Viburnum
Overview
 
Viburnum is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of about 150–175 species of shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s or (in a few species) small tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s in the moschatel family, Adoxaceae
Adoxaceae
The Adoxaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Dipsacales, as now constituted comprising four genera and about 150-200 species. It is characterised by opposite toothed leaves, small five- or, more rarely, four-petalled flowers in cymose inflorescences, and the fruit being a drupe...

. Its current classification is based on molecular phylogeny
Molecular phylogeny
Molecular phylogenetics is the analysis of hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree...

. It was previously included in the family Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
The Caprifoliaceae or honeysuckle family is a clade consisting of about 800 dicotyledonous flowering plants, with a nearly cosmopolitan distribution; centres of diversity are found in eastern North America and eastern Asia, while they are absent in tropical and southern Africa.They are mostly...

.

They are native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is north of its equator—the word hemisphere literally means “half sphere”. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator...

, with a few species extending into tropical montane regions in South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

 and southeast Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

. In Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, the genus is confined to the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
The Atlas Mountains is a mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The highest peak is Toubkal, with an elevation of in southwestern Morocco. The Atlas ranges separate the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert...

.

The generic name originated in Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

, where it referred to V. lantana
Viburnum lantana
Viburnum lantana is a species of Viburnum, native to central, southern and western Europe , northwest Africa, and southwestern Asia. The vigorous deciduous european treelike shrub is common along waysides. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 4-5 m tall...

.

The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are opposite, simple, and entire, toothed or lobed; cool temperate species are deciduous
Deciduous
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

, while most of the warm temperate species are evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

.
Encyclopedia
Viburnum is a genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 of about 150–175 species of shrub
Shrub
A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and shorter height, usually under 5–6 m tall. A large number of plants may become either shrubs or trees, depending on the growing conditions they experience...

s or (in a few species) small tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

s in the moschatel family, Adoxaceae
Adoxaceae
The Adoxaceae is a small family of flowering plants in the order Dipsacales, as now constituted comprising four genera and about 150-200 species. It is characterised by opposite toothed leaves, small five- or, more rarely, four-petalled flowers in cymose inflorescences, and the fruit being a drupe...

. Its current classification is based on molecular phylogeny
Molecular phylogeny
Molecular phylogenetics is the analysis of hereditary molecular differences, mainly in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships. The result of a molecular phylogenetic analysis is expressed in a phylogenetic tree...

. It was previously included in the family Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
The Caprifoliaceae or honeysuckle family is a clade consisting of about 800 dicotyledonous flowering plants, with a nearly cosmopolitan distribution; centres of diversity are found in eastern North America and eastern Asia, while they are absent in tropical and southern Africa.They are mostly...

.

They are native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is north of its equator—the word hemisphere literally means “half sphere”. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator...

, with a few species extending into tropical montane regions in South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

 and southeast Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

. In Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

, the genus is confined to the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
The Atlas Mountains is a mountain range across a northern stretch of Africa extending about through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The highest peak is Toubkal, with an elevation of in southwestern Morocco. The Atlas ranges separate the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert...

.

The generic name originated in Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

, where it referred to V. lantana
Viburnum lantana
Viburnum lantana is a species of Viburnum, native to central, southern and western Europe , northwest Africa, and southwestern Asia. The vigorous deciduous european treelike shrub is common along waysides. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 4-5 m tall...

.

The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are opposite, simple, and entire, toothed or lobed; cool temperate species are deciduous
Deciduous
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

, while most of the warm temperate species are evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

. Some species are densely hairy on the shoots and leaves, with star-shaped hairs.

The flower
Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants . The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs...

s are produced in corymbs 5–15 cm across, each flower white to cream or pink, small, 3–5 mm across, with five petals, strongly fragrant in some species. The gynoecium
Gynoecium
Gynoecium is most commonly used as a collective term for all carpels in a flower. A carpel is the ovule and seed producing reproductive organ in flowering plants. Carpels are derived from ovule-bearing leaves which evolved to form a closed structure containing the ovules...

 has 3 connate carpels with the nectary on top of the gynoecium. Some species also have a fringe of large, showy sterile flowers round the perimeter of the corymb to act as a pollinator target.

The fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

 is a spherical, oval or somewhat flattened drupe
Drupe
In botany, a drupe is a fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. These fruits develop from a single carpel, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries...

