's' in the name appears for phonetic reasons, otherwise as a self standing 's' it would be pronounced as 'z'.


First signs of settlement in this region have been dated to about 3500 BC, but the hill site of Carsac – a Celt
The Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Roman-era Europe who spoke Celtic languages.The earliest archaeological culture commonly accepted as Celtic, or rather Proto-Celtic, was the central European Hallstatt culture , named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria....

ic place-name
Toponymy is the scientific study of place names , their origins, meanings, use and typology. The word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words tópos and ónoma . Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds...

 that has been retained at other sites in the south – became an important trading place in the 6th century BC. The Volcae Tectosages fortified the oppidum
Oppidum is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. The word is derived from the earlier Latin ob-pedum, "enclosed space," possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *pedóm-, "occupied space" or "footprint."Julius Caesar described the larger Celtic Iron Age...


Carcassonne became strategically identified when Romans
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 fortified the hilltop around 100 BC and eventually made it the colonia
Colonia (Roman)
A Roman colonia was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of Roman city.-History:...

of Julia Carsaco, later Carcasum (by the process of swapping consonants known as metathesis
Metathesis (linguistics)
Metathesis is the re-arranging of sounds or syllables in a word, or of words in a sentence. Most commonly it refers to the switching of two or more contiguous sounds, known as adjacent metathesis or local metathesis:...

). The main part of the lower courses of the northern rampart
Defensive wall
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city or settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements...

s dates from Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman culture
The term Gallo-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman mores and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context...

 times. In 462 the Romans officially ceded Septimania
Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II. Under the Visigoths it was known as simply Gallia or Narbonensis. It corresponded roughly with the modern...

 to the Visigothic king Theodoric II
Theodoric II
Theodoric II was King of Visigoths from 453 to 466.Theoderic II, son of Theodoric I, obtained the throne by killing his elder brother Thorismund...

 who had held Carcassonne since 453; he built more fortification
Fortifications are military constructions and buildings designed for defence in warfare and military bases. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs...

s at Carcassonne, which was a frontier post on the northern marches: traces of them still stand. Theodoric is thought to have begun the predecessor of the basilica
The Latin word basilica , was originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Public basilicas began to appear in Hellenistic cities in the 2nd century BC.The term was also applied to buildings used for religious purposes...

 that is now dedicated to Saint Nazaire
Saint Nazarius
* Nazarius - a Latin rhetorician* Saint Nazarius - one of four Roman martyrs who suffered death under Diocletian* Saint Nazarius - the fourteenth abbot of the monastery of Lérins....

. In 508 the Visigoths successfully foiled attacks by the Frankish king Clovis
Clovis I
Clovis Leuthwig was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains, to rule by kings, ensuring that the kingship was held by his heirs. He was also the first Catholic King to rule over Gaul . He was the son...

. Saracens from Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

 took Carcassonne in 725, but King Pepin the Short (Pépin le Bref) drove them away in 759-60; though he took most of the south of France, he was unable to penetrate the impregnable fortress of Carcassonne.
A medieval fiefdom, the county of Carcassonne, controlled the city and its environs. It was often united with the County of Razès
County of Razès
The County of Razès was a feudal jurisdiction in Occitania, south to Carcassonne, in what is now southern France. It was founded in 781, after the creation of the Kingdom of Aquitania, when Septimania was separated from that state.-History:...

. The origins of Carcassonne as a county probably lie in local representatives of the Visigoth
The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. These tribes were among the Germans who spread through the late Roman Empire during the Migration Period...

s, but the first count known by name is Bello
Bello of Carcassonne
Bello was Count of Carcassonne from 790 until his death. He was the founder of the Bellonid Dynasty of Carcassonne and Razes which reached its apex in Wilfred the Hairy, progenitor of the House of Barcelona....

 of the time of Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...

. Bello founded a dynasty, the Bellonids, which would rule many honores in Septimania and Catalonia
Catalonia is an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, with the official status of a "nationality" of Spain. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Its capital and largest city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an...

 for three centuries.
In 1067, Carcassonne became the property of Raimond Bernard Trencavel, viscount
A viscount or viscountess is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl or a count .-Etymology:...

 of Albi and Nîmes
Nîmes is the capital of the Gard department in the Languedoc-Roussillon region in southern France. Nîmes has a rich history, dating back to the Roman Empire, and is a popular tourist destination.-History:...

