Aragon
Overview
 
Aragon is a modern autonomous community
Autonomous communities of Spain
An autonomous community In other languages of Spain:*Catalan/Valencian .*Galician .*Basque . The second article of the constitution recognizes the rights of "nationalities and regions" to self-government and declares the "indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation".Political power in Spain is...

 in Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain...

. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces .In other languages of Spain:*Catalan/Valencian , sing. província.*Galician , sing. provincia.*Basque |Galicia]] — are not also the capitals of provinces...

 (from north to south): Huesca
Huesca (province)
Huesca , officially Huesca/Uesca, is a province of northeastern Spain, in northern Aragon. The capital is Huesca.Positioned just south of the central Pyrenees, Huesca borders France and the French Departments of Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Hautes-Pyrénées...

, Zaragoza
Zaragoza (province)
Zaragoza is a province of northern Spain, in the central part of the autonomous community of Aragon.Its capital is Zaragoza, which is also the capital of the autonomous community. Other towns in Zaragoza include Calatayud, Borja, La Almunia de Doña Godina, Ejea de los Caballeros and Tarazona.Its...

, and Teruel
Teruel (province)
Teruel is a province of Aragon, in the northeast of Spain. The capital is Teruel.It is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona, Castellón, Valencia , Cuenca, Guadalajara, and Zaragoza....

. Its capital is Zaragoza (also called Saragossa in English). The current Statute of Autonomy
Statute of Autonomy
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation...

 declares Aragon a nationality of Spain.

Aragon's northern province of Huesca borders France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and is positioned in the middle of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain...

.
Encyclopedia
Aragon is a modern autonomous community
Autonomous communities of Spain
An autonomous community In other languages of Spain:*Catalan/Valencian .*Galician .*Basque . The second article of the constitution recognizes the rights of "nationalities and regions" to self-government and declares the "indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation".Political power in Spain is...

 in Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain...

. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces .In other languages of Spain:*Catalan/Valencian , sing. província.*Galician , sing. provincia.*Basque |Galicia]] — are not also the capitals of provinces...

 (from north to south): Huesca
Huesca (province)
Huesca , officially Huesca/Uesca, is a province of northeastern Spain, in northern Aragon. The capital is Huesca.Positioned just south of the central Pyrenees, Huesca borders France and the French Departments of Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Hautes-Pyrénées...

, Zaragoza
Zaragoza (province)
Zaragoza is a province of northern Spain, in the central part of the autonomous community of Aragon.Its capital is Zaragoza, which is also the capital of the autonomous community. Other towns in Zaragoza include Calatayud, Borja, La Almunia de Doña Godina, Ejea de los Caballeros and Tarazona.Its...

, and Teruel
Teruel (province)
Teruel is a province of Aragon, in the northeast of Spain. The capital is Teruel.It is bordered by the provinces of Tarragona, Castellón, Valencia , Cuenca, Guadalajara, and Zaragoza....

. Its capital is Zaragoza (also called Saragossa in English). The current Statute of Autonomy
Statute of Autonomy
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation...

 declares Aragon a nationality of Spain.

Aragon's northern province of Huesca borders France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and is positioned in the middle of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain...

. Within Spain, the community is flanked by Catalonia
Catalonia
Catalonia is an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, with the official status of a "nationality" of Spain. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Its capital and largest city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an...

 on the east, Valencia and Castile-La Mancha
Castile-La Mancha
Castile-La Mancha is an autonomous community of Spain. Castile-La Mancha is bordered by Castile and León, Madrid, Aragon, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia, and Extremadura. It is one of the most sparsely populated of Spain's autonomous communities...

 to the south, and Castile and León
Castile and León
Castile and León is an autonomous community in north-western Spain. It was so constituted in 1983 and it comprises the historical regions of León and Old Castile...

, La Rioja, and Navarre
Navarre
Navarre , officially the Chartered Community of Navarre is an autonomous community in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Country, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Aquitaine in France...

 to the west.

Covering an area of 47719 km² (18,424.4 sq mi), the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers —most notably, the river Ebro
Ebro
The Ebro or Ebre is one of the most important rivers in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the biggest river by discharge volume in Spain.The Ebro flows through the following cities:*Reinosa in Cantabria.*Miranda de Ebro in Castile and León....

, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza. It is also home to the Aneto
Aneto
Aneto is the highest mountain in the Pyrenees and in Aragon, and Spain's third highest mountain, reaching a height of . It lies in the Spanish province of Huesca, the northernmost of all three Aragonese provinces. It forms the southernmost part of the Maladeta massif...

, the highest mountain in the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain...

.

As of 2006, the population was 1,277,471—with more than half of the autonomous community's people living in Zaragoza, its capital city.

In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into 33 comarcas or counties; all with a rich geopolitical
Geopolitics
Geopolitics, from Greek Γη and Πολιτική in broad terms, is a theory that describes the relation between politics and territory whether on local or international scale....

 and cultural history from its pre-Roman
Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
This is a list of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian peninsula .-Non-Indo-European:*Aquitanians**Aquitani**Autrigones - some consider them Celtic .**Caristii - some consider them Celtic ....

 and Roman
Hispania
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis....

 days; and from the four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

 or kingdom (or taifa
Taifa
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate or petty kingdom, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.-Rise:The origins of...

) of Saraqustah
Taifa of Zaragoza
The taifa of Zaragoza was an independent Muslim state in Moorish Al-Andalus, present day eastern Spain, which was established in 1018 as one of the taifa kingdoms, which emerged in the 11th century following the destruction of the Caliphate of Córdoba in the Moorish Iberian Peninsula.During the...

, and as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica
Marca Hispanica
The Marca Hispanica , also known as Spanish March or March of Barcelona was a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Kingdom....

; and counties that later formed the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain...

 and eventually the empire or Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon Corona d'Aragón Corona d'Aragó Corona Aragonum controlling a large portion of the present-day eastern Spain and southeastern France, as well as some of the major islands and mainland possessions stretching across the Mediterranean as far as Greece...

.

Population

As of 2006, half of Aragon's population, 50.8%, live in the capital city of Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Zaragoza , also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain...