, red to purple, blue, or black, and containing a single seed
Seed
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

; some are edible for humans (though many others are mildly poison
Poison
In the context of biology, poisons are substances that can cause disturbances to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism....

ous to people). The leaves are sometimes eaten by the larva
Larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

e of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies . It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies...

 species - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Viburnum.

Species

About 150 species are known, including the following:
  • Viburnum acerifolium
    Viburnum acerifolium
    Viburnum acerifolium is a species of Viburnum, native to eastern North America from southwestern Quebec and Ontario south to northern Florida and eastern Texas....

      – Maple-leaf Viburnum
  • Viburnum atrocyaneum
  • Viburnum betulifolium
  • Viburnum bitchiuense
  • Viburnum bracteatum
  • Viburnum buddleifolium
  • Viburnum burejaeticum
  • Viburnum calvum
  • Viburnum carlesii – Korean Spice Viburnum
  • Viburnum cassinoides – Witherod Viburnum, Wild Raisin, Appalachian Tea
  • Viburnum cinnamonifolium
  • Viburnum cordifolium
  • Viburnum corylifolium
  • Viburnum cotinifolium
  • Viburnum cylindricum
  • Viburnum dasyanthum
  • Viburnum davidii
  • Viburnum dentatum
    Viburnum dentatum
    Viburnum dentatum — southern arrowwood or arrowwood viburnum or roughish arrowwood — is a small shrub, native to the Eastern United States and Canada from Maine south to Northern Florida and Eastern Texas....

     – Arrowwood Viburnum
  • Viburnum dilatatum – Linden Viburnum
  • Viburnum edule
    Viburnum edule
    Viburnum edule, the squashberry, mooseberry, pembina, pimbina, highbush cranberry, lowbush cranberry or moosomin in Cree language, is a small shrub species.-See also:* Trees of Canada* List of Canadian plants by family C...

     – Squashberry, mooseberry, pembina, pimbina, highbush cranberry, lowbush cranberry, moosomin (Cree language
    Cree language
    Cree is an Algonquian language spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories and Alberta to Labrador, making it the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada. It is also spoken in the U.S. state of Montana...

    )
  • Viburnum ellipticum
    Viburnum ellipticum
    Viburnum ellipticum is a species of shrub in family Adoxaceae. It is native to the western United States from Washington to central California, where it occurs in forests and mountain chaparral habitat. The shrub has deciduous leaves with oval or rounded blades 2 to 6 centimeters long. The leaf...

  • Viburnum erosum
  • Viburnum erubescens
  • Viburnum farreri – Farrer's Viburnum
  • Viburnum foetens
  • Viburnum foetidum
  • Viburnum furcatum
  • Viburnum grandiflorum – Himalayan Viburnum
  • Viburnum harryanum
  • Viburnum henryi
  • Viburnum hirtum
  • Viburnum hupehense
  • Viburnum ichangense
  • Viburnum × jackii
    Viburnum × jackii
    Viburnum × jackii is a viburnum of cultivated origin. It is a hybrid between Viburnum lentago and Viburnum prunifolium. It is a deciduous shrub intermediate between its parents, growing to 8 m tall....

     – Jack's Viburnum
  • Viburnum japonicum
  • Viburnum kansuense
  • Viburnum lantana
    Viburnum lantana
    Viburnum lantana is a species of Viburnum, native to central, southern and western Europe , northwest Africa, and southwestern Asia. The vigorous deciduous european treelike shrub is common along waysides. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 4-5 m tall...

     – Wayfaring Tree, Hoarwithy
  • Viburnum lantanoides
    Viburnum lantanoides
    Viburnum lantanoides is a perennial shrub of the family Adoxaceae growing 2–4 meters high with pendulous branches that take root where they touch the ground...

  • Viburnum lentago
    Viburnum lentago
    Viburnum lentago is a species of Viburnum native to the northeastern and midwestern United States, and in southern Canada from New Brunswick west to southeastern Saskatchewan. Isolated populations are found in the Dakotas, Wyoming, Colorado, and the Appalachian Mountains as far south as Kentucky...

     – Nannyberry
  • Viburnum lobophyllum
  • Viburnum macrocephalum – Chinese Viburnum (琼花)
  • Viburnum molle
  • Viburnum mongolicum
  • Viburnum mullaha
  • Viburnum nudum
    Viburnum nudum
    Viburnum nudum is a plant in the muskroot family, Adoxaceae.-Description:...

