Venlo (ˈvɛn.lo) is a municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 and a city
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

 in the southeastern Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, next to the German border. It is situated in the province of Limburg
Limburg (Netherlands)
Limburg is the southernmost of the twelve provinces of the Netherlands. It is located in the southeastern part of the country and bordered by the province of Gelderland to the north, Germany to the east, Belgium to the south and part of the west, andthe Dutch province of North Brabant partly to...


In 2001, the (now former) municipalities of Belfeld and Tegelen
Tegelen is a village in the province of Limburg in the Netherlands. It was an independent municipality until 2001, when it was merged into the municipality of Venlo.-Tiglian:...

 were merged into the municipality of Venlo. Tegelen was originally part of the Duchy of Jülich
Duchy of Jülich
The Duchy of Jülich comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries. The duchy lay left of the Rhine river between the Electorate of Cologne in the east and the Duchy of Limburg in the west. It had territories on both sides of the river Rur, around its capital...

 centuries ago, whereas Venlo has a past in the Duchy of Guelders. On 1 January 2010, the (now former) municipality of Arcen en Velden
Arcen en Velden
Arcen en Velden is a former town and former municipality in the southeastern Netherlands, now part of the municipality and city of Venlo. It is situated in the province of Limburg.-History:...

, was merged into the municipality of Venlo.

History of the city

Roman and Celtic coins and remains of a Roman bridge across the river Meuse have been found in Venlo; it may have been the settlement known as Sablones on the Roman road connecting Maastricht
Maastricht is situated on both sides of the Meuse river in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands, on the Belgian border and near the German border...

 with Xanten
Xanten is a historic town in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany, located in the district of Wesel.Xanten is known for the Archaeological Park or archaeological open air museum , its medieval picturesque city centre with Xanten Cathedral and many museums, its large man-made lake for...

Blerick, on the west bank, was known as Blariacum.

Documents from the 9th century mention Venlo as a trade post;
it developed into one of the more important ones in the Meuse-Rhine area,
receiving city rights
City rights in the Netherlands
City rights are a medieval phenomenon in the history of the Low Countries. A liegelord, usually a count, duke or similar member of high nobility, granted a settlement he owned certain town privileges that settlements without city rights did not have....

 in 1343,
and becoming a member of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
The Hanseatic League was an economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe...

 in 1375.

Because of its strategic importance, the city of Venlo was besieged several times. The most significant siege was that of 1702, carried on by Menno van Coehoorn
Menno van Coehoorn
Menno, Baron van Coehoorn was a Dutch soldier and military engineer of Swedish extraction. He made a number of influential weaponry innovations in siege warfare and fortification techniques...

. Consequently, Venlo was incorporated into the Generaliteitslanden of the United Provinces and later became part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Venlo in the Second World War

On November 9, 1939, two British Intelligence Service agents were kidnapped by the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst , full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS, or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany. The organization was the first Nazi Party intelligence organization to be established and was often considered a "sister organization" with the...

in what became known as the Venlo Incident
Venlo Incident
The Venlo Incident was a covert German Sicherheitsdienst engineered capture of two British SIS agents on 9 November 1939....

. The incident was used by the Nazis to link Great Britain to Georg Elser
Georg Elser
Johann Georg Elser was a German opponent of Nazism. He is most remembered for his unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, but he also wanted to assassinate Hermann Göring and Joseph Goebbels in 1939....

's failed assassination of Hitler at the Burgerbraukeller
The Bürgerbräukeller was a large beer hall located in Munich, Germany. It was one of the large beer halls of the Bürgerliches Brauhaus company, and after Bürgerliches merged with Löwenbräu, the hall was transferred to that company. It was located on Rosenheimer Street in the neighborhood of...

 two days before and to justify their later invasion of the Netherlands, a neutral country, on 10 May 1940.

Because Venlo had both a road and a rail bridge over the river Meuse
Meuse is a department in northeast France, named after the River Meuse.-History:Meuse is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790...

 ("Maas" in Dutch) the city was severely damaged during several bomb raids (13 October – 19 November 1944) on those bridges at the end of the war.
The Allied forces
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 made 13 attempts to destroy the bridges to cut the German supply lines and block a retreat of the German army across the river. These failed, and it was the retreating German troops who in the end blew up the bridges in an attempt to stop the allied advance. Allied forces liberated Venlo from the east, from inside Germany itself.

About 300 people were killed due to those raids. The raids also cost Venlo a major part of its historical buildings. However, some old buildings, such as the city hall (the 'Stadhuis') and the 'Römer' house, survived the war relatively unscathed.

Before the War, Venlo had an active Jewish community. After the war several members came back. but the community never returned to its pre-war size.