. Huesca
Huesca
Huesca is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon. It is also the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and the comarca of Hoya de Huesca....

 is the only other city in the region with a population greater than 50,000.

The majority of Aragonese citizens, 71.8%, live in the province of Zaragoza; 17.1% in Huesca and 11.1% in Teruel. The population density of the region is the second lowest in Spain: only 26,8/km2; after Castilla La Mancha. The most densely populated areas are around the valley of the river Ebro
Ebro
The Ebro or Ebre is one of the most important rivers in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the biggest river by discharge volume in Spain.The Ebro flows through the following cities:*Reinosa in Cantabria.*Miranda de Ebro in Castile and León....

, particularly around Zaragoza, and in the Pyrenean foothills, while the areas with the fewest inhabitants tend to be those that are higher up in the Pyrenean mountains, and in most of the southern province of Teruеl.
Demographic evolution of Aragon and
percentage of the total national population
1857 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950
Population 880,643 912,711 952,743 997,154 1,031,559 1,058,806 1,094,002
Percentage 5.69% 4.90% 4.77% 4.66% 4.36% 4.07% 3.89%
1960 1970 1981 1991 1996 2001 2006
Population 1,105,498 1,152,708 1,213,099 1,221,546 1,187,546 1,199,753 1,277,471
Percentage 3.61% 3.39% 3.21% 3.10% 2.99% 2.92% 2.86%


Only four cities have more than 20,000 inhabitants: Zaragoza 700,000; Huesca 50,000; Teruel
Teruel
Teruel is a town in Aragon, eastern Spain, and the capital of Teruel Province. It has a population of 34,240 in 2006 making it one of the least populated provincial capitals in the country...

 35,000 and Calatayud
Calatayud
Calatayud is a city and municipality in the province of Zaragoza in Aragón, Spain lying on the river Jalón, in the midst of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. It is the second-largest city in the province after the capital, Zaragoza, and the largest town in Aragón other than the three provincial...

 20,000.

Language

Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 is the native language in most of Aragón, and it is the only official language, understood and spoken by virtually everyone in the region. In addition to it, the Aragonese language
Aragonese language
Aragonese is a Romance language now spoken in a number of local varieties by between 10,000 and 30,000 people over the valleys of the Aragón River, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in Aragon, Spain...

 continues to be spoken in several local varieties in the mountainous northern counties of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain...

, particularly in western Ribagorza, Sobrarbe
Sobrarbe
Sobrarbe is one of the Comarcas of Aragon, Spain. It is located in the northern part of the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain...

, Jacetania
Jacetania
Jacetania is a comarca in northern Aragon, Spain. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Huesca and Zaragoza provinces.The administrative capital is Jaca, with 13,374 inhabitants the largest town of the comarca. The area is famous for its ski resorts.Jacetania borders with France in the...

 and Somontano
Somontano
Somontano is a Spanish Denominación de Origen for wines, created in 1984, and located in the county of the same name, in the province of Huesca, . It borders the regions of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in the North, Hoya de Huesca in the West, the Monegros in the South, and the region of Litera in the...

; it is enjoying a resurgence of popularity as a tool for regional identity. In the easternmost areas of Aragón, along the border with Catalonia
Catalonia
Catalonia is an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, with the official status of a "nationality" of Spain. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Its capital and largest city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an...

, varieties of the Catalan language
Catalan language
Catalan is a Romance language, the national and only official language of Andorra and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencian Community, where it is known as Valencian , as well as in the city of Alghero, on the Italian island...

 are spoken, including the comarcas of eastern Ribagorza, La Litera, Bajo Cinca, Bajo Aragón-Caspe, Bajo Aragón
Bajo Aragón
Bajo Aragón or Baix Aragó is an administrative comarca in eastern central Aragon, Spain. It was first established in 1999. It has a population of 29,358 and an area of 1.304,2 km². The seat of the comarca is in Alcañiz...

 and Matarraña. The strip-shaped Catalan-speaking area in Aragon is often called La Franja
La Franja
La Franja is a term that refers to the Catalan-speaking territories of Aragon bordering Catalonia, in Spain. It literally means "the strip" and can also more properly be called Franja d'Aragó or Franja de Ponent in Catalan ....

.

Geography

With such a low population density large areas of Aragon remain wild and relatively untouched. It is a land of extreme natural contrasts, both in climate and geologically, from the green valleys and snow-capped peaks of the Pyrenees to the dry plains and lonely hilly areas of the south.

Relief

Aragon's Pyrenees
Pyrenees
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain...

 include splendid and varied mountain landscapes with soaring peaks, deep canyons, dense forests and spectacular waterfalls. Its rugged peaks include the Aneto
Aneto
Aneto is the highest mountain in the Pyrenees and in Aragon, and Spain's third highest mountain, reaching a height of . It lies in the Spanish province of Huesca, the northernmost of all three Aragonese provinces. It forms the southernmost part of the Maladeta massif...

  (3,404 m), the highest in the range, the misty Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido
Monte Perdido is the third highest mountain in the Pyrenees. The summit of Monte Perdido , located in Spain, lies hidden from France by the seemingly impenetrable peaks of the Cirques of Gavarnie and Estaubé. It is in the north of Huesca province...

 (3,355 m), Perdiguero (3,221 m), Cotiella (2,912 m) and many others.

Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park
Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park
Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park is an IUCN Category II National Park situated in the Pyrenees of Huesca province, Aragon, Spain. There has been a National Park in the Ordesa Valley since 1918. Its protected area was enlarged in 1982 to cover the whole region amounting to 156.08 km².It has...

, near the border with France, boasts some of the most spectacular scenery in Europe with its canyons, frozen lake caverns, numerous waterfalls and varied wildlife many species of which are endemic to the Pyrenees. The park is also one of the last sanctuaries of birds of prey in the range. Many beautiful mountain butterflies and flowers can be seen in the summer, while during winter the region is a paradise for skiers.

The principal valleys in the mountains include those of Hecho, Canfranc
Canfranc
Canfranc is a municipality in the Aragon Valley of north-eastern Spain consisting of two towns.- Political information :* comarca of Jacetania * province of Huesca* autonomous community of Aragón- Canfranc :...

