Wallis and Futuna
Overview
 
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (French: Wallis et Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis et Futuna, Fakauvea
Fakauvea
Wallisian or Uvean is the Polynesian language spoken on Wallis Island . The language is also known as East Uvean to distinguish it from the related West Uvean spoken on the outlier island of Ouvéa...

 and Fakafutuna
Futunan language
Futunan or Futunian is the Polynesian language spoken on Futuna . The term East-Futunan is also used to distinguish it from the related West-Futunan spoken on the outlier islands of Futuna and Aniwa in Vanuatu....

: Uvea mo Futuna), is a Polynesia
Polynesia
Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians and they share many similar traits including language, culture and beliefs...

n French island territory in the South Pacific between Tuvalu
Tuvalu
Tuvalu , formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. Its nearest neighbours are Kiribati, Nauru, Samoa and Fiji. It comprises four reef islands and five true atolls...

 to the northwest, Rotuma
Rotuma
Rotuma is a Fijian dependency, consisting of Rotuma Island and nearby islets. The island group is home to a small but unique indigenous ethnic group which constitutes a recognizable minority within the population of Fiji, known as "Rotumans"...

 of Fiji to the west, the main part of Fiji to the southwest, Tonga
Tonga
Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga , is a state and an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, comprising 176 islands scattered over of ocean in the South Pacific...

 to the southeast, Samoa
Samoa
Samoa , officially the Independent State of Samoa, formerly known as Western Samoa is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. It became independent from New Zealand in 1962. The two main islands of Samoa are Upolu and one of the biggest islands in...

 to the east, the New Zealand-associated state
Associated state
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted...

 of Tokelau
Tokelau
Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean that consists of three tropical coral atolls with a combined land area of 10 km2 and a population of approximately 1,400...

 to the northeast and to a more distant north the Phoenix Islands
Phoenix Islands
The Phoenix Islands are a group of eight atolls and two submerged coral reefs, lying in the central Pacific Ocean east of the Gilbert Islands and west of the Line Islands. They are a part of the Republic of Kiribati. During the late 1930s they became the site of the last attempted colonial...

 (Kiribati
Kiribati
Kiribati , officially the Republic of Kiribati, is an island nation located in the central tropical Pacific Ocean. The permanent population exceeds just over 100,000 , and is composed of 32 atolls and one raised coral island, dispersed over 3.5 million square kilometres, straddling the...

).
Encyclopedia
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (French: Wallis et Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis et Futuna, Fakauvea
Fakauvea
Wallisian or Uvean is the Polynesian language spoken on Wallis Island . The language is also known as East Uvean to distinguish it from the related West Uvean spoken on the outlier island of Ouvéa...

 and Fakafutuna
Futunan language
Futunan or Futunian is the Polynesian language spoken on Futuna . The term East-Futunan is also used to distinguish it from the related West-Futunan spoken on the outlier islands of Futuna and Aniwa in Vanuatu....

: Uvea mo Futuna), is a Polynesia
Polynesia
Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians and they share many similar traits including language, culture and beliefs...

n French island territory in the South Pacific between Tuvalu
Tuvalu
Tuvalu , formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia. Its nearest neighbours are Kiribati, Nauru, Samoa and Fiji. It comprises four reef islands and five true atolls...

 to the northwest, Rotuma
Rotuma
Rotuma is a Fijian dependency, consisting of Rotuma Island and nearby islets. The island group is home to a small but unique indigenous ethnic group which constitutes a recognizable minority within the population of Fiji, known as "Rotumans"...

 of Fiji to the west, the main part of Fiji to the southwest, Tonga
Tonga
Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga , is a state and an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, comprising 176 islands scattered over of ocean in the South Pacific...

 to the southeast, Samoa
Samoa
Samoa , officially the Independent State of Samoa, formerly known as Western Samoa is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. It became independent from New Zealand in 1962. The two main islands of Samoa are Upolu and one of the biggest islands in...