  • Theatre "De Maaspoort"
  • historical and cultural Museum "Limburgs Museum" and art Museum "Museum van Bommel van Dam
    Museum van Bommel van Dam
    Museum van Bommel van Dam is a Dutch museum of modern art in Venlo, a town in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. The museum belongs to the German/Dutch cooperation Crossart, a partnership between 7 German museums in Westfalen and 4 Dutch museums in Gelderland and Limburg...

  • Popvenue Perron55
  • Major annual cultural events
    • Carnaval called "Vastelaovend" in February/March (6 weeks before Easter).
    • Summer park festivities called "Zomerparkfeest" in August held in and around the main park of Venlo, a 4 days podium for a broad audience, including live music, film, dance, art etc.

In 2003 Venlo was awarded the title "Greenest city of Europe". In 2012 it will host the Floriade
Floriade, Netherlands
Floriade is an international exhibition of flowers and gardening, held every 10 years in the Netherlands.-Introduction:All have been World Horticultural Expo and listed as an A1 Horticultural Expo A1 category exhibitions by the International Association of Horticultural Producers and hence...



The Venlo railway station
Venlo railway station
Venlo is the railway station for the city of Venlo in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. It is situated on the Maastricht–Venlo railway, the Viersen–Venlo railway, the Venlo–Eindhoven railway and the Nijmegen–Venlo railway....

 is a junction station
Junction station
Junction station usually refers to a railway station situated or close to a junction where lines to several destinations diverge. The usual minimum is three incoming lines...

. It provides regular connections to the Dutch cities of Eindhoven, Roermond
Roermond is a city, a municipality, and a diocese in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.The city of Roermond is a historically important town, on the lower Roer at the east bank of the Meuse river. It received city rights in 1231...

, and Nijmegen. Furthermore, it provides regular international connections to Germany, via Kaldenkirchen (the first stop in Germany) and Viersen
Viersen is the capital of the district of Viersen, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.-Geography:Viersen is situated approximately 8 km north-west of Mönchengladbach, 15 km south-west of Krefeld and 20 km east of Venlo ....

 to Mönchengladbach
Mönchengladbach , formerly known as Münchengladbach, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located west of the Rhine half way between Düsseldorf and the Dutch border....



VVV-Venlo is a century-old football
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 club that plays in De Koel Stadium
De Koel
De Koel , also known as Seacon Stadion – De Koel after the main sponsor, is a multi-purpose stadium in Venlo, Netherlands. It is currently mostly used for football matches and is the home stadium of VVV-Venlo. The stadium is able to hold 8,000 people and was built in 1972....

. In the season 2008–2009, VVV-Venlo won the Eerste Divisie
Jupiler League
The Belgian Pro League is the top league competition for association football clubs in Belgium. Contested by 16 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Belgian Second Division...

 (Eerste Divisie) and was promoted to the highest Dutch professional football league: the Eredivisie
The Eredivisie is the highest football league in the Netherlands. The league was founded in 1956 two years after the start of professional football in the Netherlands. It is currently ranked the ninth best league in Europe by UEFA....


Born in Venlo

  • Henri Alexis Brialmont
    Henri Alexis Brialmont
    Henri Alexis Brialmont was a Dutch-born Belgian military engineer. He was one of the leading fortifications engineers in the 19th century....

    , Dutch-born Belgian military engineer.
  • Glenn Corneille
    Glenn Corneille
    Glenn Corneille was a Dutch jazz pianist. He studied at the Conservatory of Maastricht graduating in 1995 as a teacher...

    , Acclaimed Dutch jazz pianist
  • Paul Cox
    Paul Cox
    Paulus Henriqus Benedictus "Paul" Cox is an award-winning Australian film director.Cox was born in Venlo, Limburg, the Netherlands, the son of Else , a native of Germany, and Wim Cox, a documentary film producer. Cox emigrated to Australia in 1965...

    , award-winning Australian-based film director.
  • Teun van Dijck
    Teun van Dijck
    Antoine Pierre Cornelis van Dijck is a Dutch politician and former management consultant, restaurateur and civil servant. As a member of the Party for Freedom he has been an MP since November 30, 2006. He focuses on matters of state pensions and other pensions...

    , Dutch politician and one of the members of the PVV.
  • Evert Dudok
    Evert Dudok
    Evert Dudok has been the President of EADS Astrium Satellites since June 2007. Prior to this date he was president of EADS Astrium Space Transportation since June 2005...

    , President of EADS Astrium Space Transportation
  • Michael Evans, Dutch footballer.
  • Maico Gerritsen
    Maico Gerritsen
    Maico Gerritsen is a Dutch footballer who played for VVV-Venlo in the Dutch Eerste Divisie.-References:...