, Tena
Tena Valley
The Tena Valley is a valley located at the southern side of the Pyrenees, in the Alto Gállego comarca, province of Huesca, and is crossed by the Gállego river from north to south...

, Benasque
Benasque
Benasque or Benasc is a town in the comarca of Ribagorza, province of Huesca, . It is the main town in the Benasque Valley, located in the heart of the Pyrenees and surrounded by the highest peaks in that range.-Language:...

 and others. The green valleys hide pretty villages with nice Romanesque
Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

 churches and typical Pyrenean houses with flowers on the balconies. The oldest Romanesque cathedral in Spain is located in the medieval town of Jaca
Jaca
Jaca is a city of northeastern Spain near the border with France, in the midst of the Pyrenees in the province of Huesca...

 in the very northern part of Huesca Province.
In the Pyrenean foothills, or pre-Pyrenees, the Mallos de Riglos
Mallos de Riglos
The Mallos de Riglos are a set of conglomerate rock formations in Hoya de Huesca comarca, Aragon, Spain. They are located near Riglos some 45 km to the northeast of the city of Huesca. Rising to some 300 metres high The Mallos de Riglos are a set of conglomerate rock formations in Hoya de Huesca...

 are a famous natural rock formation. Ancient castles nestle on lonely hills, the most famous being the magnificent Loarre Castle
Loarre castle
Loarre Castle is a fortress in Loarre, Spain. The complex was built largely during the 11th and 12th centuries, when its position on the frontier between Christian and Muslim lands gave it strategic importance. The first of the two major building programs began ca. 1020, when Sancho el Mayor ...

.

Further south, the Ebro valley, irrigated by the river Ebro, is a rich and fertile agricultural area covered with vast fields of wheat, barley and other fruit and vegetable crops. Many beautiful and little-known settlements, castles and Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 ruins dot the landscape here. Some of the most notable towns here include Calatayud
Calatayud
Calatayud is a city and municipality in the province of Zaragoza in Aragón, Spain lying on the river Jalón, in the midst of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. It is the second-largest city in the province after the capital, Zaragoza, and the largest town in Aragón other than the three provincial...

, Daroca
Daroca
Daroca is a city and municipality in the province of Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain, situated to the south of the city of Zaragoza. It is the center of a judicial district....

, Sos del Rey Catolico
Sos del Rey Católico
Sos del Rey Católico is a historic town and municipality located in the comarca of Cinco Villas, province of Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain.-History:Sancho I of Pamplona founded Sos, in either 907 or 908, as a border town during the Reconquista....

, Caspe
Caspe
Caspe or Casp is a historic town and municipality in the province of Zaragoza, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It is situated some 100 km to the east of the provincial capital, Zaragoza.-History:...

 and others.

South of Zaragoza and the Ebro valley, the elevation rises again into the Sistema Ibérico
Sistema Ibérico
The Sistema Ibérico or Iberian System is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.It is a vast and complex system of mountain chains and massifs located in the central regions of the Iberian Peninsula, but reaching almost the Mediterranean coast in the Land of Valencia in the east.From...

, a complex system of mountain ranges that separates the Ebro valley from the Meseta Central and plains of Castile-La Mancha
Castile-La Mancha
Castile-La Mancha is an autonomous community of Spain. Castile-La Mancha is bordered by Castile and León, Madrid, Aragon, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia, and Extremadura. It is one of the most sparsely populated of Spain's autonomous communities...

. The highest massif in this range is the Moncayo (2,313 m) and, despite getting less snow than in the Pyrenees, it has several ski resorts.

Climate

Aragon's climate can be defined as continental moderate. Temperatures are determined mainly by altitude
Altitude
Altitude or height is defined based on the context in which it is used . As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context...

, ranging from cold or very cold in winter and cool in summer in the mountains to the north (Pyrenees
Pyrenees
The Pyrenees is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain...

) and to the south and west (Iberian range
Sistema Ibérico
The Sistema Ibérico or Iberian System is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.It is a vast and complex system of mountain chains and massifs located in the central regions of the Iberian Peninsula, but reaching almost the Mediterranean coast in the Land of Valencia in the east.From...

), to mild in winter and hot in summer in the central lowlands. Rainfall is also very variable, with very low mean values in the central areas and increasingly higher values in mountain areas, especially in the high Pyrenees.

In the middle of Aragon, which is only 200 metres (656.2 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

, the annual average temperature is around 14 °C (57.2 °F). To the north and south of the Ebro valley, where the elevation rises to 500 m (1,640.4 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

, the temperature drops by two degrees. In the mountains, between 600 m (1,968.5 ft) and 1000 m (3,280.8 ft) observed temperatures are between 11 and 12 °C (51.8 and 53.6 F).

History

Formation of the kingdom

Before Aragon came into being as a self-proclaimed kingdom
Kingdom of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain...

 in 1035 A.D., the northern counties of Jaca
Jaca
Jaca is a city of northeastern Spain near the border with France, in the midst of the Pyrenees in the province of Huesca...

, Sobrarbe
Sobrarbe
Sobrarbe is one of the Comarcas of Aragon, Spain. It is located in the northern part of the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain...

 and Ribagorza were all independent marches and Frankish
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

 feudal fiefs. In a bid to stem Frankish and Moorish invasions
Umayyad conquest of Hispania
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania is the initial Islamic Ummayad Caliphate's conquest, between 711 and 718, of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania, centered in the Iberian Peninsula, which was known to them under the Arabic name al-Andalus....

, a northern alliance of the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorza, and the duchy of Castile united under the Kingdom of Pamplona (later Navarre
Navarre
Navarre , officially the Chartered Community of Navarre is an autonomous community in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Country, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Aquitaine in France...

). After King Sancho
Sancho III of Navarre
Sancho III Garcés , called the Great , succeeded as a minor to the Kingdom of Navarre in 1004, and through conquest and political maneuvering increased his power, until at the time of his death in 1035 he controlled the majority of Christian Iberia, bearing the title of rex Hispaniarum...