 to the east, the New Zealand-associated state
Associated state
An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted...

 of Tokelau
Tokelau
Tokelau is a territory of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean that consists of three tropical coral atolls with a combined land area of 10 km2 and a population of approximately 1,400...

 to the northeast and to a more distant north the Phoenix Islands
Phoenix Islands
The Phoenix Islands are a group of eight atolls and two submerged coral reefs, lying in the central Pacific Ocean east of the Gilbert Islands and west of the Line Islands. They are a part of the Republic of Kiribati. During the late 1930s they became the site of the last attempted colonial...

 (Kiribati
Kiribati
Kiribati , officially the Republic of Kiribati, is an island nation located in the central tropical Pacific Ocean. The permanent population exceeds just over 100,000 , and is composed of 32 atolls and one raised coral island, dispersed over 3.5 million square kilometres, straddling the...

). (However, Wallis and Futuna is not part of, nor even contiguous with, French Polynesia
French Polynesia
French Polynesia is an overseas country of the French Republic . It is made up of several groups of Polynesian islands, the most famous island being Tahiti in the Society Islands group, which is also the most populous island and the seat of the capital of the territory...

. Wallis and Futuna is located at the very opposite western end of Polynesia.)

Its land area is 264 km2 with a population of about 15,000. Mata-Utu
Mata-Utu
Mata-Utu is the capital of the Wallis and Futuna Territory. It is located on the island of Wallis , in the district of Hahake, of which it is also the capital. Its population is 1,191 ....

 is the capital and biggest city. The territory is made up of three main volcanic
Volcano
2. Bedrock3. Conduit 4. Base5. Sill6. Dike7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano8. Flank| 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano10. Throat11. Parasitic cone12. Lava flow13. Vent14. Crater15...

 tropical islands along with a number of tiny islets, and is split into two island groups that lie about 260 km apart, namely Wallis Island
Wallis Island
Wallis is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna....

s (Uvea) in the northeast, and Hoorn Islands
Hoorn Islands
The Hoorn Islands are one of the two island groups of which the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna is geographically composed. The aggregate area is 115 km², and the population 4873 .Geographically, there are two islands:*Futuna Island The Hoorn Islands (also Futuna Islands) are...

 (Futuna Islands) in the southwest, including Futuna Island
Futuna Island, Wallis and Futuna
Futuna is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna. It is one of the Hoorn Islands or Îles Horne, nearby Alofi being the other...

 proper and the mostly uninhabited Alofi Island
Alofi Island
Alofi is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna...

.

Since 2003 Wallis and Futuna has been a French overseas collectivity (collectivité d'outre-mer
Collectivité d'outre-mer
The French overseas collectivities , like the French regions are first-order administrative divisions of France. The COMs include some former French overseas territories and other French overseas entities with a particular status, all of which became COMs by constitutional reform on 28 March...

, or COM). Between 1961 and 2003, it had the status of a French overseas territory (territoire d'outre-mer
Territoire d'outre-mer
The term overseas territory , is an administrative division of France and is currently only applied to the French Southern and Antarctic Lands....

, or TOM).

Politics

The territory is divided into three traditional kingdoms (royaumes coutumiers): Uvea
Uvea (Wallis and Futuna)
Uvea is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.-Geography:...

, on the island of Wallis, Sigave
Sigave
Sigavé is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.-Geography:...

, on the western part of the island of Futuna, and Alo
Alo (Wallis and Futuna)
Alo is one of three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.-Geography:...

, on the island of Alofi and on the eastern part of the island of Futuna (only Uvea is further subdivided, into three districts):
Kingdom
  District
Capital Area
(km²)
Population
July 2008 Census
Villages
Wallis Island
Wallis Island
Wallis is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna....

s
`Uvea
Wallis Island
Wallis is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna....

