Campina Grande
Campina Grande is the second most populous Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

ian city in the State of Paraíba
Paraíba Paraíba Paraíba (Tupi: pa'ra a'íba: "bad to navigation"; Brazilian Portuguese pronunciation: is a state of Brazil. It is located in the Brazilian Northeast, and is bordered by Rio Grande do Norte to the north, Ceará to the west, Pernambuco to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the east...

 after João Pessoa
João Pessoa
João Pessoa , is the capital city of the state of Paraíba, was founded in 1585 and sometimes called the city where the sun rises first, is a Brazilian city and the easternmost city in the Americas at 34º47'38"W, 7º9'28"S. Local residents call its easternmost point Ponta do Seixas. It is also...

, the capital. It is considered to be the most important city of the Northeastern Brazilian subregion called agreste
In Brazil, the agreste is a narrow zone in the states of Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia between the coastal forest zona da mata and the semiarid sertão...

. It is considered one of the main industrial, technological and educational centers in the northeastern region
Northeast Region, Brazil
The Northeast Region of Brazil is composed of the following states: Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia, and it represents 18.26% of the Brazilian territory....

 of Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

. The city was officially founded in 1864. Campina Grande also has a large cultural agenda, including the world's largest Saint John's Festival (called O Maior São João do Mundo), which takes place during the entire month of June.


The founding of Campina Grande is credited to Captain Teodósio de Oliveira Ledo who led a group of Ariús Indians to settle the land and begin farming on December 1, 1697. However, some historians do not agree with this version and suggest that the place was already a settlement and named Campina Grande when Teodósio arrived with the Ariús. This position is certainly supported by the fact that Campina Grande is in a critical geographic location for people travelling between the highlands and the coast.

The political actions of Teodósio in mentioning Campina Grande to the king of Portugal in May 1699 went a long way to establishing the location as place of importance.

The Ariús inhabited a small farm made up of shacks which became the first street in the new community. Later, this street was called Rua do Oriente (Street of the East) and today it is known as rua Vila Nova da Rainha (New Village of the Queen). The Cathedral of Campina Grande was constructed on one of the higher slopes in the area. It formed the Matriz plaza which later also became one of city's most important streets: Avenida Marechal Floriano Peixoto.

The village soon became a town because of the commerce it attracted and the fact that there were few settlements in paraíba.

Campina Grande began as a small village situated in front of an old lake called Açude Velho. These people were known as tropeiros because they were traveling merchants who traded and sold goods such as meat, cotton clothes and corn flour among the cities and villages they passed by. Campina Grand became the village (Vila Nova da Rainha) that they rested in as they were coming from the east to the coast.

The introduction of the railroad caused this tiny village to develop into a bustling city. At the beginning of the 20th century, Campina Grande was called "The Brazilian Liverpool" because of the numerous cotton plantations and factories. At the time, it was the second biggest producer in the world.

Today, the city has added to its old and rich traditions by becoming an oasis of high technologies in the middle of northeastern Brazil

The town

Campina Grande reached the category of town in 1790 with more than 100 houses. On April 6, 1790 it changed its name to de Vila Nova da Rainha (New Village of the Queen). At this point the town also began to have a formal government made up of a town council and Notary's office.

Although the name of the town changed, the local inhabitants continued to call the place Campina Grande. However, in official documents the name, de Vila Nova da Rainha, was the only one used.

The town's development was spurred on by the growth of the regional cotton industry which preferred to ship its product through Campina Grande.

At this point the town included a large area of almost 900 km²,including many smaller villages in the area.

The creation of the Village of Cabaceiras in 1835 and the Village of Alagoa Nova in 1850 reduced the area Campina Grande controlled.

In 1829, a dam across the Piabas stream was started and this became the lake referred to as Açude Velho. In 1852 the population of the town had reached 17,900 people, but in 1856, an epidemic killed almost 1,550 people. So many bodies arrived at the churches that they didn't have enough room to bury them.