     – Possumhaw
  • Viburnum odoratissimum
  • Viburnum opulus
    Viburnum opulus
    Viburnum opulus is a species of Viburnum, native to Europe and Asia. Some botanists also treat the closely related North American species Viburnum trilobum as a variety of it , or a subspecies, Viburnum opulus subsp...

     – Guelder-rose
  • Viburnum orientale
  • Viburnum phlebotrichum
  • Viburnum plicatum
    Viburnum plicatum
    Viburnum plicatum is a species of Viburnum, native to eastern Asia, in China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan.It is a deciduous shrub growing to 3 m tall. The leaves are opposite, 5–10 cm long and 3–6 cm broad, simple ovate to oval, with a serrated margin...

  • Viburnum propinquum
  • Viburnum prunifolium
    Viburnum prunifolium
    Viburnum prunifolium , is a species of Viburnum native to southeastern North America, from Connecticut west to eastern Kansas, and south to Alabama and Texas.-Growth:It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 2–9 m tall with a short crooked trunk and stout...

     – Blackhaw
  • Viburnum rafinesquianum
  • Viburnum recognitum – smooth arrowwood
  • Viburnum rhytidophyllum
    Viburnum rhytidophyllum
    Viburnum rhytidophyllum is a species of Viburnum, native to Asia.The plant is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a suckering habit. The leaves are opposite, crinkled, downy on the underside, less so on the upper surface.-Cultivation and uses:It is commonly grown as an ornamental plant for its...

     – Wrinkled Viburnum
  • Viburnum rigidum
  • Viburnum rufidulum
    Viburnum rufidulum
    Viburnum rufidulum, also known as the rusty blackhaw, blue haw, rusty nanny-berry, or southern black haw, is a flowering species of shrub or small tree that is common in parts of the Eastern and Central United States...

     – Rusty Blackhaw
  • Viburnum sargentii – Tianmu Viburnum (天目琼花)
  • Viburnum schensianum
  • Viburnum sempervirens
  • Viburnum setigerum
    Viburnum setigerum
    Viburnum setigerum is a plant in the family Adoxaceae that is native to China.-Description:Viburnum setigerum is a shrub with opposite, simple leaves, and flexible, arching stems. The flowers are white, borne in spring. Drupes ripen to red in the fall....

     – Tea Viburnum
  • Viburnum sieboldii
    Viburnum sieboldii
    Viburnum sieboldii is a plant in the muskroot family, Adoxaceae.-Description:Viburnum sieboldii is a large shrub or small tree with opposite, simple leaves, on stout, brittle stems. The flowers are white, borne in spring....

     – Siebold's Viburnum
  • Viburnum suspensum
  • Viburnum sympodiale
  • Viburnum ternatum
  • Viburnum tinus
    Viburnum tinus
    Viburnum tinus is a species of flowering plant in the genus Viburnum, belonging to the family Adoxaceae. Laurus signifies the leaves' similarities to bay laurel; tinus means "tenth born".-Description: It is a shrub reaching up to 2-7 m tall, with a dense, rounded crown...

     – Laurustinus
  • Viburnum trilobum
    Viburnum trilobum
    Viburnum trilobum is a species of Viburnum native to northern North America, from Newfoundland west to British Columbia, south to Washington state and east to northern Virginia, with an isolated population in New Mexico...

     – Highbush Viburnum
  • Viburnum urceolatum
  • Viburnum utile – Service Viburnum
  • Viburnum veitchii
  • Viburnum venosum
  • Viburnum wilsonii
  • Viburnum wrightii – Wright's Viburnum

  • Formerly placed here

    • Hydrangea arborescens
      Hydrangea arborescens
      Hydrangea arborescens, commonly known as Smooth Hydrangea, Wild Hydrangea, or Sevenbark, is a small to medium sized, deciduous shrub up to 3 m tall that is native to the eastern United States.-Range/Habitat:...

       L. (as V. alnifolium Marshall or V. americanum Mill.)
    • Hydrangea macrophylla
      Hydrangea macrophylla
      Hydrangea macrophylla is a species of Hydrangea native to Japan. Common names include Bigleaf Hydrangea, French Hydrangea, Lacecap Hydrangea, Mophead Hydrangea, Penny Mac and Hortensia...