 (Wallis)
Matāutu
Mata-Utu
Mata-Utu is the capital of the Wallis and Futuna Territory. It is located on the island of Wallis , in the district of Hahake, of which it is also the capital. Its population is 1,191 ....

77.5 9,227 23
Hihifo ("west") Vaitupu
Vaitupu
Vaitupu is an atoll, which is part of the nation of Tuvalu.Vaitupu, the largest atoll of Tuvalu is located at 7.48 degrees south and 178.83 degrees west. The capital is Asau.-History:...

 
23.4 2,203 5
Hahake
Hahake District
Hakake District is one of the main districts of the Wallis and Futuna Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Mata-Utu or Matāutu is the capital of the district, and of the Wallis and Futuna Territory as a whole.-External links:* *...

 ("east")
Matāutu
Mata-Utu
Mata-Utu is the capital of the Wallis and Futuna Territory. It is located on the island of Wallis , in the district of Hahake, of which it is also the capital. Its population is 1,191 ....

 
27.8 3,759 6
Mu'a ("first") Mala'efo'ou
Mala'efo'ou
Mala'efo'ou formerly Mua, is a village in Wallis and Futuna. It is located in Mua District on the southeast coast of Wallis Island. Mala'efo'ou is the main town in the district, located about 8 km south of Mata-Utu...

 (1)
26.3 3,265 12
Hoorn Islands
Hoorn Islands
The Hoorn Islands are one of the two island groups of which the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna is geographically composed. The aggregate area is 115 km², and the population 4873 .Geographically, there are two islands:*Futuna Island The Hoorn Islands (also Futuna Islands) are...

Sigave
Sigave
Sigavé is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.-Geography:...

 (Singave)
Leava
Leava
Leava is the administrative centre of the chiefdom of Sigave on the French Pacific island of Futuna, part of the Wallis and Futuna group. It is located on the shore of Singave Bay in the centre of the island's west coast, and has a population of 480....

 
30.0 1,591 6
Alo
Alo (Wallis and Futuna)
Alo is one of three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.-Geography:...

 
Mala'e  85.0 2,666 9
Wallis and Futuna Matāutu
Mata-Utu
Mata-Utu is the capital of the Wallis and Futuna Territory. It is located on the island of Wallis , in the district of Hahake, of which it is also the capital. Its population is 1,191 ....

 
192.5 13,484 38


(1) formerly called Mua

The capital of the territory is Matāutu
Mata-Utu
Mata-Utu is the capital of the Wallis and Futuna Territory. It is located on the island of Wallis , in the district of Hahake, of which it is also the capital. Its population is 1,191 ....

 on the island of Wallis, the most populous island. As a territory of France, it is governed under the French constitution
Constitution of France
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is typically called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, and replaced that of the Fourth Republic dating from 1946. Charles de Gaulle was the main driving force in introducing the new constitution and inaugurating the Fifth...

 of 28 September 1958, and has universal suffrage
Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

 for those over 18 years of age. The French president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the high administrator is appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of the Interior; the presidents of the Territorial Government and the Territorial Assembly are elected by the members of the assembly.

The head of state is President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy is the 23rd and current President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. He assumed the office on 16 May 2007 after defeating the Socialist Party candidate Ségolène Royal 10 days earlier....

 of France as represented by High Administrator Philippe Paolantoni
Philippe Paolantoni
Philippe Paolantoni is a French civil servant and administrator. Paolantoni was appointed the French Administrator Superior of Wallis and Futuna on Monday, July 28, 2008, succeeding his predecessor Richard Didier...

 (since September 2008). The President of the Territorial Assembly is Victor Brial since 11 December 2007. The Council of the Territory consists of three kings (monarchs of the three pre-colonial kingdoms) and three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly.

The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblée territoriale of 20 seats; the members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms. Wallis and Futuna elects one senator to the French Senate
French Senate
The Senate is the upper house of the Parliament of France, presided over by a president.The Senate enjoys less prominence than the lower house, the directly elected National Assembly; debates in the Senate tend to be less tense and generally enjoy less media coverage.-History:France's first...

 and one deputy to the French National Assembly
French National Assembly
The French National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. The upper house is the Senate ....

