Archduchess Luise, Princess of Tuscany
Luise of Tuscany (Luise Antoinette Maria Theresia Josepha Johanna Leopoldine Caroline Ferdinande Alice Ernestine, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Tuscany
Tuscany is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence ....

, Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 and Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

) was a daughter of Ferdinand IV of Tuscany and his second wife, Alice of Bourbon-Parma, daughter of Duke Charles III
Charles III, Duke of Parma
-Early life:Charles III was born at the Villa delle Pianore near Lucca, the only son of Charles Louis, Prince of Lucca and his wife Princess Maria-Theresa of Savoy . He was given the baptismal names Ferdinando Carlo Vittorio Giuseppe Maria Baldassarre...

 and Louise d'Artois. Archduchess Luise was thus a great-great-granddaughter of Charles X of France
Charles X of France
Charles X was known for most of his life as the Comte d'Artois before he reigned as King of France and of Navarre from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. A younger brother to Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him...


Crown Princess of Saxony

In Vienna on 21 November 1891, she married the Crown Prince of Saxony, Frederick Augustus
Frederick Augustus III of Saxony
This article is about King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony. For the elector Frederick Augustus III, see Frederick Augustus I of Saxony.Frederick Augustus III was the last King of Saxony and a member of the House of Wettin.Born in Dresden, Frederick Augustus was the son of King George of Saxony...

. They had seven children:
  • Friedrich August Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony
    Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony
    Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony, , the last Crown Prince of Saxony, was the heir to the King of Saxony, Frederick Augustus III, at the time of the monarchy's abolition on 13 November 1918.-Life:The prince was born on 15 January 1893 in Dresden, Saxony, Germany...

     (1893–1943). A priest, he renounced his rights in 1923.
  • Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen, Duke of Saxony
    Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen
    Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen was the head of the Royal House of Saxony.-Life:He was born at Dresden, the second son of King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and his wife Archduchess Luise, Princess of Tuscany...

     (1893–1968). Married Princess Elisabeth Helene of Thurn and Taxis
    Princess Elisabeth Helene of Thurn and Taxis
    Princess Elisabeth Helene of Thurn and Taxis was a Princess of Thurn and Taxis by birth and a Princess and Duchess of Saxony, Margravine of Meissen, and titular Queen consort of Saxony through her marriage to Friedrich...

     (1903–1976) and had issue.
  • Ernst Heinrich
    Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony
    Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony, Duke of Saxony was a member of the Saxon Royal Family. Ernst Heinrich was the youngest son of the last Saxon monarch Frederick Augustus III and his wife Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany...

     (1896–1971). Married first Princess Sophie of Luxembourg
    Princess Sophie of Luxembourg
    Princess Sophie of Luxembourg was a Princess of Luxembourg by birth and a Princess of Saxony by marriage. Sophie was the sixth and youngest daughter of William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and his wife Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal...

     (1902–1941), daughter of Guillaume IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
    Guillaume IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
    William IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg reigned as the sovereign Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 17 November 1905 until his death. He succeeded his father, Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. He also held the titular title of Duke of Nassau.William IV was a Protestant, the religion of the House of Nassau...

    , in 1921 and second Virginia Dulon (1910–2002) in 1947 (morganatically). Had issue with Sophie.
  • Maria Alix Carola, stillborn 22 August 1898
  • Margarete Carola Wilhelmine
    Princess Margarete Karola of Saxony
    Princess Margarete Karola Wilhelmine Viktoria Adelheid Albertine Petrusa Bertram Paula of Saxony, Duchess of Saxony was the fifth...

     (1900–1962). Married Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern
    Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern
    Frederick, Prince of Hohenzollern He was the eldest son of William, Prince of Hohenzollern and Princess Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies...

  • Maria Alix Luitpolda
    Princess Maria Alix of Saxony
    Princess Maria Alix Luitpolda Anna Henriette Germana Agnes Damiana Michaela of Saxony, Duchess of Saxony was the sixth child and third-eldest...

     (1901–1990). Married Franz Joseph, Prince of Hohenzollern-Emden (1891–1964).
  • Anna Pia Monika
    Princess Anna of Saxony (1903–1976)
    Princess Anna Monika Pia of Saxony, Duchess of Saxony was the seventh and youngest child of Frederick Augustus III of Saxony and his wife Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany and a younger sister of Georg,...