The city

On October 11, 1864 Campina Grande was raised to the category of city. It was not the first to reach this designation though. In 1846, Areia had been designated a city and dominated the region economically, politically and culturally. Although Campina Grande was not as established as Areia, it was really not any smaller than that city. At this time, the city of Campina Grande had three plazas, four streets and about 300 houses. Of these, there still exists today the two churches: the Matriz (the Cathedral) and the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary. The latter had been destroyed at one time, but was rebuilt. Although there was plenty of commercial activity, there was very little actual construction of houses and government buildings. By the end of the nineteenth century, Campina Grande still only had about 500 houses.

In the year 1864 a building was constructed for the marketing of goods. This area had many names over time: "Largo do Comércio Novo", "Praça da Uruguaiana", "Praça das Gameleiras", "Praça da Independência" and finally, "Praça Epitácio Pessoa". In 1870 a law banning the washing of clothes and animals in Açude Velho was proclaimed. On September 18, 1865 the metric system was made the official form of measurement in Campina Grande.

In 1874, a rebellion led by João Vieira occurred. João Vieira and a number of revolutionaries came down from the Bodopitá mountain range and invaded the city's market. They broke into some money boxes and destroyed a few things. The revolt spread out across the region. Over time the rebels grew in numbers and became well armed. They were led by Manoel de Barros Souza and Alexandre de Viveiros. One of the objectives of Alexandre de Viveiros was to break into the city jail and liberate all the prisoners, including the father of Manoel de Barros Souza. They also planned to set the municipal offices on fire in order to destroy all the records kept there. However, over the next number of months the police force disrupted their plans. Alexandre de Viveiros was eventually imprisoned, but João Vieirad disappeared. After the revolt, the police abused the population without cause, arresting or punishing innocent citizens. Thus, the average person suffered both from the rebels and the police.

On March 25, 1877 a new Municipal building was constructed next to the Cathedral. It became one of the most elegant buildings in the state and initiated an area of fine homes.

In May 1891, a theatre was constructed for the purpose of both teaching and performance. This became the Colégio Alfredo Dantas.

The city continued to gradually develop, but economic and social changes really occurred only from the early 20th century. In this period, the railroad arrived and with it came cheaper and more varied products which impacted the local economy.

Technological centre

For a long time Campina Grande has had a strong technological focus. For 40 years, it was the second largest exporter of cotton in the world. In 1967, the city was the first location in northeastern Brazil to receive a computer (Federal University of Campina Grande
Federal University of Campina Grande
The Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Brazil, generally known as UFCG, is a public university whose main campus is located in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. Together with the Federal University of Paraíba, it is the main university of the state of Paraiba, Brazil...

). Today, many years later, Campina Grande is often referred to when talking about the development of software and computer science industries.

In April 2001, Newsweek
Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It is distributed throughout the United States and internationally. It is the second-largest news weekly magazine in the U.S., having trailed Time in circulation and advertising revenue for most of its existence...

magazine chose nine cities around the world that represented a new vision for technology. Brazil is represented on this list by Campina Grande and it was the only city chosen from Latin America. In 2003, it was mentioned again as the “Brazilian Silicon Valley,"

The reason for this success has been the technological work done by the Federal University of Paraíba (in 2002 it became the Federal University of Campina Grande
Federal University of Campina Grande
The Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Brazil, generally known as UFCG, is a public university whose main campus is located in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. Together with the Federal University of Paraíba, it is the main university of the state of Paraiba, Brazil...

). Since 1967, when the university obtained support to buy its first computer for US$ 500,000, there has developed a tradition of technological excellence that is recognized around the world today.

Campina Grande has approximately 50 software companies that contribute about 20% of the city's total revenue.

Main sights

  • Libraries
    • Felix Araújo Municipal Library
    • Açude Velho Public Library
    • Campina Grande Public Library
  • Cultural centres
    • Academia Campinense de Letras
  • Museums
    • Historical and Geographic museum of Campina Grande
      Historical and Geographic museum of Campina Grande
      Historical and Geographic Museum of Campina Grande is a Brazilian museum, and is located in the Floriano Peixoto Avenue, in Campina Grande, Paraíba.The heap of the museum is dedicated to the historical, social and cultural development of the city...