's death, the kingdom was divided between his sons. Ramiro I
Ramiro I of Aragon
Ramiro I was de facto the first King of Aragon from 1035 until his death. Apparently born before 1007, he was the illegitimate son of Sancho III of Navarre by his mistress Sancha de Aybar...

 was initially named king of Aragon in 1035; later, after his brother Gonzalo's death, he was also named king of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in 1044. The new kingdom grew quickly, conquering territories from the moorish kingdoms to the south. Huesca
Huesca
Huesca is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon. It is also the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and the comarca of Hoya de Huesca....

 was taken in 1096 and Zaragoza
Zaragoza
Zaragoza , also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain...

 in 1118. According to aragoneses laws the King had to swear he accepted the Kingdom laws before being accepted as king. The King was considered "Primus inter pares" between nobility. There was a noble man with the tittle "Justicia" that acted as ombudsman who was in charge of supervising that the King obbeyed the Aragonese laws. There's an old saying "En Aragón antes de Rey hubo Ley" roughly translated as "Aragon had own laws long time before it had a King".

Absorption of Barcelona County

The dynastic union between Petronila, Queen of Aragon
Petronila of Aragon
Petronilla of Aragon , whose name is also spelled Petronila or Petronella , was Queen regnant of Aragon from 1137 until 1164. She was the daughter and successor of Ramiro II by Agnes of Aquitaine...

, and Ramon Berenguer IV
Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Ramon Berenguer IV , sometimes called the Holy, was the Count of Barcelona who effected the union between the Kingdom of Aragon and the Principality of Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon....

, Count of Barcelona, produced a son, Alfonso II of Aragon
Alfonso II of Aragon
Alfonso II or Alfons I ; Huesca, 1-25 March 1157 – 25 April 1196), called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death. He was the son of Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona and Petronilla of Aragon and the first King of Aragon who was...

 who inherited all their respective territories creating the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon Corona d'Aragón Corona d'Aragó Corona Aragonum controlling a large portion of the present-day eastern Spain and southeastern France, as well as some of the major islands and mainland possessions stretching across the Mediterranean as far as Greece...

 which included all lands and people, titles and states previously until then outside of the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
The Kingdom of Aragon was a medieval and early modern kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain...

. This Crown was effectively ended after the dynastic union with Castile (see below) but the title continued being used until 1714. The dynasty of the Kings of Aragon (called by some present-day historians "Kings of Aragon and Counts of Barcelona") ruled the present administrative region of Aragon, Catalonia
Catalonia
Catalonia is an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, with the official status of a "nationality" of Spain. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Its capital and largest city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an...

, and later the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.The four largest islands are: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain with Palma as the capital...

, Valencia, Sicily
Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

, Naples
Naples
Naples is a city in Southern Italy, situated on the country's west coast by the Gulf of Naples. Lying between two notable volcanic regions, Mount Vesuvius and the Phlegraean Fields, it is the capital of the region of Campania and of the province of Naples...

 and Sardinia
Sardinia
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea . It is an autonomous region of Italy, and the nearest land masses are the French island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Tunisia and the Spanish Balearic Islands.The name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *sard[],...

 (see Aragonese Empire).

In the Crown of Aragon, the king was the direct king of the Aragonese region but also held the title of King of Valencia, King of Majorca (for a time), Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier
Montpellier
-Neighbourhoods:Since 2001, Montpellier has been divided into seven official neighbourhoods, themselves divided into sub-neighbourhoods. Each of them possesses a neighbourhood council....

, and (temporarily) Duke of Athens and Neopatria
Duchy of Athens
The Duchy of Athens was one of the Crusader States set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, encompassing the regions of Attica and Boeotia, and surviving until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century....

. Each of these titles gave him sovereignty over a certain region, and these titles changed as he lost and won territories.

Union with Castile

Although there was a dynastic union with Castile and most other kingdoms in Spain since the marriage of Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I was Queen of Castile and León. She and her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor...

 and Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand the Catholic was King of Aragon , Sicily , Naples , Valencia, Sardinia, and Navarre, Count of Barcelona, jure uxoris King of Castile and then regent of that country also from 1508 to his death, in the name of...

 at the end of the 15th century, and this union was progressively consolidating along 16th and 17th centuries, Aragon lasted as a separate kingdom, with its own laws and institutions, until 1707 when Philip V, the first Bourbon king of Spain, invaded Aragon with his Army and forced the signature of the Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees
The Nueva Planta decrees were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession which he won....

, consolidating Spain into a more centralized state and forcing the use of castilian language.

Under the Bourbon dynasty

During the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch. As France and Spain were among the most powerful states of Europe, such a unification would have...

 the advancing army of German, British and Dutch troops defeated the Spanish Army in the battle of Saragossa
Battle of Saragossa
The Battle of Saragossa took place on 20 August, 1710, between the Spanish-Bourbon army commanded by the Marquis de Bay and a multinational army led by the Austrian commander Guido Starhemberg during the War of the Spanish Succession.-Prelude:...

 in 1710. As a result of the battle Felipe V
Philip V of Spain
Philip V was King of Spain from 15 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favor of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he assumed the throne again upon his son's death, to his death.Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a...

 was forced to abandon Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 and retreated to Valladolid
Valladolid
Valladolid is a historic city and municipality in north-central Spain, situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers, and located within three wine-making regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda and Cigales...

.

During the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
The Peninsular War was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its...

 the Aragonese capital was a site of two fierce sieges. During the siege in 1808
Siege of Saragossa (1808)
The First Siege of Saragossa was a bloody struggle in the Peninsular War. A French army under General Jean-Antoine Verdier besieged, repeatedly stormed, and was repulsed from the Spanish city of Saragossa over the summer of 1808....

 the Spanish under General Palafox
José de Palafox y Melzi, Duke of Saragossa
José Rebolledo de Palafox y Melzi, Duke of Saragossa was a Spanish general who fought in the Peninsular War.-Biography:...

 defeated a superior French force. In 1809 during a particularly bloody siege
Siege of Saragossa (1809)
The Second Siege of Saragossa was the French capture of the Spanish city of Zaragoza during the Peninsular War.It is particularly noted for its brutality.-Prelude:...

 the Spaniards were overwhelmed by superior enemy forces. In the course of the siege almost 30,000 of the garrison and citizens of Zaragoza (from a total of 32,000) perished instead of surrendering the city. Two weeks after they breached the walls the French were forced to fight for separate houses, squares, churches, convents.

