28th Reserve Division (German Empire)
The 28th Reserve Division (28. Reserve-Division) was a unit of the Imperial German
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

German Army (German Empire)
The German Army was the name given the combined land forces of the German Empire, also known as the National Army , Imperial Army or Imperial German Army. The term "Deutsches Heer" is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the German Bundeswehr...

, in World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914. The division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I. The division was raised primarily in the Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Baden
The Grand Duchy of Baden was a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the east bank of the Rhine. It existed between 1806 and 1918.-History:...


Combat chronicle

The 28th Reserve Division spent World War I on the Western Front
Western Front (World War I)
Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France. The tide of the advance was dramatically turned with the Battle of the Marne...

. It fought in the Battle of the Frontiers
Battle of the Frontiers
The Battle of the Frontiers was a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the outbreak of World War I. The battles represented a collision between the military strategies of the French Plan XVII and the German Schlieffen Plan...

 and then participated in the Race to the Sea
Race to the Sea
The Race to the Sea is a name given to the period early in the First World War when the two sides were still engaged in mobile warfare on the Western Front. With the German advance stalled at the First Battle of the Marne, the opponents continually attempted to outflank each other through...

, fighting in the Somme region. It occupied the line in the Artois
Artois is a former province of northern France. Its territory has an area of around 4000 km² and a population of about one million. Its principal cities are Arras , Saint-Omer, Lens and Béthune.-Location:...

 region from October 1914 to August 1916, and then fought in the Battle of the Somme. From October 1916 to April 1917, the division occupied the line near Verdun. It then went to the Chemin des Dames region and fought in the Second Battle of the Aisne
Second Battle of the Aisne
The Second Battle of the Aisne , was the massive main assault of the French military's Nivelle Offensive or Chemin des Dames Offensive in 1917 during World War I....

, also known as the Third Battle of Champagne (and to the Germans as the Double Battle on the Aisne and in the Champagne). After a month back in Verdun, it remained mainly in the Champagne region. In 1918, after being retrained and reorganized as an assault division, it fought in several German offensives and against the Allied offensives and counteroffensives. It was heavily engaged against the Americans in this period, fighting in the Third Battle of the Aisne
Third Battle of the Aisne
The Third Battle of the Aisne was a battle of the German Spring Offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Force could arrive completely in France. It was one of a series of desperate offensives, known as the Kaiserschlacht,...

, the Battle of Belleau Wood
Battle of Belleau Wood
The Battle of Belleau Wood occurred during the German 1918 Spring Offensive in World War I, near the Marne River in France. The battle was fought between the U.S...

, the Champagne-Marne Offensive, the Aisne-Marne Offensive, the Battle of Saint-Mihiel
Battle of Saint-Mihiel
The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a World War I battle fought between September 12–15, 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force and 48,000 French troops under the command of U.S. general John J. Pershing against German positions...

, and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive
Meuse-Argonne Offensive
The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, or Maas-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front.-Overview:...

. Allied intelligence rated the division as mediocre in 1917, but by 1918 it was rated as first class, one of the best divisions in the German Army.

Order of battle on mobilization

The order of battle of the 28th Reserve Division on mobilization was as follows:
  • 55. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade
    • Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 40
    • Badisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 109
    • Reserve-Jäger-Bataillon Nr. 8
  • 56.Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade
    • Badisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 110
    • Badisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 111
    • Reserve-Jäger-Bataillon Nr. 14
  • Reserve-Dragoner-Regiment Nr. 8
  • Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 29
  • 1. Reserve-Kompanie/Württembergisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 13
  • 2. Reserve-Kompanie/Württembergisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 13

Order of battle on January 1, 1918

The 28th Reserve Division was triangularized
Triangular division
A triangular division is a designation given to the way divisions are organized. In a triangular organization, the division's main body is composed of three regimental maneuver elements. These regiments may be controlled by a brigade headquarters or directly subordinated to the division commander...

 in April 1915, sending the 40th Reserve Infantry Regiment to the 114th Infantry Division. Over the course of the war, other changes took place, including the formation of artillery and signals commands and a pioneer battalion. The order of battle on January 1, 1918 was as follows:
  • 56. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade
    • Badisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 109
    • Badisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 110
    • Badisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 111
  • 4.Eskadron/3. badisches Dragoner-Regiment Prinz Karl Nr. 22
  • Artillerie-Kommandeur 144
    • Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 29
    • II./1. Garde-Fußartillerie-Regiment (from May 27, 1918)
  • Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 328
    • 4.Kompanie/1. Lothringisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 16
    • 1. Ersatz-Kompanie/1. Lothringisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 16
    • Minenwerfer-Kompanie Nr. 228
  • Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 428
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