1949 Soviet atomic bomb project: The Soviet Union tests its first atomic bomb, known as ''First Lightning'' or ''Joe 1'', at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.
1985 U.S.S.R performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalatinsk.
1986 Revolt in Kazakhstan against Communist party, known as Zheltoksan, which becomes the first sign of ethnic strife during Gorbachev's tenure
1990 The railroad between the People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan becomes complete at Dostyk, adding a sizable link to the concept of the Eurasian Land Bridge.
1991 Independence of The Republic of Kazakhstan.
1992 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, San Marino, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan join the United Nations.
2003 Europe launches its first voyage to another planet, Mars. The European Space Agency's Mars Express probe launches from the Baikonur space centre in Kazakhstan.
2005 The Venus Express mission of the European Space Agency is launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
2005 Azerbaijan Airlines Flight 217 from Baku, Azerbaijan, to Aktau, Kazakhstan crashes shortly after takeoff killing 23 people.
2006 The first Kazakh space satellite, KazSat is launched.