.

Justice is generally administered under French law by a tribunal of first instance in Mata-Utu, but the three traditional kingdoms administer justice according to customary law (only for non-criminal cases). The court of appeal is in Nouméa
Nouméa
Nouméa is the capital city of the French territory of New Caledonia. It is situated on a peninsula in the south of New Caledonia's main island, Grande Terre, and is home to the majority of the island's European, Polynesian , Indonesian, and Vietnamese populations, as well as many Melanesians,...

, New Caledonia.

The territory participates in the Franc Zone
CFP franc
The CFP franc is the currency used in the French overseas collectivities of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna. The initials CFP originally stood for Colonies Françaises du Pacifique...

, and as a permanent member of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Secretariat of the Pacific Community
The Secretariat of the Pacific Community, or SPC , is a regional intergovernmental organisation whose membership includes both nations and territories...

 and as an observer of the Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean. It was founded in 1971 as the South Pacific Forum...

.

History

Although the Dutch and the British were the European discoverers of the islands in the 17th and 18th centuries, it was the French who were the first Europeans to settle in the territory, with the arrival of French missionaries
Missionary
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

 in 1837, who converted the population to Roman Catholicism. Pierre Chanel
Peter Chanel
Pierre Louis Marie Chanel, known in English as Saint Peter Chanel was a Catholic priest, missionary, and martyr.-Early years:Chanel was born in La Potière near Cuet in the area of Belley, Ain département, France....

, canonized
Canonization
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares a deceased person to be a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the canon, or list, of recognized saints. Originally, individuals were recognized as saints without any formal process...

 as a saint in 1954, is a major patron of the island of Futuna and the region. Wallis is named after the British explorer, Samuel Wallis
Samuel Wallis
Samuel Wallis was a Cornish navigator who circumnavigated the world.Wallis was born near Camelford, Cornwall. In 1766 he was given the command of HMS Dolphin to circumnavigate the world, accompanied by the Swallow under the command of Philip Carteret...

.

On 5 April 1842, the missionaries asked for the protection of France after the rebellion of a part of the local population. On 5 April 1887, the queen of Uvea
Uvea (Wallis and Futuna)
Uvea is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.-Geography:...

 (on the island of Wallis) signed a treaty officially establishing a French protectorate
Protectorate
In history, the term protectorate has two different meanings. In its earliest inception, which has been adopted by modern international law, it is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity...

. The kings of Sigave
Sigave
Sigavé is one of the three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.-Geography:...

 and Alo
Alo (Wallis and Futuna)
Alo is one of three official chiefdoms of the French territory of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean.-Geography:...

 on the islands of Futuna and Alofi also signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888. The islands were put under the authority of the French colony
French colonial empire
The French colonial empire was the set of territories outside Europe that were under French rule primarily from the 17th century to the late 1960s. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the colonial empire of France was the second-largest in the world behind the British Empire. The French colonial empire...

 of New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, east of Australia and about from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of...

.

In 1917, the three traditional kingdoms were annexed to France and turned into the Colony of Wallis and Futuna, still under the authority of the Colony of New Caledonia.

In 1959, the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory
Overseas departments and territories of France
The French Overseas Departments and Territories consist broadly of French-administered territories outside of the European continent. These territories have varying legal status and different levels of autonomy, although all have representation in the Parliament of France , and consequently the...

, effective in 1961, thus ending their subordination to New Caledonia.

In 2005, the 50th king, Tomasi Kulimoetoke II
Tomasi Kulimoetoke II
Tomasi Kulimoetoke II was the 50th Lavelua of Wallis Island, which is known as Uvea in the Wallisian language, one of the three traditional kingdoms in the French overseas territory of Wallis and Futuna....