, through his marriage with Ermengard, sister of the last count of Carcassonne. In the following centuries, the Trencavel
The Trencavel were an important noble family in Languedoc during the 10th through 13th centuries. The name "Trencavel," originally a nickname and later a family name, may derive from the Occitan words for "nutcracker"...

 family allied in succession either with the counts of Barcelona or of Toulouse. They built the Château Comtal and the Basilica
The Latin word basilica , was originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Public basilicas began to appear in Hellenistic cities in the 2nd century BC.The term was also applied to buildings used for religious purposes...

 of Saint-Nazaire. In 1096, Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II , born Otho de Lagery , was Pope from 12 March 1088 until his death on July 29 1099...

 blessed the foundation stones of the new cathedral, a Catholic bastion against the Cathar
Catharism was a name given to a Christian religious sect with dualistic and gnostic elements that appeared in the Languedoc region of France and other parts of Europe in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries...


Carcassonne became famous in its role in the Albigensian Crusade
Albigensian Crusade
The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc...

s, when the city was a stronghold of Occitan Cathars. In August 1209 the crusading army of Simon de Montfort
Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester
Simon IV de Montfort, Seigneur de Montfort-l'Amaury, 5th Earl of Leicester , also known as Simon de Montfort the elder, was a French nobleman who took part in the Fourth Crusade and was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade...

 forced its citizens to surrender. After capturing Raymond-Roger de Trencavel
Raymond-Roger de Trencavel
Raymond Roger Trencavel was a member of the noble Trencavel family. He was viscount of Béziers and Albi , and viscount of Carcassonne and the Razès .Raymond-Roger was the son of Roger II Trencavel Raymond Roger Trencavel (also Raimond, ; 1185 – 10 November 1209) was a member of the noble...

, imprisoning him and allowing him to die, Montfort made himself the new viscount. He added to the fortifications. Carcassonne became a border citadel between France and the kingdom of Aragon
Aragon is a modern autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces : Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza...


In 1240, Trencavel's son tried to reconquer his old domain but in vain. The city submitted to the rule of the kingdom of France in 1247, and King Louis IX
Louis IX of France
Louis IX , commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. He was also styled Louis II, Count of Artois from 1226 to 1237. Born at Poissy, near Paris, he was an eighth-generation descendant of Hugh Capet, and thus a member of the House of Capet, and the son of Louis VIII and...

 founded the new part of the town across the river. He and his successor Philip III
Philip III of France
Philip III , called the Bold , was the King of France, succeeding his father, Louis IX, and reigning from 1270 to 1285. He was a member of the House of Capet.-Biography:...

 built the outer ramparts. Contemporary opinion still considered the fortress impregnable. During the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of separate wars waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, also known as the House of Anjou, for the French throne, which had become vacant upon the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings...

, Edward the Black Prince failed to take the city in 1355, although his troops destroyed the Lower Town.

In 1659, the Treaty of the Pyrenees
Treaty of the Pyrenees
The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed to end the 1635 to 1659 war between France and Spain, a war that was initially a part of the wider Thirty Years' War. It was signed on Pheasant Island, a river island on the border between the two countries...

 transferred the border province of Roussillon
Roussillon is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales...

 to France, and Carcassonne's military significance was reduced. Fortifications were abandoned, and the city became mainly an economic centre that concentrated on the wool
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, vicuña, alpaca, camel from animals in the camel family, and angora from rabbits....

len textile industry, for which a 1723 source quoted by Fernand Braudel
Fernand Braudel
Fernand Braudel was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects, each representing several decades of intense study: The Mediterranean , Civilization and Capitalism , and the unfinished Identity of France...

 found it "the manufacturing centre of Languedoc".