20th century

During the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

, Aragon saw the establishment of various anarchist communes.

In 1982 Aragon became an autonomous community within the new Spanish democracy.

Culture

Further to the south lies Teruel
Teruel
Teruel is a town in Aragon, eastern Spain, and the capital of Teruel Province. It has a population of 34,240 in 2006 making it one of the least populated provincial capitals in the country...

, famous for its Mudejar architecture, which can be easily spotted in its magnificent cathedral, churches and towers. Other notable towns to the south include Albarracin
Albarracín
Albarracín is Spanish town, in the province of Teruel, part of the autonomous community of Aragon. According to the 2007 census , the municipality had a population of 1075 inhabitants...

, Alcañiz
Alcañiz
Alcañiz is a town and municipality in the province of Teruel, in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. The town is located on the banks of the river Guadalope. Alcañiz is the unofficial capital of the Lower Aragon historical region...

, Valderrobres
Valderrobres
Valderrobres or Vall-de-roures is a municipality and the major town of the comarca of Matarranya in the province of Teruel, Aragon . It is located in view of the landscape of the northwestern foothills of the Ports de Tortosa-Beseit, by the Matarranya River, a tributary to the right of the Ebro...

, Mora de Rubielos
Mora de Rubielos
Mora de Rubielos is a municipality located in the mountainous area of the Iberian System, province of Teruel, Aragon, Spain.According to the 2009 census , the municipality has a population of 1,756 inhabitants. Mora de Rubielos has a beautiful 14th century castle. Mora de Rubielos is the capital of...

 and many others.

Some medieval monuments of Teruel and Zaragoza are protected by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 as part of the World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

s Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon
Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon
Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon is an aesthetic trend in the Mudéjar style, which is centered in Aragon and has been recognized in some representative buildings as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO....

.

The traditional dance is known as jota
Jota (music)
The jota is a genre of music and the associated dance known throughout Spain, most likely originating in Aragon. It varies by region, having a characteristic form in Valencia, Aragon, Castile, Navarra, Cantabria, Asturias, Galicia and Murcia. Being a visual representation, the jota is danced and...

 and is one of the faster dances of Spain. It's also the most widespread in Aragón and the styles and music depends on the region.

There are other less popular dances named "paloteaos" similars to some sword/stick dances in other regions.

The music of one of the typical dance "The dance of majordomos" from Benasque
Benasque
Benasque or Benasc is a town in the comarca of Ribagorza, province of Huesca, . It is the main town in the Benasque Valley, located in the heart of the Pyrenees and surrounded by the highest peaks in that range.-Language:...

 was enjoyed by Rafael del Riego
Rafael del Riego
Rafael del Riego y Nuñez was a Spanish general and liberal politician, who played a key role in the outbreak of the Liberal Triennium .-Early life and action in the Peninsular War:...

 when he was in Benasque so he ordered to copy it and as a result the "himn of Riego" appeared.

There are some typical Aragonese instruments like the stringed drum "Chicotén", bagpipes as "gaita de boto", oboes like "Dulzaina", small flutes like "Chiflo" and some instruments are lost like "trompa de Ribagorza" although there have been efforts to reconstruct them. In contrast with other pyrenaic regions "Chicotén" and "Chiflo" never have stopped being played

The Carnival of Bielsa(Huesca
Huesca
Huesca is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon. It is also the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and the comarca of Hoya de Huesca....

) has ancient origins and includes a group of men porting long sticks, wearing skirts, cowbells and boucard/goat-like horns&skins with black-painted faces called "Trangas" that symbolice "virility" that surround another man wearing skins that acts as bear called "l'onso". In Aragonese mithology the bear carried souls between the world of the living and the world of the dead. Trangas dance with young females named "madamas" that symbolise "purity" and wear colourful dresses. There are also some traditional characters like a horse rider named "Caballé"

Economy

Aragon is among the richest autonomous regions in Spain, with GDP per capita above the nation's average. The traditional agriculture-based economy from the mid 20th century has been greatly transformed in the past several decades and now service and industrial sectors are the backbone of the economy in the region.

The well-developed irrigation system around the Ebro has greatly supported the productive agriculture. The most important crops include wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

, barley
Barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

, rye
Rye
Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain and as a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder...

, fruit and grape
Grape
A grape is a non-climacteric fruit, specifically a berry, that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, molasses and grape seed oil. Grapes are also...

s. Livestock-breeding is essential especially in the northern areas, where the lush meadows provide excellent conditions for sheep and cattle. The main livestock are cattle
Cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

, 334,600; sheep, 2,862,100; pig
Pig
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates. Pigs include the domestic pig, its ancestor the wild boar, and several other wild relatives...

s, 3,670,000; goat
Goat
The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of...

s, 78,000; and poultry
Poultry
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the purpose of producing eggs, meat, and/or feathers. These most typically are members of the superorder Galloanserae , especially the order Galliformes and the family Anatidae , commonly known as "waterfowl"...

, 20,545,000.

The chief industrial centre is the capital Zaragoza, where the largest factories are located. The largest plant is the Opel
Opel
Adam Opel AG, generally shortened to Opel, is a German automobile company founded by Adam Opel in 1862. Opel has been building automobiles since 1899, and became an Aktiengesellschaft in 1929...

 automotive plant with 8,730 employees and production of 200,000 per year. It supports many related industries in the area. Other large plants in the city include factories for trains and household appliances. Mining of iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

 ore and coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

 is developed to the south, near Ojos Negros. Electricity production is concentrated to the north where numerous hydro power plants are located along the Pyrenean rivers and in the 1,150 MW Teruel Power Plant
Teruel Power Plant
Teruel Power Plant is a lignite fired power plant in Teruel, Aragon, Spain. The flue gas stack of Teruel Power Plant is high. Lignite room is developed, and contains up to 7% sulphurs. Teruel Power Plant has three generating units with each a capacity 350 megawatts...