, faced being deposed after giving sanctuary to his grandson who was convicted of manslaughter. The king claimed his grandson should be judged by tribal law rather than by the French penal system. There were riots in the streets involving the king's supporters, who were victorious over attempts to replace the king. Two years later, Tomasi Kulimoetoke died on 7 May 2007. The state was in a six-month period of mourning. During this period, mentioning a successor was forbidden. On 25 July 2008, Kapiliele Faupala
Kapiliele Faupala
Kapeliele "Gabriel" Faupala is the 51st Lavelua of Wallis Island , one of the three traditional kingdoms which comprises the French overseas territory of Wallis and Futuna...

 was installed as king despite protests from some of the royal clans.

Geography

Wallis and Futuna is located about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand, at 13°18′S 176°12′W, (225 mi west of Samoa and 300 mi (482.8 km) north-east of Fiji).

The territory includes the island of Wallis (the most populous), the island of Futuna, the uninhabited island of Alofi (the population of Alofi was reportedly eaten by the cannibal people of Futuna in one single raid in the 19th century), and 20 uninhabited islets, totaling 274 square kilometres (105.8 sq mi) with 129 kilometres (80.2 mi) of coastline. The highest point in the territory is Mont Puke (on the island of Futuna) at 524 metres (1,719.2 ft).

The islands have a hot, rainy season from November to April and a cool, dry season from May to October. The rains accumulate 2,500 to 3,000 millimetres (98–118 in) each year. The average humidity is 80% and the temperature 26.6 °C (79.9 °F).

Only five percent of the islands' land area is arable land
Arable land
In geography and agriculture, arable land is land that can be used for growing crops. It includes all land under temporary crops , temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow...

; permanent crops cover another 20%. Deforestation
Deforestation
Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use....

 (only small portions of the original forests remain), largely as a result of the continued use of wood as the main fuel source, is a serious problem; as a consequence of cutting down the forests, the mountainous terrain of Futuna is particularly prone to erosion
Erosion
Erosion is when materials are removed from the surface and changed into something else. It only works by hydraulic actions and transport of solids in the natural environment, and leads to the deposition of these materials elsewhere...

. There are no permanent settlements on Alofi because of the lack of natural fresh water resources.

The two island groups lie about 260 km apart:
  • Wallis Island
    Wallis Island
    Wallis is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna....

    s (Uvea), in the northeast
    • Wallis Island (Uvea)
  • Hoorn Islands
    Hoorn Islands
    The Hoorn Islands are one of the two island groups of which the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna is geographically composed. The aggregate area is 115 km², and the population 4873 .Geographically, there are two islands:*Futuna Island The Hoorn Islands (also Futuna Islands) are...

     (Futuna Islands), in the southwest
    • Futuna
      Futuna Island, Wallis and Futuna
      Futuna is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna. It is one of the Hoorn Islands or Îles Horne, nearby Alofi being the other...

    • Alofi
      Alofi Island
      Alofi is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna...


Economy

The GDP of Wallis and Futuna in 2005 was 188 million US dollars at market exchange rates. The GDP per capita was 12,640 US dollars in 2005 (at market exchange rates, not at PPP
Purchasing power parity
In economics, purchasing power parity is a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries. The prices of the goods between the countries would only reflect the exchange rates...

), which is lower than in New Caledonia, French Polynesia
French Polynesia
French Polynesia is an overseas country of the French Republic . It is made up of several groups of Polynesian islands, the most famous island being Tahiti in the Society Islands group, which is also the most populous island and the seat of the capital of the territory...

, and all the other French overseas departments and territories (except Mayotte
Mayotte
Mayotte is an overseas department and region of France consisting of a main island, Grande-Terre , a smaller island, Petite-Terre , and several islets around these two. The archipelago is located in the northern Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean, namely between northwestern Madagascar and...

), but higher than in all the small insular independent states of Oceania.

