Casein kinase, a ubiquitous, well-conserved protein kinase
Protein kinase
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them . Phosphorylation usually results in a functional change of the target protein by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins...

 involved in cell
Cell (biology)
The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life. The Alberts text discusses how the "cellular building blocks" move to shape developing embryos....

Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that happen in the cells of living organisms to sustain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Metabolism is usually divided into two categories...

 and differentiation
Differentiation may refer to:* Differentiation , the process of finding a derivative* Differentiated instruction in education* Cellular differentiation in biology* Planetary differentiation in planetary science...

, is characterised by its preference for Serine
Serine is an amino acid with the formula HO2CCHCH2OH. It is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. By virtue of the hydroxyl group, serine is classified as a polar amino acid.-Occurrence and biosynthesis:...

 or Threonine
Threonine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCHCHCH3. Its codons are ACU, ACA, ACC, and ACG. This essential amino acid is classified as polar...

 in acidic stretches of amino acids. The enzyme is a tetramer
A tetramer is a protein with four subunits . There are homotetramers such as glutathione S-transferase or single-strand binding protein, dimers of hetero-dimers such as hemoglobin , and heterotetramers, where each subunit is different.-Subunit interactions in tetramers:The interactions between...

 of 2 alpha- and 2 beta-subunits. However, some species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 (e.g., mammals) possess 2 related forms of the alpha-subunit (alpha and alpha'), while others (e.g., fungi) possess 2 related beta-subunits (beta and beta'). The alpha-subunit is the catalytic
Biocatalysis is the use of natural catalysts, such as protein enzymes, to perform chemical transformations on organic compounds. Both enzymes that have been more or less isolated and enzymes still residing inside living cells are employed for this task....

 unit and contains regions characteristic of serine/threonine protein kinases. The beta-subunit is believed to be regulatory, possessing an N-terminal auto-phosphorylation site, an internal acidic domain, and a potential metal-binding motif. The beta subunit is a highly conserved protein of about 25kDa that contains, in its central section, a cysteine-rich motif, CX(n)C, that could be involved in binding
Binding (molecular)
Molecular binding is an attractive interaction between two molecules which results in a stable association in which the molecules are in close proximity to each other...

 a metal such as zinc
Zinc , or spelter , is a metallic chemical element; it has the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. Zinc is, in some respects, chemically similar to magnesium, because its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2...

. The mammalian beta-subunit gene
A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains...

 promoter shares common features with those of other mammalian protein kinases and is closely related to the promoter of the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.


CSNK2B has been shown to interact
Protein-protein interaction
Protein–protein interactions occur when two or more proteins bind together, often to carry out their biological function. Many of the most important molecular processes in the cell such as DNA replication are carried out by large molecular machines that are built from a large number of protein...

 with CD163
CD163 is a human protein encoded by the gene....

Casein kinase II subunit alpha is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CSNK2A2 gene.-Interactions:CSNK2A2 has been shown to interact with CSNK2B, FGF1, PTEN, RELA, ATF1, Nucleolin, CREB binding protein, Activating transcription factor 2, PIN1, C-jun and C-Fos.-Further reading:...

, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, FGF1
Heparin-binding growth factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF1 gene.-Interactions:FGF1 has been shown to interact with CSNK2B, CSNK2A2, HSPA9, S100A13, Casein kinase 2, alpha 1, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, FIBP, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, Fibroblast growth...

Tribbles homolog 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIB3 gene.-Interactions:TRIB3 has been shown to interact with CSNK2B, TIAF1, RELA, MCM3AP, ATF5, Granulin, ATF4, AKT1, Fibronectin and SIAH1.-Further reading:...

, CDC34
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC34 gene.-Interactions:CDC34 has been shown to interact with CSNK2B, BTRC and CDK9.-Further reading:...

, Ribosomal protein L5, BTF3
Transcription factor BTF3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTF3 gene.-Further reading:...

BRCA1 is a human caretaker gene that produces a protein called breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein, responsible for repairing DNA. The first evidence for the existence of the gene was provided by the King laboratory at UC Berkeley in 1990...

, RNF7
RING-box protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RNF7 gene.- External links :...

, P70-S6 Kinase 1
P70-S6 Kinase 1
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RPS6KB1 gene.-Interactions:P70-S6 Kinase 1 has been shown to interact with CSNK2B, EIF3B, COASY, KIAA1303, POLDIP3, Mammalian target of rapamycin, PPP2R2A, RBX1 and Ubiquitin C.-References:...

 and APC
APC (gene)
Adenomatous polyposis coli also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene. Mutations in the APC gene may result in colorectal cancer....


Further reading

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