    • Assis Chateaubriand Museum of Art
    • Museum of Cotton
    • Museum of Luiz Gonzaga
    • Museum of St. John
  • Squares and parks
    • Flag Square
    • Clementino Procópio Square
    • Açude Novo (New Dam)
    • Açude Velho (Old Dam)
    • Bodocongó Dam
    • Park of the People - Where the St. John's festival (O Maior São João do Mundo) is held
    • Park of the Child
  • Theatres
    • Severino Cabral Municipal Theatre
    • Elba Ramalho Theatre


Events in Campina Grande include:
  • Meeting of the New Conscience (February, during Carnival
    Carnaval is a festive season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February. Carnaval typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, mask and public street party...

  • Meeting for the Christian Conscience (February, during Carnival)
  • Vaquejada Park Ivandro Cunha Lima (March)
  • Micarande (April)
  • St. John's Festival (O Maior São João do Mundo, June)
  • Campina Grande Winter Festival (August)
  • Vaquejada Park Maria da Luz (October)
  • Animal Exposition (October)
  • Living Christmas Cradle (December)
  • New Year's Eve on Açude Velho (December)

Public transportation

  • Presidente João Suassuna Airport
    Campina Grande Airport
    Presidente João Suassuna-Campina Grande Airport is the airport serving Campina Grande, Brazil. It is named after João Urbano Pessoa de Vasconcelos Suaçuna , Governor of the State of Paraíba .It is operated by Infraero.-History:Even though the airport was only inaugurated in 1963, since the 1940s...

  • Argemiro de Figueiredo Bus Station - New
  • Cristiano Lauritzen Bus Station - Old

Post-secondary education

  • Campina Grande Federal University - UFCG
  • Paraíba State University - UEPB
  • Campina Grande Union of Secondary Education - UNESC (private)
  • College of Applied Social Sciences - FACISA (private)
  • Reinaldo Ramos Center of Secondary Education - CESREI (private)
  • Acaraú Valley University - U.V.A. (private)
  • English-American College (private)


Sport and recreation structures in Campina Grande include:
  • Plínio Lemos Sports Complex
  • The Meninão Gymnasium
  • Amigão Stadium
  • President Vargas Stadium
    Estádio Presidente Vargas (Paraíba)
    Estádio Presidente Vargas is a multi-use stadium located in Campina Grande, Brazil. It is used mostly for football matches and hosts the home matches of Treze Futebol Clube. The stadium has a maximum capacity of 10,000 people and was built in 1940....

    , home stadium of the Treze Futebol Clube
    Treze Futebol Clube
    Treze Futebol Clube is a Brazilian football team from Campina Grande in Paraíba, founded on September 7, 1925. The club competed in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A several times.Treze greatest rivals are Botafogo and Campinense....

Local teams include:
  • Campinense Clube
    Campinense Clube
    Campinense Clube, usually known simply as Campinense, is a Brazilian football club from Campina Grande, Paraíba state. The club finished as the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B runner-up in 1972, and has also competed in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A several times.-History:The club was founded on...

  • Treze Futebol Clube
    Treze Futebol Clube
    Treze Futebol Clube is a Brazilian football team from Campina Grande in Paraíba, founded on September 7, 1925. The club competed in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A several times.Treze greatest rivals are Botafogo and Campinense....

  • Grêmio Serrano
  • Associação Desportiva Perilima
    Associação Desportiva Perilima
    Associação Desportiva Perilima is a soccer club from Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. The club was founded on September 8, 1992. The club owner is Pedro Ribeiro Lima nicknamed 'Seu Pedro'; he is also its president...