. There is an aluminium refinery in the town of Sabiñánigo. The main centres of electronics industry are Zaragoza, Huesca
Huesca
Huesca is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon. It is also the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and the comarca of Hoya de Huesca....

 and Benabarre
Benabarre
Benabarre or Benavarri is a town in the Aragonese county of Ribagorza, in the province of Huesca, Spain.Traditionally, Benabarre was the capital of the historic County of Ribagorza, which was more expansive in territory than today, and included the comarca of Alta Ribagorça, now in the province...

. Chemical industry is developed in Zaragoza, Sabiñánigo, Monzón
Monzón
Monzón is a small town in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It has a population of 17,050. It is located in the northeast and adjoins the rivers Cinca and Sosa.-Historical overview:...

, Teruel, Ojos Negros, Fraga
Fraga
Fraga is the major town of the comarca of Bajo Cinca in the province of Huesca, Aragon, Spain. It is located by the river Cinca.King Alfonso I of Aragon died at its walls in 1134 while trying to conquer it...

, Benabarre and others.

The transport infrastructure has been greatly improved. There are more than 1000 km (621.4 mi) of motorways which run from Zaragoza to Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Teruel, Basque country, Huesca and Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

. The condition of the other roads is also good. As of 2005 there are 520,000 cars in Aragon. Through the territory of the province runs the new high-speed railway between Madrid and Barcelona with siding from Zaragoza to Huesca, which is going to be continued to the French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 border. There is an International Airport at Zaragoza
Zaragoza Airport
-Cargo airlines:-Traffic:-External links:* *...

, as well as several smaller airports at Huesca, Caudé, Santa Cilia de Jaca and Villanueva de Gállego.

Current political organisation

As an autonomous community of Spain, Aragon has an elected regional parliament or cortes, which meets in the Aljafería
Aljafería
The Aljafería Palace is a fortified medieval Islamic palace built during the second half of the 11th century in the Moorish taifa of Zaragoza of Al-Andalus, present day Zaragoza, Spain. It was the residence of the Banu Hud dynasty during the era of Abu Jaffar Al-Muqtadir after abolishing Banu...

, a Moorish palace in the capital city, Zaragoza. The Parliament chooses a president for the Diputación General de Aragón or Aragon Government, for a four-year term. The current president (since July 2011) is Luisa Fernanda Rudi
Luisa Fernanda Rudi Ubeda
Luisa Fernanda Rudi Ubeda is a Spanish politician andMember of the European Parliament with the People's Party. She is a member of the Bureau of the European People's Party and sits on...

.

List of historic Chancellors

  • Alfons de la Cavallería 1494–1508
  • Tomás de Malferit 1508
  • Antoni Agustí de Sicart 1508–1523
  • Frederic Honorat de Gualbes de Vallseca (for the Principality
    Principality
    A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or princess, or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince....

     of Catalonia
    Catalonia
    Catalonia is an autonomous community in northeastern Spain, with the official status of a "nationality" of Spain. Catalonia comprises four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. Its capital and largest city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an...

    ) 1523–1529
  • Jeronimo de Rage (for Aragón Kingdom) 1523–1529
  • Eiximèn Perez de Figuerola (for Valencia Kingdom) 1523–1529
  • Joan Sunyer 1529–1533
  • Enrique Bierling 1533–1546
  • Jeroni Descoll de Oliva 1546–1554
  • Pere de Clariana de Seva 1554–1562
  • Bernardo de Bolea y Portugal 1562–1585
  • Simó Friigola 1585–1598
  • Dídac Civarrubias Sanç 1598–1607
  • Diego Clavera 1608–1612
  • Andreu Roig 1612–1622
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Garci Peréz de Araciel 1623–1624
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Juan Manuel de Mendoza Luna Manrique, marquis of Montesclaros 1628
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Enrique Pimentel, bishop of Cuenca 1628–1632
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, Duke of Dürbheim 1632–1637
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Gaspar de Borja y de Velasco 1637–1645
  • Maties Bayetola Cabanilles 1646–1652
  • Cristòfor Crespí de Vallclaura Brizuela 1652–1671
  • [elcior de Navarra Rocafull 1671–1677
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Pasqual d'Aragó Folc de Cardona 1677
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Pere Antoni d'Aragó Folc de Cardona i Córdoba 1677–1690
  • Melcior de Navarra Rocafull 1690–1691 (second time)
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Gaspar Jan Girón y Sandoval y Weidner, duke of Spaichingen Osuna
    Osuna
    Osuna is a town and municipality in the province of Seville, southern Spain, in the autonomous community of Andalusia. , it has a population of c...

     1692–1694
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Ferran de Montcada-Aragó i de Montcada 1695–1698
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Rodrigo Manuel Manrique de Lara y de Tabora 1698–1702
  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

     Iñigo de la Cruz Manrique de Lara y Ramírez de Arellano, count of Aguilar
    Aguilar del Alfambra
    Aguilar del Alfambra is a municipality located in the province of Teruel, Aragon, Spain. According to the 2004 census , the municipality has a population of 79 inhabitants.Vicente Blasco Ibáñez's father was born in this village....

     and Frigiliana 1702–1707


See list of Lieutenants of the Kingdom of Aragón
Lieutenants of the Kingdom of Aragon
This is a list of viceroys of the Kingdom of Aragon.*Alfons d'Aragón, Bishop of Zaragoza 1485-1511*Germaine of Foix 1512-1516*Alfons d'Aragón, bishop of Zaragoza 1516-1520*Juan de Lanuza 1520-1535...

.

The dynastic union of Castile
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval and modern state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne...

 and Aragon in 1479, when Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand the Catholic was King of Aragon , Sicily , Naples , Valencia, Sardinia, and Navarre, Count of Barcelona, jure uxoris King of Castile and then regent of that country also from 1508 to his death, in the name of...

 wed Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I was Queen of Castile and León. She and her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor...

, led to the formal creation of Spain as a single entity in 1516. See List of Spanish monarchs and Kings of Spain family tree
Kings of Spain family tree
This is a collection of the family trees of the kingdom of Spain. The former kingdoms of Aragon, Castile and Navarre were independent kingdoms that unified in the 15th century to become the Kingdom of Spain....

.