The territory's economy is limited to traditional subsistence agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood from agriculture (coconut
Coconut
The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae . It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word...

s and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs), and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government. Revenues come from French government subsidies, licensing of fishing rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from expatriate workers in New Caledonia, French Polynesia and France.

Industries include copra
Copra
Copra is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. Coconut oil extracted from it has made copra an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. It also yields coconut cake which is mainly used as feed for livestock.-Production:...

, handicrafts, fishing, and lumber. Agricultural products include breadfruit
Breadfruit
Breadfruit is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry family, Moraceae, growing throughout Southeast Asia and most Pacific Ocean islands...

, yam
Yam (vegetable)
Yam is the common name for some species in the genus Dioscorea . These are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania...

s, taro
Taro
Taro is a common name for the corms and tubers of several plants in the family Araceae . Of these, Colocasia esculenta is the most widely cultivated, and is the subject of this article. More specifically, this article describes the 'dasheen' form of taro; another variety is called eddoe.Taro is...

, bananas, pigs, and goats. In 2007, US$63 million worth of commodities (foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation equipment, fuel, clothing) were imported, primarily from France, Singapore, Australia, and New Zealand, and there were no exports (the previous year, in 2006, exports amounted to US$122,000 and consisted entirely of 19 ton
Ton
The ton is a unit of measure. It has a long history and has acquired a number of meanings and uses over the years. It is used principally as a unit of weight, and as a unit of volume. It can also be used as a measure of energy, for truck classification, or as a colloquial term.It is derived from...

s of trochus
Trochus
Trochus is a genus of medium-sized to very large sea snails. They are marine gastropod molluscs in the family Trochidae, the top snails....

 shells).

Along with the French territories of New Caledonia and French Polynesia, the territory uses the CFP Franc
CFP franc
The CFP franc is the currency used in the French overseas collectivities of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna. The initials CFP originally stood for Colonies Françaises du Pacifique...

, which is fixed vs. the euro, at the rate of 1,000 XPF = 8.38 euro.

Banking: In 1991, BNP Nouvelle-Calédonie, a subsidiary of BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas S.A. is a global banking group, headquartered in Paris, with its second global headquarters in London. In October 2010 BNP Paribas was ranked by Bloomberg and Forbes as the largest bank and largest company in the world by assets with over $3.1 trillion. It was formed through the merger...

, established a subsidiary, Banque de Wallis et Futuna, which currently is the only bank in the territory. Two years earlier Banque Indosuez had closed the branch at Mata-Utu that it had opened in 1977, leaving the territory without any bank.

Demographics

The total population of the territory at the July 2008 census was 13,484 (68.4% on the island of Wallis, 31.6% on the island of Futuna), down from 14,944 at the July 2003 census. The vast majority of the population are of Polynesian ethnicity, with a small minority of Metropolitan French
Metropolitan France
Metropolitan France is the part of France located in Europe. It can also be described as mainland France or as the French mainland and the island of Corsica...

 descent and/or native-born whites of French descent. More than 16,000 Wallisians and Futunians live as expatriates in New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, east of Australia and about from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of...

, which is more than the total population of Wallis and Futuna. The overwhelming majority of the people in Wallis and Futuna are Catholic.

Languages

At the 2008 census, among the population whose age was 14 and older, 60.2% of people reported that the language they speak the most at home is Wallisian, 29.9% reported that the language they speak the most at home is Futunan, and 9.7% reported that the language they speak the most at home is French. On Wallis Island
Wallis Island
Wallis is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna....

, the languages most spoken at home were Wallisian (86.1%), French (12.1%), and Futunan (1.5%). On Futuna
Futuna Island, Wallis and Futuna
Futuna is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna. It is one of the Hoorn Islands or Îles Horne, nearby Alofi being the other...

, the languages most spoken at home were Futunan (94.9%), French (4.2%), and Wallisian (0.8%).