  • Associação Atlética Leonel


  • Acácio Figueiredo
  • Alto Branco
  • Araxá
  • Bairro das Cidades
  • Bairros das Nações
  • Bela Vista
  • Bodocongó
  • Cachoeira
  • Araxá
  • Castelo Branco
  • Catolé
  • Centenário
  • Centro
  • Conceição
  • Cruzeiro
  • Cuités
  • Dinamérica
  • Distrito Industrial
  • Estação Velha
  • Glória
  • Itararé
  • Jardim Borborema
  • Jardim Continental
  • Jardim Paulistano
    Jardim Paulistano (Campina Grande)
    Jardim Paulistano is a quarter of the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. It is in the South Zone of the city.-Neighboring quarters:* Liberdade, to the north* Cruzeiro, to the west* Distrito Industrial, to the south* Tambor, to the east...

  • Jardim Tavares
  • Jeremias
  • José Pinheiro
  • Lauritzen
  • Liberdade
  • Louzeiro
  • Malvinas
  • Mirante
  • Monte Castelo
  • Monte Santo
  • Nova Brasília
  • Novo Bodocongó
  • Palmeira
  • Pedregal
  • Prata
  • Presidente Médice
  • Quarenta
  • Ramadinha
  • Sandra Cavalcante
  • Santa Cruz
  • Santa Rosa
  • Santo Antônio
  • São José
  • Serrotão
  • Tambor
  • Três Irmãs
  • Universitário
  • Velame
  • Vila Cabral

  • Economy

    According to 1996 statistics from the Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, the Gross Internal Product was estimated at R$591.93 million. 3.3% came through agricultural and livestock based activities. 19.8% came through industry
    Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

     and 76.9% was the result of the commerce
    While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

     and service sectors. The yield per capita was of R$1.717.09.

    By 2002 the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics estimated that the Gross Internal Product to have grown to R$1,600 billion and the yield per capita to R$4,387.00.

    Local government

    Campina Grande has 255,282 eligible voters distributed among 598 sections and four electoral districts.

    The first election in 1878 had 34 eligible voters.

    The office of Municipal mayor
    In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

     was created on March 2, 1895 by State Law. The first mayor of Campina Grande was Francisco Camilo of Araújo. People began to have the opportunity to vote for the mayor directly only from 1947.


    IBGE (2003)
    Schools Students registered Professors
    Primary 80.427 3.688
    Middle 19.764 1.108

    • Illiteracy rate: 17.12%.


    UNHD (2000)
    HDI 1991 2000
    Value 0.615 0.678
    Life expectancy 0.585 0.641
    Education 0.741 0.844
    Total 0.647 0.721

    Urban sanitation

    IBGE (2000)
    Service Residences(%)
    Water 96,6%
    Sanitary Sewers 81,0%
    Garbage Collection 94,6%


    • 2,634 hospital beds of which 2,148 are for free public health (2003, IBGE).
    • Infant mortality
      Infant mortality
      Infant mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births. Traditionally, the most common cause worldwide was dehydration from diarrhea. However, the spreading information about Oral Re-hydration Solution to mothers around the world has decreased the rate of children dying...

      : 76.6 persons/million (Ministry of Health/1998).
    • Life expectancy
      Life expectancy
      Life expectancy is the expected number of years of life remaining at a given age. It is denoted by ex, which means the average number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience...

      : 63.5 years (IBGE, Census 2000).


    City km
    -Vegetation:Aracaju lies in tropical forest. Rainforests are characterized by high rainfall, with minimum normal annual rainfall between 2,000 mm and 1,700 mm...

    Fortaleza is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil. With a population close to 2.5 million , Fortaleza is the 5th largest city in Brazil. It has an area of and one of the highest demographic densities in the country...

    Maceió is the capital and the largest city of the coastal state Alagoas, Brazil. The name "maceió" is of Indian origin, and designates the natural spontaneously courses of water which flow out of the soil...

    Natal, Rio Grande do Norte
    -History:The northeastern tip of South America, Cabo São Roque, to the north of Natal and the closest point to Europe from Latin America, was first visited by European navigators in 1501, in the 1501–1502 Portuguese expedition led by Amerigo Vespucci, who named the spot after the saint of the day...