The fortified city

The fortified city itself consists essentially of a concentric design with two outer walls with towers and barbicans to prevent attack by siege engines. The castle itself possesses its own drawbridge and ditch leading to a central keep. The walls consist of towers built over quite a long period. One section is Roman and is notably different from the medieval walls with the tell-tale red brick layers and the shallow pitch terracotta tile roofs. One of these towers housed the Catholic Inquisition in the 13th Century and is still known as "The Inquisition Tower". Today there is a museum "Musée de la Torture", which shows some of the original torture equipment employed by the Catholic Church.

Carcassonne was struck off the roster of official fortifications under Napoleon and the Restoration, and the fortified cité of Carcassonne fell into such disrepair that the French government decided that it should be demolished. A decree to that effect that was made official in 1849 caused an uproar. The antiquary and mayor of Carcassonne, Jean-Pierre Cros-Mayrevieille, and the writer Prosper Mérimée
Prosper Mérimée
Prosper Mérimée was a French dramatist, historian, archaeologist, and short story writer. He is perhaps best known for his novella Carmen, which became the basis of Bizet's opera Carmen.-Life:...

, the first inspector of ancient monuments, led a campaign to preserve the fortress as a historical monument. Later in the year the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
Eugène Viollet-le-Duc
Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc was a French architect and theorist, famous for his interpretive "restorations" of medieval buildings. Born in Paris, he was a major Gothic Revival architect.-Early years:...

, already at work restoring the Basilica of Saint-Nazaire, was commissioned to renovate the place.

In 1853, works began with the west and southwest walling, followed by the towers of the porte Narbonnaise and the principal entrance to the cité. The fortifications were consolidated here and there, but the chief attention was paid to restoring the roofing of the towers and the ramparts, where Viollet-le-Duc ordered the destruction of structures that had encroached against the walls, some of them of considerable age. Viollet-le-Duc left copious notes and drawings on his death in 1879, when his pupil Paul Boeswillwald, and later the architect Nodet continued the rehabilitation of Carcassonne.

The restoration was strongly criticized during Viollet-le-Duc's lifetime. Fresh from work in the north of France, he made the error of using slates and restoring the roofs as pointed cones, where local practice was traditionally of tile roofing and low slopes, in a snow-free environment. Yet, overall, Viollet-le-Duc's achievement at Carcassonne is agreed to be a work of genius, though not of the strictest authenticity.

The fortification consists of a double ring of ramparts and 53 towers.


Another bridge, Pont Marengo
Pont Marengo
The Pont Marengo crosses the Canal du Midi and links Carcassonne to the local railway station.The lock is very busy and a favourite tourist attraction as the canal boats work their way along the canal. The plaque on the bridge dates the work to 1800 or as it also says year 8, measuring time in the...

, crosses the Canal du Midi and provides access to the railway station. Lac de la Cavayère
Lac de la Cavayère
Lac de la Cavayère is an artificial lake in the Languedoc-Roussillon région of France, close to the mediaeval town of Carcassonne.The lake, also known as Carcassonne Plage , was created by the building of a 23 metre high dam in 1988 after severe forest fires affected the area in 1985...

 has been created as a recreational lake and is about five minutes from the city centre.
Further sights include:
  • the Basilica of St. Nazaire and St. Celse
  • The Cathedral
    Carcassonne Cathedral
    Carcassonne Cathedral is a cathedral and designated national monument in Carcassonne, France. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Carcassonne....

  • Church of St. Vincent


The newer part (Ville Basse) of the city on the other side of the Aude river
Aude River
The Aude River is a river of southwestern France. Its source is in the Pyrenees mountains and it then runs to Carcassonne and turns, reaching the Mediterranean Sea near Narbonne...

 (which dates back from the Middle Ages, created after the crusade) manufactures shoes, rubber
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, is an elastomer that was originally derived from latex, a milky colloid produced by some plants. The plants would be ‘tapped’, that is, an incision made into the bark of the tree and the sticky, milk colored latex sap collected and refined...

 and textiles. It is also the centre of a major AOC
Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée
Appellation d’origine contrôlée , which translates as "controlled designation of origin", is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses, butters, and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut National...

 wine-growing region. A major part of its income, however, comes from the tourism connected to the fortifications (Cité) and from boat cruising on the Canal du Midi
Canal du Midi
The is a long canal in Southern France . The canal connects the Garonne River to the on the Mediterranean and along with the Canal de Garonne forms the Canal des Deux Mers joining the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. The canal runs from the city of Toulouse down to the Étang de Thau...