       (Thunb.) Ser. (as V. macrophyllum Thunb.)

    Cultivation and uses

    Many species of viburnum have become popular as garden
    Garden
    A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has...

     or landscape
    Landscape
    Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including the physical elements of landforms such as mountains, hills, water bodies such as rivers, lakes, ponds and the sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous vegetation, human elements including different forms of...

     plants because of their showy flowers and berries, fragrance, and good autumn colour of some forms. Some popular species, hybrids, and cultivar
    Cultivar
    A cultivar'Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar. is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable...

    s include:
    • The hybrid Viburnum × bodnantense (V. farreri × V. grandiflorum) is particularly popular for its strongly scented pink flowers on the leafless deciduous
      Deciduous
      Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

       shoots in mid to late winter.
    • Viburnum × burkwoodii
      Viburnum × burkwoodii
      Viburnum × burkwoodii is a plant in the muskroot family, Adoxaceae, grown in gardens for its early, strongly scented flowers.-Description:...

       (V. carlesii × V. utile)
    • Viburnum × carlcephallum (V. carlesii × V. macrocephalum)
    • Viburnum carlesii has round white flowerheads, strong fragrance, dense structure, and reddish leaves in autumn.
    • Viburnum davidii is an evergreen species from China with blue fruit.
    • Viburnum dentatum has flat-topped flowers, bluish fruit, and reddish leaves in autumn. It is somewhat salt-tolerant. The cultivar 'Blue Muffin' is more compact than the species and has fruit that are a deeper blue than the species.
    • Viburnum dilatatum has flat-topped flowers, reddish leaves in autumn, and bright red fruit that persist into winter.
    • Viburnum × juddii (V. bitchiuense × V. carlesii)
    • Viburnum plicatum has white flowers, textured leaves, reddish-black fruit, and can grow quite large under ideal conditions. The species can tolerate shade, but not drought.
    • Viburnum × pragense (V. rhytidophyllum × V. utile)
    • Viburnum × rhytidophylloides (V. lantana × V. rhytidophyllum)
    • Viburnum rhytidophyllum is a popular evergreen
      Evergreen
      In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

       species, grown mainly for its foliage effect of large, dark green leathery leaves with strongly wrinkled surface. This is the parent species of two popular hybrid cultivars known as 'Alleghany' and 'Pragense'. 'Alleghany' was selected from a hybrid between V. rhytidophyllum and V. lantana 'Mohican' (in 1958, at the US National Arboretum).
    • Viburnum setigerum has upright, coarse structure and orange to reddish-orange fruit.
    • Viburnum sieboldii has coarse, open structure, flat-topped flowers, reddish-black fruit, and can grow as a small tree.
    • Viburnum tinus is a widely grown garden and landscape shrub.

    Other uses

    In prehistory
    Prehistory
    Prehistory is the span of time before recorded history. Prehistory can refer to the period of human existence before the availability of those written records with which recorded history begins. More broadly, it refers to all the time preceding human existence and the invention of writing...

    , the long straight shoots of some viburnums were used for arrow
    Arrow
    An arrow is a shafted projectile that is shot with a bow. It predates recorded history and is common to most cultures.An arrow usually consists of a shaft with an arrowhead attached to the front end, with fletchings and a nock at the other.- History:...

    -shafts, as those found with Ötzi the Iceman
    Ötzi the Iceman
    Ötzi the Iceman , Similaun Man, and Man from Hauslabjoch are modern names for a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived about 5,300 years ago. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, near Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy. The nickname comes from the...

    .

    The fruit of some species (e.g. V. lentago) are edible and can be eaten either raw or for making jam, while other species (e.g. V. opulus) are mildly toxic and can cause vomiting if eaten in quantity.

    The bark
    Bark
    Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines and shrubs. Bark refers to all the tissues outside of the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term. It overlays the wood and consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner...

     of some species is used in herbal medicine, as an antispasmodic
    Antispasmodic
    An antispasmodic is a drug or a herb that suppresses muscle spasms.-Smooth muscle spasm:One type of antispasmodics is used for smooth muscle contraction, especially in tubular organs of the gastrointestinal tract...

     and to treat asthma
    Asthma
    Asthma is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...

    .
    The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
     
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