At the same 2008 census, 88.5% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write either Wallisian or Futunan, whereas 7.2% reported that they had no knowledge of either Wallisian or Futunan. 78.2% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 17.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French. On Wallis Island, 81.1% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 14.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French. On Futuna, 71.6% of people whose age was 14 or older reported that they could speak, read and write French, whereas 24.3% reported that they had no knowledge of French.

Historical population

1969 1976 1983 1990 1996 2003 2008
8,546 9,192 12,408 13,705 14,166 14,944 13,484
Official figures from past censuses.

Culture

The culture of Wallis and Futuna is Polynesian, and is very similar to the cultures of its neighbouring nations Samoa and Tonga. The Wallisian and Futunan culture share very similar components to culture; language, dance, cuisine and modes of celebration. The language native to and spoken daily by the islanders is the 'Uvea language, which traces its roots to Samoic origin. Despite this, the official language (because of its administrative purposes) is French.

In Wallis and Futuna, culture is prided by the locals. Traditional events like the kava ceremony, going to church (largely Roman Catholic
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

), plantation & agriculture, fishing and the nuclear family are all highly regarded.

Transport and communications

In 1994, the territory had 1,125 telephones in use, had one AM radio station, and two television broadcast stations. Due to this, communication costs are high, costing up to ten times as much as western countries. The island of Wallis has about 100 kilometres (62.1 mi) of highway, of which 16 paved, while the island of Futuna has only 20 kilometres (12.4 mi), none paved. The territory has two main ports and harbors, Mata-Utu and Leava
Leava
Leava is the administrative centre of the chiefdom of Sigave on the French Pacific island of Futuna, part of the Wallis and Futuna group. It is located on the shore of Singave Bay in the centre of the island's west coast, and has a population of 480....

 (on the island of Futuna), that support its merchant marine fleet consisting of three ships (two passenger ships and a petroleum tanker), totaling 92,060 GRT or 45,881 tonnes. There are two airports, one on Wallis
Hihifo Airport
Hihifo Airport is an airport in Hihifo on Wallis Island in Wallis and Futuna. The airport is 5.6 km from Mata-Utu....

 with a paved runway of 2100 metres (6,889.8 ft), and one on Futuna with a 1 kilometre (0.621372736649807 mi) unpaved strip. New Caledonia-based Aircalin
Aircalin
Société Aircalin, also known as Air Calédonie International, is the international airline of New Caledonia. It operates scheduled services to 10 regional destinations, including Japan. Its main base is La Tontouta International Airport...

 operates the only commercial flights that go to Wallis, where it has an office in Mata-Utu. There are no commercial boat operators.

Miscellaneous

The territory's data code and country code (top level Internet domain) is .wf
.wf
.wf is the Internet country code top-level domain for the Wallis and Futuna Islands. This top-level domain is currently run by the AFNIC but registration services are currently suspended....

. Currently this is suspended in favor of the .fr and .nc (Nouvelle Calédonie) data code.

See also

  • Administrative divisions of France
    Administrative divisions of France
    The administrative divisions of France are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of French territory. There are many administrative divisions, which may have political , electoral , or administrative objectives.- Metropolitan France :As of January 1, 2008, metropolitan...

  • French overseas departments and territories
  • Islands controlled by France in the Indian and Pacific oceans
    Islands controlled by France in the Indian and Pacific oceans
    -Indian Ocean Islands:The following islands are in the Indian Ocean*Réunion - *Mayotte - *French Southern and Antarctic Lands **Amsterdam Island **Crozet Islands **Kerguelen Islands...

  • Vicariate Apostolic of Oriental Oceania
    Vicariate Apostolic of Oriental Oceania
    The Vicariate Apostolic of Eastern Oceania was a Roman Catholic missionary jurisdiction for some of the South Pacific islands.-History:The whole of Oceania had at first been entrusted by the Propaganda Fide to the Society of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary ; but the territory proving too large,...



External links

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