. Carcassonne receives about three million visitors annually.


In the late 1990s Carcassonne airport
Carcassonne Salvaza Airport
Carcassonne Airport is an airport serving Carcassonne and the south of Languedoc. The airport is located on the western edge of the city, from the city center, in the Aude department...

 started taking budget flights to and from European airports and by 2009 had regular flight connections with Bournemouth
Bournemouth is a large coastal resort town in the ceremonial county of Dorset, England. According to the 2001 Census the town has a population of 163,444, making it the largest settlement in Dorset. It is also the largest settlement between Southampton and Plymouth...

, Cork, Dublin, Edinburgh, Frankfurt-Hahn, Stansted
London Stansted Airport
-Cargo:-Statistics:-Infrastructure:-Terminal and satellite buildings:Stansted is the newest passenger airport of all the main London airports. The terminal is an oblong glass building, and is separated in to three areas: Check-in concourse, arrivals and departures...

, Liverpool
Liverpool John Lennon Airport
Liverpool John Lennon Airport is an international airport serving the city of Liverpool and the North West of England. Formerly known as Speke Airport, RAF Speke, and Liverpool Airport the airport is located within the City of Liverpool adjacent to the estuary of the River Mersey some southeast...

, East Midlands, Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

 and Charleroi.

The Gare de Carcassonne
Gare de Carcassonne
Carcassonne is a railway station in Carcassonne, Languedoc-Roussillon, France. The station is located on the Bordeaux - Sète and Carcassonne - Rivesaltes railway lines...

 railway station offers direct connections to Toulouse, Narbonne, Perpignan, Paris, Marseille and several regional destinations. The A61
A61 autoroute
The A61 autoroute is a French motorway forming part of the Autoroute de Deux Mers.It connects Narbonne in Toulouse, where becomes the A62 towards Bordeaux. It also has junctions with the A64 towards Bayonne and A68 towards Albi on the outskirts of Toulouse. It is totally a toll road and operated...

 motorway connects Carcassonne with Toulouse and Narbonne.


Historically, the language spoken in Carcassonne and throughout Languedoc-Roussillon was not French, but actually the quite different Occitan.


Carcassonne was the starting point for a stage in the 2004 Tour de France
2004 Tour de France
The 2004 Tour de France was the 91st, taking place from July 3 to July 25, 2004. It consisted of 20 stages over 3391 km.Lance Armstrong became the first to win six Tours de France. Armstrong had been favored to win, his competitors seen as being German Jan Ullrich, Spaniards Roberto Heras and...

 and a stage finish in the 2006 Tour de France
2006 Tour de France
The 2006 Tour de France was the 93rd Tour de France, taking place from July 1 to July 23, 2006. It was won by Óscar Pereiro following the disqualification of apparent winner Floyd Landis....


As in the rest of the south west of France, rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 is popular in Carcassonne. The city is represented by Union Sportive Carcassonnaise, known locally simply as USC. The club have a proud history, having played in the French Championship Final in 1925, and currently compete in Pro D2, the second tier of French rugby
Rugby union in France
Rugby union is the second most popular team sport in France, after association football, and is the dominant sport in most of the southern half of the country. It was first introduced in the early 1870s by British residents. Elite French clubs participate in the professional domestic club league,...


Rugby league
Rugby league
Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular grass field. One of the two codes of rugby football, it originated in England in 1895 by a split from Rugby Football Union over paying players...

 is also played, by the AS Carcassonne
AS Carcassonne
AS Carcassonne are a professional rugby league football club based in Carcassonne in the south of France. They play in the French rugby league championship and are one of the most successful clubs in French rugby league, having won a total of ten French Championship titles and eleven Lord Derby Cups...

 club. They are involved in the Elite One Championship
Elite One Championship
The Elite One Championship is the top tier French professional domestic rugby league competition....

. Puig Aubert
Puig Aubert
Puig Aubert , was debatably the greatest French rugby league footballer of all-time Over a sixteen year professional career he would play for Carcassonne, XIII Catalan, Celtic de Paris and Castelnaudary winning five French championships and four French cups along with representing the French...

 is the most notable rugby league player to come from the Carcassonne club and the city has a bronze statue of him.