     (1903–1976). Married firstly Joseph Franz, Archduke of Austria
    Archduke Joseph Francis of Austria
    Joseph Franz Leopold Anton Ignatius Maria, Archduke of Austria, Prince of Hungary He was the eldest son of Archduke Joseph August of Austria and Princess Auguste Maria of Bavaria...

     (1895–1957) and secondly Reginald Kazanjian (1905–1990).

The two eldest sons, Friedrich August and Friedrich Christian, were born in the same year, 1893, but were not twins. Friedrich August was born in January, while Friedrich Christian was born in December.

Luise was very popular in Saxony
Kingdom of Saxony
The Kingdom of Saxony , lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire. It became a Free state in the era of Weimar Republic in 1918 after the end of World War...

. However, she did not follow etiquette
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group...

 at the court, which resulted in arguments with her father-in-law, King George of Saxony
George of Saxony
-Life:George was born in the Saxon capital Dresden. He was the second son of King John of Saxony and his wife Princess Amelia of Bavaria , daughter of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria ....


On 9 December 1902 Luise fled from Dresden due to her father-in-law threatening to have her interned in Sonnestein Mental Asylum for life. Her brother supported her in her wish to escape Saxony. She left Saxony without her children, but pregnant with Anna. For a while, she lived with her children's French tutor, André Giron, who was wrongly believed to be the father of her youngest daughter, Anna.

She was divorced from her husband on 11 February 1903 by the royal decree of her father-in-law. Emperor Franz Josef
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Galicia and Lodomeria and Grand Duke of Cracow from 1848 until his death in 1916.In the December of 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated the throne as part of...

 did not acknowledge the civil divorce.

Second marriage

On 25 September 1907, Luise married the Italian musician Enrico Toselli
Enrico Toselli
Enrico Toselli was an Italian pianist and composer. He studied the piano with Giovanni Sgambati and composition with Giuseppe Martucci and Reginaldo Grazzini. At a very early age he started on a brilliant career as a concert pianist in Italy, the principal European capitals and also in Alexandria...

 in London. They had one son, Carlo Emanuele Toselli (7 May 1908-1969), and were divorced five years later.

It was only after her second marriage that, Emperor Franz Josef, as head of the House of Habsburg, stripped her of her imperial titles and dignities. Her father created her Countess of Montignoso
Montignoso is a comune in the Province of Massa-Carrara in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 90 km northwest of Florence and about 3 km southeast of Massa....

, as sovereign of the former Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. The grand duchy's capital was Florence...

. After protracted negotiations, Anna was sent to Dresden
Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

 to live with her siblings and be raised as a member of the Saxon royal house. Luise had tried to return to Dresden, but was prevented from seeing her children by her husband's ministers. She was allowed to see them on a private visit to a Saxon embassy. None of her children ever spoke out against their mother in their memoirs.

Later life

In 1911, Luise broke her silence and published a memoir blaming her disgrace on her late father-in-law and Saxon politicians, whom she claimed feared that when she became queen, she would use her influence to dismiss them from office. Throughout the book, she claimed that her popularity exceeded that of her father-in-law, King Georg of Saxony, and her husband, the future king. There is strong evidence to support this. Luise implied that her popularity had alienated her from the royal family and politicians. Luise was indeed popular with her husband's late childless uncle. She ascribed her popularity to her insistence on ignoring the etiquette of the Saxon court and, perhaps to cast herself as a victim, compared herself to her Habsburg relative, Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette ; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was an Archduchess of Austria and the Queen of France and of Navarre. She was the fifteenth and penultimate child of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I....

, who disliked court rituals at Versailles
Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles , or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. In French it is the Château de Versailles....

 and, like Luise, had avoided the noble courtiers who depended on those rituals to affirm their places at court. Her sister-in-law, Mathilda
Princess Mathilde of Saxony (1863–1933)
Princess Mathilde of Saxony, Duchess of Saxony was the third child and third-eldest daughter of George of Saxony and his wife, Maria Anna of Portugal...

 did a great deal to harm her. Luise's flight from Dresden was due to her father-in-law threatening to have her interned in Sonnestein Mental Asylum for life. Her brother supported her in her wish to escape Saxony.

After the Habsburg monarchy collapsed in 1918, Luise called herself "Comtesse d'Ysette", a title with even less legitimacy than the one her father had given her. Her former husband, the ex-King of Saxony, never remarried, as he believed in the eyes of the Roman Catholic Church that he was still married to Luise.

She died in Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 and her urn is in the Erdlinge Church in Sigmaringen. A number of her children are buried nearby including her son Prince Ernst Heinrich.


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.