    Recife is the fifth-largest metropolitan area in Brazil with 4,136,506 inhabitants, the largest metropolitan area of the North/Northeast Regions, the 5th-largest metropolitan influence area in Brazil, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco. The population of the city proper...

    Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

    Salvador, Bahia
    Salvador is the largest city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador is also known as Brazil's capital of happiness due to its easygoing population and countless popular outdoor parties, including its street carnival. The first...

    São Luís 1,530
    São Paulo
    São Paulo
    São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...


    Plant life

    A list of 15 plants commonly found in the Campina Grande area. Of the 132 species of trees found, 51.2% originate from other countries and 32.8% are native species.
    Scientific Name Popular Name
    Senna siamea
    Senna siamea
    Senna siamea , also known as Kassod Tree or Cassod Tree, is a legume in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. It is native to South and Southeast Asia, although its exact origin is unknown....

    Yellow Cássia
    Prosopis juliflora
    Prosopis juliflora
    Prosopis juliflora is a shrub or small tree native to Mexico, South America and the Caribbean. It has become established as a weed in Asia, Australia and elsewhere. Its uses include forage, wood and environmental management. The tree grows to a height of up to and has a trunk with a diameter of...

    Clitoria fairchildiana
    Clitoria fairchildiana
    Clitoria fairchildiana, the Sombreiro, is a flowering plant species in the genus Clitoria found in Campina Grande, Brazil.The rotenoids clitoriacetal, stemonacetal, 6-deoxyclitoriacetal, 11-deoxyclitoriacetal, 9-demethylclitoriacetal and stemonal can be isolated from C. fairchildiana....

    Terminalia catappa
    Terminalia catappa
    Terminalia catappa is a large tropical tree in the Leadwood tree family, Combretaceae. The tree has been spread widely by humans and the native range is uncertain. It has long been naturalised in a broad belt extending from Africa to Northern Australia and New Guinea through Southeast Asia and...

    Pithecellobium dulce
    Pithecellobium dulce
    Pithecellobium dulce is a species of flowering plant in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. It is introduced and extensively naturalised in the Caribbean, Florida, Guam and Southeast Asia. It is considered an invasive species in Hawaii.It...

    Hunger Killer
    Pachira aquatica
    Pachira aquatica
    Pachira aquatica is a tropical wetland tree of the genus Pachira, native to Central and South America where it grows in swamps. It is known by the common names Malabar chestnut, Guiana chestnut, provision tree, saba nut, Monguba , Pumpo and is commercially sold under the name money tree and money...

    Tabebuia chrysantha
    Tabebuia chrysantha
    Tabebuia chrysantha , known as cañaguate in northern Colombia , as tajibo in Bolivia, and as ipê-amarelo in Brazil, is a native tree of the intertropical broadleaf deciduous forests of South America above the Tropic of Capricorn...

    Yellow Ipê
    Delonix regia Raff Flamboyant Tree
    Licania tomentosa (Benth) Fritsch. Oitizeiro
    Ficus benjamina L Benjamina Fig
    Syzygium cumini DC. Jambul
    Jambul is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae. Jambul is native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia...

    Roystonea oleracea
    Roystonea oleracea
    Roystonea oleracea, sometimes known as the Caribbean Royal Palm, palmiste, Imperial palm or cabbage palm, is a species of palm which is native to the Lesser Antilles, northern South America and Trinidad and Tobago.-Description:...

    Imperial Palm Tree
    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Aroeira-da-praia
    Spathodea campanulata Espatódia
    Adenanthera pavonina
    Adenanthera pavonina
    Adenanthera pavonina is a species of tree, used for its timber, also known as Barbados pride, Coral-wood, Coralwood, Peacock flower fence, Red beadtree, Red sandalwood tree, Red sandalwood, Sandalwood tree, Saga; syn. Adenanthera gersenii Scheff., Adenanthera polita Miq., Corallaria parvifolia Rumph...

    Brazil Cássia
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