In popular culture

  • Carcassonne, possibly because of its spectacular stronghold, is sometimes described in literature as a city people dream of seeing, without being able to do so. It gives its title to the short story Carcassonne by Lord Dunsany (in A Dreamer's Tales), and to a poem by Nadaud, sung by Georges Brassens
    Georges Brassens
    Georges Brassens , 22 October 1921 – 29 October 1981), was a French singer-songwriter and poet.Brassens was born in Sète, a town in southern France near Montpellier...

  • On 6 March 2000 France issued a stamp commemorating the fortress of Carcassonne.
  • The history of Carcassonne is re-told in the novel Labyrinth
    Labyrinth (book)
    Labyrinth is an archaeological mystery English-language novel written by Kate Mosse set both in the Middle Ages and present-day France. It was published in 2005....

    by Kate Mosse
    Kate Mosse
    Kate Mosse is an English author and broadcaster. She is best known for her 2005 novel Labyrinth, which has been translated into more than 37 languages.- Private life :...

  • A board game
    Carcassonne (board game)
    Carcassonne is a tile-based German-style board game for two to five players, designed by Klaus-Jürgen Wrede and published in 2000 by Hans im Glück in German and Rio Grande Games in English....

     and a video game version
    Carcassonne (video game)
    Carcassonne is the Xbox Live Arcade version of the popular board game of the same name designed by Klaus-Jürgen Wrede for the Xbox 360, and developed by Sierra Studios. The game was released on June 27, 2007, and is the second designer board game to be released on Arcade, the first being Catan. It...

     of it are named after this town.
  • Portions of the 1991 film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves
    Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves
    Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves is a 1991 American adventure film directed by Kevin Reynolds. Kevin Costner heads the cast list as Robin Hood...

    were shot in and around Carcassonne.
  • A 1993 album by Stephan Eicher
    Stephan Eicher
    Stephan Eicher is a Swiss singer.His songs are sung in a variety of languages, including French, German, English, Italian, Swiss-German, and Romanche and sometimes he even uses different languages in the same piece.His success started in German-speaking countries in the 1980s when as part of the...

     was named Carcassonne.


  • Théophile Barrau
    Théophile Barrau
    Théophile Barrau was a French sculptor.Barrau was born in Carcassonne. He was a student of Alexandre Falguière and started at the Salon in 1874. He received awards in 1879, 1880, 1889, and became a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1892...

    , sculptor, 1848
  • Gilbert Benausse
    Gilbert Benausse
    Gilbert Benausse was a French rugby league footballer of the 1950s, and '60s. He played at the international level for France, and at club level for AS Carcassonne, Lézignan Sangliers, and Toulouse Olympique, playing at /, or /, i.e...

    , rugby league footballer, 1932
  • Michael Martchenko
    Michael Martchenko
    Michael Martchenko is a Canadian illustrator best known for illustrating many of the stories of Robert Munsch.Born in France, he moved to Canada when he was seven, where he graduated from the Ontario College of Art...

    , illustrator, 1942
  • Olivia Ruiz
    Olivia Ruiz
    Olivia Blanc known as Olivia Ruiz is a female French pop singer of partial Spanish origin belonging to the nouvelle chanson genre.-Biography:...

    , female pop singer, 1980
  • David Ferriol
    David Ferriol
    David Ferriol is a French professional rugby league player. He currently plays for the Catalans Dragons club in the European Super League competition.-Career:...

    , rugby league footballer, 1979
  • Fabrice Estebanez
    Fabrice Estebanez
    Fabrice Estebanez , is a French rugby league player and now rugby union player. He is a utility back and is able to play center and flyhalf. He has played for his CA Brive before joining Racing Metro 92.-Career:...

    , rugby union footballer, 1981

See also

  • Basilica of St. Nazaire and St. Celse
  • Carcassonne Cathedral
    Carcassonne Cathedral
    Carcassonne Cathedral is a cathedral and designated national monument in Carcassonne, France. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Carcassonne....

  • Communes of the Aude department

External links

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