Cuisine

With its lush pyrenean pastures, lamb, beef, and dairy by-products are, not surprisingly, predominant in Aragonese cuisine
Aragonese cuisine
Aragonese cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients of cuisine in the Aragon region of Spain. These include roast lamb ; ham from Teruel; olive oil from Empeltre and Arbequina; a local taste for unusual vegetables as borages and sweet varieties of onion as well as wines from Cariñena,...

. Also of note is its ham from Teruel
Teruel
Teruel is a town in Aragon, eastern Spain, and the capital of Teruel Province. It has a population of 34,240 in 2006 making it one of the least populated provincial capitals in the country...

; olive oil from Empeltre and Arbequina
Arbequina
Arbequina is a cultivar of olives. The fruit is highly aromatic, small, symmetrical and dark brown, with a rounded apex and a broad peduncular cavity. In Europe, it is mostly grown in Catalonia, Spain, where it occupies 55,000 hectares, but it is also grown in in Aragon and Andalusia, as well as...

; longaniza
Longaniza
Longaniza is a Spanish sausage similar to a chorizo and also closely associated with the Portuguese linguiça. Its defining characteristics are interpreted differently from region to region...

 from Graus
Graus
Graus is a village in the Spanish province of Huesca, located in the Pyrenees at the confluence of rivers Esera and Isabena. It is the administrative capital of the region. It is one of the areas of Aragon in which is still preserved the Aragonese language....

; rainbow trout and salmon, boar, truffles and wild mushrooms from the upper river valleys of the Jacetania
Jacetania
Jacetania is a comarca in northern Aragon, Spain. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Huesca and Zaragoza provinces.The administrative capital is Jaca, with 13,374 inhabitants the largest town of the comarca. The area is famous for its ski resorts.Jacetania borders with France in the...

, Gallego
Gállego (river)
The Gállego is a river in Aragon, Spain, one of the main tributaries of the Ebro River. It has a watershed of over 4,000 km², with a total length of 193.2 km....

, Sobrarbe
Sobrarbe
Sobrarbe is one of the Comarcas of Aragon, Spain. It is located in the northern part of the province of Huesca, part of the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain...

, and Ribagorza regions; and wines from Cariñena, Somontano
Somontano
Somontano is a Spanish Denominación de Origen for wines, created in 1984, and located in the county of the same name, in the province of Huesca, . It borders the regions of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in the North, Hoya de Huesca in the West, the Monegros in the South, and the region of Litera in the...

, Calatayud
Calatayud
Calatayud is a city and municipality in the province of Zaragoza in Aragón, Spain lying on the river Jalón, in the midst of the Sistema Ibérico mountain range. It is the second-largest city in the province after the capital, Zaragoza, and the largest town in Aragón other than the three provincial...

, and Campo de Borja
Campo de Borja
Campo de Borja is a Spanish Denominación de Origen for wines located in the Campo de Borja comarca, northwest of the province of Zaragoza...

; and fruit, especially peaches, from its fertile lower valleys. The region also features a unique local haggis
Haggis
Haggis is a dish containing sheep's 'pluck' , minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and traditionally simmered in the animal's stomach for approximately three hours. Most modern commercial haggis is prepared in a casing rather than an actual stomach.Haggis is a kind...

, known as chireta
Chireta
Chireta is an Aragonese type of haggis. It is a flavorful rustic dish typical to the counties of Ribagorza, Sobrarbe and Somontano de Barbastro, high up in the Spanish Pyrenees...

, several interesting seafood dishes, including various crab pastes, which developed from an old superstition that crabs help prevent illness and sweets such as "Adoquines del Pilar" and "Frutas de Aragón". There are also other sweets like "Tortas de alma" from Teruel
Teruel
Teruel is a town in Aragon, eastern Spain, and the capital of Teruel Province. It has a population of 34,240 in 2006 making it one of the least populated provincial capitals in the country...

 and "Trenza de Almudevar" or "Castañas de Huesca" from Huesca
Huesca
Huesca is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon. It is also the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and the comarca of Hoya de Huesca....


Up to the 19th century

  • Joseph Calasanz, (1557–1648), born in Aragon, was a Catholic priest
    Priesthood (Catholic Church)
    The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church include the orders of bishops, deacons and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. The ordained priesthood and common priesthood are different in function and essence....

     who dedicated himself to the education of poor boys at Rome
    Rome
    Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

     and founded a society pledged to that work.
  • Francisco Garcés
    Francisco Garcés
    Francisco Hermenegildo Tomás Garcés was a Spanish Franciscan missionary who explored much of the southwestern part of North America, including what are now Arizona, southern California, and northeastern Baja California. Garcés was born April 12, 1738, in Morata de Jalón , Zaragoza province,...

    , (1738–1781), born in Aragon, was a missionary
    Missionary
    A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

     priest
    Priest
    A priest is a person authorized to perform the sacred rites of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of, a deity or deities...

     to North America
    North America
    North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

     who founded two pueblo missions.
  • Elizabeth of Aragon
    Elizabeth of Aragon
    Elizabeth of Aragon, also known as Saint Elizabeth of Portugal, T.O.S.F. , was queen consort of Portugal, a tertiary of the Franciscan Order and is venerated as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.-Biography:Elizabeth was a descendant of one of the most powerful families in Europe:...

     (Queen Saint Elisabeth) (1271–1336) was queen consort of Portugal and a Saint of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Gaspar Sanz
    Gaspar Sanz
    Gaspar Sanz was an Aragonese composer, guitarist, organist and priest born to a wealthy family in Calanda in the Spanish comarca of Bajo Aragón. He studied music, theology and philosophy at the University of Salamanca, where he was later appointed Professor of Music...

    , (1640–1710), composer, guitarist and organist.
  • Francisco de Goya, 18th-century painter (1746–1828).
  • Michael Servetus
    Michael Servetus
    Michael Servetus was a Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and humanist. He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation...

    , theologian and physician who received numerous charges of heresy by both Catholics and Protestants and was burnt at the stake in Calvin
    John Calvin
    John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530...

    's Geneva
    Geneva
    Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

     during the 16th century.
  • Baltasar Gracián
    Baltasar Gracián
    Baltasar Gracián y Morales, SJ was a Spanish Jesuit and baroque prose writer. He was born in Belmonte, near Calatayud .-Biography:...