    , Dutch footballer
  • Rick Hoogendorp
    Rick Hoogendorp
    Rick Hoogendorp is a former football striker from the Netherlands.- Career :Hoogendorp previously played for MVV Maastricht , FC Dordrecht , RKC Waalwijk , and VfL Wolfsburg ,recently played for ADO Den Haag since January 2007 in the Dutch highest league, Eredivisie...

    , Dutch footballer
  • Jens Janse
    Jens Janse
    Jens Janse, is a Dutch footballer who plays as a right back for Eredivisie club NAC Breda. He formerly played for Willem II, where a started his professional football career.- Early career :...

    , Dutch footballer
  • Luc Joordens, Dutch footballer and property & casualty insurance underwriter
  • Saskia Linssen, Dutch model and actress
  • Jos Luhukay
    Jos Luhukay
    Jos Luhukay is a Dutch football coach and former player.- Career as a player:He began his career at the age of 15 at his hometown club VVV-Venlo. In 1989, he went to play at SVV Schiedam, where he stayed until 1991...

    , Dutch football coach and former player.
  • Will Sanders
    Will Sanders
    Will Sanders is a dutch hornist.-Biography:Sanders was born in Venlo, the Netherlands.He trained in music at Maastricht, where he graduated with honours in 1988. In 1985, while still a student, he became a member of the European Youth Orchestra, conducted by Claudio Abbado...

    , an acclaimed hornist.
  • Frank Scheffer
    Frank Scheffer
    Frank Scheffer is a Dutch cinematographer and producer of documentary film, mostly known for his work Conducting Mahler .-Education:Scheffer was schooled at the Academy for Industrial Design , the "Vrije Academie" Art College in...

    , Dutch cinematographer and producer of documentary film,
  • Jeu Sprengers
    Jeu Sprengers
    Mathieu Jeu Sprengers was the Dutch chairman of the Royal Dutch Football Association from 2002 until 2008. Sprengers served as chairman until his death on April 5, 2008, at the age of 69.- References :...

    , Dutch chairman of the Royal Netherlands Football Association
  • Paul van der Sterren
    Paul van der Sterren
    Paul van der Sterren is a Dutch chess grandmaster. He won the Dutch Chess Championship twice, in 1985 and 1993...

    , chess grandmaster
  • Boris Titulaer
    Boris Titulaer
    Boris Titulaer, also known as Boris, is a Dutch singer. He was the winner of the second season of Idols in the Netherlands.-Biography:Boris Titulaer was born in Venlo, Netherlands on October 3, 1980....

    , Dutch singer. He was the winner of the second season of Idols in the Netherlands.
  • Chriet Titulaer
    Chriet Titulaer
    Chriet Titulaer is a Dutch astronomer, former television presenter and popular science and technology writer. He lives in Houten, Utrecht province.-Biography:...

    , Dutch astronomer and media personality
  • Geert Wilders
    Geert Wilders
    Geert Wilders is a Dutch right-wing politician and leader of the Party for Freedom , the third-largest political party in the Netherlands. He is the Parliamentary group leader of his party in the Dutch House of Representatives...

    , Dutch politician. He has been a member of the Dutch Parliament since 1998, and is leader and chairperson of the PVV.

Coffee shops

By the late 1990s, drug-related nuisance had become a problem in the centre of Venlo.
National and municipal officials launched the Q-4 Project and Tango initiatives that, amongst other measures, included moving the town's largest coffee shops
Cannabis coffee shop
Coffeeshops are establishments in the Netherlands where the sale of cannabis for personal consumption by the public is tolerated by the local authorities ....

 to the outskirts, where they continue to do business in a former rest stop. This was a win-win solution, as the town was freed from disturbances and the coffee shops are now even closer to the expressways. Since Germany prohibits the sale of hashish
Hashish is a cannabis preparation composed of compressed stalked resin glands, called trichomes, collected from the unfertilized buds of the cannabis plant. It contains the same active ingredients but in higher concentrations than unsifted buds or leaves...

 and marihuana, German citizens cross the nearby border to purchase these substances. Venlo is connected to Germany by two motorways (i.e., Bundesautobahn 40
Bundesautobahn 40
, is one of the most frequented Autobahns in Germany. It crosses the Dutch-German border as a continuation of the Dutch A67, crossing the Rhine, leading through the Ruhr valley toward Bochum, then becomes B 1 at the Kreuz Dortmund-West and eventually merges into the A 44 near...

 and Bundesautobahn 61
Bundesautobahn 61
is an autobahn in Germany that connects the border to the Netherlands near Venlo in the northwest to the interchange with A 6 near Hockenheim. In 1965, this required a re-design of the Hockenheimring....

), which connect to Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

, Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

, and the Ruhr area
Ruhr Area
The Ruhr, by German-speaking geographers and historians more accurately called Ruhr district or Ruhr region , is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With 4435 km² and a population of some 5.2 million , it is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany...

within one hour.

External links

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