    , Writer of Spanish Baroque literature.
  • Antipope Benedict XIII
    Antipope Benedict XIII
    Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor , known as in Spanish, was an Aragonese nobleman, who is officially considered by the Catholic Church to be an antipope....

    , (1328–1423) Avignon pope and Aragonese art patron-sponsor.
  • Ferdinand II of Aragon
    Ferdinand II of Aragon
    Ferdinand the Catholic was King of Aragon , Sicily , Naples , Valencia, Sardinia, and Navarre, Count of Barcelona, jure uxoris King of Castile and then regent of that country also from 1508 to his death, in the name of...

    , married Isabella I of Castile
    Isabella I of Castile
    Isabella I was Queen of Castile and León. She and her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor...

     and united Aragon with the kingdom of Castile
    Kingdom of Castile
    Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. It emerged as a political autonomous entity in the 9th century. It was called County of Castile and was held in vassalage from the Kingdom of León. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region...

    , giving form to the actual Spain
    Spain
    Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

    .
  • Katherine of Aragon, wife of Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales and subsequently his brother Henry VIII of England

20th and 21st centuries

  • Eva Amaral
    Eva Amaral
    Eva María Amaral Lallana is a Spanish singer-songwriter, and member of the group Amaral with Juan Aguirre.She studied sculpture studies at the Art School of Zaragoza. During this time, she was a member of the band Bandera Blanca, where she was the drummer. In 1993, she met the guitarist Juan...

    , Singer-songwriter and member of the Rock band Amaral.
  • Enrique Bunbury
    Enrique Bunbury
    Enrique Ortiz de Landázuri Izardui , born August 11, 1967 is a Spanish rock singer-songwriter.Bunbury was born in Zaragoza, Spain. He got involved in music in the early 1980s, making his debut in a high school band called Apocalipsis, and later played along with Proceso Entrópico...

     (Enrique Ortiz de Landázuri), is a Spanish rock singer-songwriter for Heroes del Silencio and Enrique Bunbury Band.
  • Luis Buñuel
    Luis Buñuel
    Luis Buñuel Portolés was a Spanish-born filmmaker — later a naturalized citizen of Mexico — who worked in Spain, Mexico, France and the US..-Early years:...

    , film maker.
  • St. Jose Maria Escriva, Spanish Catholic priest, founder of Opus Dei
    Opus Dei
    Opus Dei, formally known as The Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei , is an organization of the Catholic Church that teaches that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity. The majority of its membership are lay people, with secular priests under the...

    .
  • Pablo Gargallo
    Pablo Gargallo
    Pablo Emilio Gargallo was a Spanish sculptor and painter.Born in Maella, Aragon, he moved to Barcelona, Catalonia, with his family in 1888, where he would begin his training in the arts. Gargallo developed a style of sculpture based on the creation of three-dimensional objects from pieces of flat...

    , sculptor and painter.
  • José Antonio Labordeta
    José Antonio Labordeta
    José Antonio Labordeta Subías , described by The Gran Enciclopedia Aragonesa 2000 as “The most important Aragonese singer-songwriter”, began singing in an attempt to give more relevance to his poetry. His songs are anthems, not only in Aragón, but all around Spain...

    , singer, writer and politician.
  • Santiago Ramón y Cajal
    Santiago Ramón y Cajal
    Santiago Ramón y Cajal ForMemRS was a Spanish pathologist, histologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel laureate. His pioneering investigations of the microscopic structure of the brain were original: he is considered by many to be the father of modern neuroscience...

    , Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the field of life science and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will...

     for his research on the human brain and nervous system.
  • Carlos Saura
    Carlos Saura
    Carlos Saura Atarés is a Spanish film director and photographer.-Early life:Born into a family of artists , he developed his artistic sense in childhood as a photography enthusiast.He obtained his directing diploma in Madrid in 1957 at the Institute of Cinema Research and Studies...

    , film maker.
  • Pablo Serrano, sculptor.
  • Alberto Zapater
    Alberto Zapater
    Alberto Zapater Arjol is a Spanish footballer who plays for FC Lokomotiv Moscow in Russia, mainly as a defensive midfielder.-Club career:...

    , footballer.

See also

  • Aragonese Wikipedia
    Aragonese Wikipedia
    The Aragonese Wikipedia is the Aragonese language edition of the Web-based free-content encyclopedia Wikipedia. The project was started on 21 July 2004. As of 31 October 2010, this edition has over 22,900 articles and is the 71st largest Wikipedia by number of articles...

  • Aragonite
    Aragonite
    Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3...

  • Auberge d'Aragon
    Auberge d'Aragon
    Auberge d'Aragon is a palace in Malta that was designed by Girolamo Cassar in 1571, five years after the establishment of Valletta. The residents of the palace were initially knights of Aragon, Navarre, and Catalonia.-External links:*...

  • Catherine of Aragon
    Catherine of Aragon
    Catherine of Aragon , also known as Katherine or Katharine, was Queen consort of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII of England and Princess of Wales as the wife to Arthur, Prince of Wales...

    , 1st queen of Henry VIII of England
    Henry VIII of England
    Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

  • Expo 2008
    Expo 2008
    Expo 2008 was an international exposition held from Saturday, 14 June to Sunday, 14 September 2008 in Zaragoza, Spain, with the theme of "Water and Sustainable Development". The exposition was placed in a meander of the river Ebro...

  • List of Aragonese people
  • List of mountains in Aragon
  • Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon
    Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon
    Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon is an aesthetic trend in the Mudéjar style, which is centered in Aragon and has been recognized in some representative buildings as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO....

  • Music of Aragon
    Music of Aragon
    The music of Aragon, like its culture, has through history absorbed Roman, Celtic, Moorish and French influences. Traditional instruments include bagpipes, drums, flutes, tambourines, rattles and, perhaps most distinctively, the guitarro....

  • Nationalities in Spain
    Nationalities in Spain
    Historically, the modern country of Spain was formed after the process known as Reconquista.Several independent Christian Kingdoms and political entities mostly independent were formed by their own inhabitants efforts under aristocrat leadership and coexisted with the Muslim Iberian states and had...

  • River Aragón

External links

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