Valois Dynasty
Overview
 

The House of Valois (valwa) was a cadet branch
Cadet branch
Cadet branch is a term in genealogy to describe the lineage of the descendants of the younger sons of a monarch or patriarch. In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets – titles, realms, fiefs, property and income – have...

 of the Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty
The Capetian dynasty , also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. Hugh Capet himself was a cognatic descendant of the Carolingians and the Merovingians, earlier rulers of France...

, succeeding the House of Capet
House of Capet
The House of Capet, or The Direct Capetian Dynasty, , also called The House of France , or simply the Capets, which ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328, was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. As rulers of France, the dynasty...

 (or "Direct Capetians") as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks...

 from 1363 to 1482.

They were descendants of Charles of Valois
Charles of Valois
Charles of Valois was the fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. His mother was a daughter of James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois...

, the fourth son of King Philip III
Philip III of France
Philip III , called the Bold , was the King of France, succeeding his father, Louis IX, and reigning from 1270 to 1285. He was a member of the House of Capet.-Biography:...

 and based their claim to be ahead of Edward III of England
Edward III of England
Edward III was King of England from 1327 until his death and is noted for his military success. Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II, Edward III went on to transform the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe...

 and Joan II of Navarre
Joan II of Navarre
Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only daughter of Margaret of Burgundy, first wife of King Louis X of France...

 according to the Salic law
Salic law
Salic law was a body of traditional law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the early Middle Ages during the reign of King Clovis I in the 6th century...

.
The Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty
The Capetian dynasty , also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. Hugh Capet himself was a cognatic descendant of the Carolingians and the Merovingians, earlier rulers of France...

 seemed secure both during and after the reign of Philip IV
Philip IV of France
Philip the Fair was, as Philip IV, King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.-Youth:A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of...

.
Encyclopedia




The House of Valois (valwa) was a cadet branch
Cadet branch
Cadet branch is a term in genealogy to describe the lineage of the descendants of the younger sons of a monarch or patriarch. In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets – titles, realms, fiefs, property and income – have...

 of the Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty
The Capetian dynasty , also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. Hugh Capet himself was a cognatic descendant of the Carolingians and the Merovingians, earlier rulers of France...

, succeeding the House of Capet
House of Capet
The House of Capet, or The Direct Capetian Dynasty, , also called The House of France , or simply the Capets, which ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328, was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. As rulers of France, the dynasty...

 (or "Direct Capetians") as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks...

 from 1363 to 1482.

They were descendants of Charles of Valois
Charles of Valois
Charles of Valois was the fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. His mother was a daughter of James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois...

, the fourth son of King Philip III
Philip III of France
Philip III , called the Bold , was the King of France, succeeding his father, Louis IX, and reigning from 1270 to 1285. He was a member of the House of Capet.-Biography:...

 and based their claim to be ahead of Edward III of England
Edward III of England
Edward III was King of England from 1327 until his death and is noted for his military success. Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II, Edward III went on to transform the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe...

 and Joan II of Navarre
Joan II of Navarre
Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only daughter of Margaret of Burgundy, first wife of King Louis X of France...

 according to the Salic law
Salic law
Salic law was a body of traditional law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the early Middle Ages during the reign of King Clovis I in the 6th century...

.

Unexpected inheritance

The Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty
The Capetian dynasty , also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. Hugh Capet himself was a cognatic descendant of the Carolingians and the Merovingians, earlier rulers of France...

 seemed secure both during and after the reign of Philip IV
Philip IV of France
Philip the Fair was, as Philip IV, King of France from 1285 until his death. He was the husband of Joan I of Navarre, by virtue of which he was, as Philip I, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1284 to 1305.-Youth:A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born at the Palace of...

. Philip had left three surviving sons (Louis
Louis X of France
Louis X of France, , called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn was the King of Navarre from 1305 and King of France from 1314 until his death...

, Philip
Philip V of France
Philip the Tall was King of France as Philip V and, as Philip II, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the penultimate monarch of the House of Capet. Considered a wise and politically astute ruler, Philip took the throne under questionable...

 and Charles
Charles IV of France
Charles IV, known as the Fair , was the King of France and of Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: he was the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage....

) and a daughter (Isabella
Isabella of France
Isabella of France , sometimes described as the She-wolf of France, was Queen consort of England as the wife of Edward II of England. She was the youngest surviving child and only surviving daughter of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre...

). Each son became king in turn but died young without male heirs, leaving only daughters who could not inherit the throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, the French Succession was thrown wide open.

In 1328 there were 3 reasonable candidates to the throne;
  • Joan, daughter of Louis X who was then 16 years old. However, there was considerable doubt regarding her paternity. Her uncle Philip V had successfully excluded her from the succession by invoking Salic law. Since Navarre did not follow Salic law, she succeeded as queen to that kingdom as Joan II
    Joan II of Navarre
    Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only daughter of Margaret of Burgundy, first wife of King Louis X of France...

    .
  • Edward III of England, son of Isabella of France, daughter and only surviving child of Philip IV. Edward claimed to be the heir as the only living male descendant of Philip IV.
  • Philip, son of Charles of Valois
    Charles of Valois
    Charles of Valois was the fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon. His mother was a daughter of James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary. He was a member of the House of Capet and founded the House of Valois...

    , who was the closest heir in male line and grandson of Philip III. Because his father was the brother of the late Philip IV, he was therefore a nephew of Philip IV and the cousin of Louis X, Philip V and Charles IV. He would be known as 'the fortunate' for his previous slim chance of becoming King.


Under Salic law
Salic law
Salic law was a body of traditional law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the early Middle Ages during the reign of King Clovis I in the 6th century...

, which only recognised the male line, the throne would pass through the male descendants of the House of Capet
Capetian dynasty
The Capetian dynasty , also known as the House of France, is the largest and oldest European royal house, consisting of the descendants of King Hugh Capet of France in the male line. Hugh Capet himself was a cognatic descendant of the Carolingians and the Merovingians, earlier rulers of France...

. In England, King Edward III heard the news and made his own bid for the crown. The English law of succession did not allow the succession of females, but allowed the succession through the female line (as was the case with Henry II of England
Henry II of England
Henry II ruled as King of England , Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry, the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, was the...

). Edward believed that France had a similar law. At that time, he was the only living male descendant of Philip IV of France (sons of the daughters of his uncles, who were kings of France, would have been senior to him by cognatic primogeniture, but none yet were born at that time). His mother was Isabella, the sister of the three previous Kings of France, and as such his claim seemed to be very strong. The French law of succession, however, not only forbade the succession of females, but also succession through the female line.

Because diplomacy and negotiation had failed, Edward III would have to back his claims with force if he was to claim the throne. These events were a key reason for the Hundred Years War between England and France.

Valois (direct)

  • Philip VI
    Philip VI of France
    Philip VI , known as the Fortunate and of Valois, was the King of France from 1328 to his death. He was also Count of Anjou, Maine, and Valois from 1325 to 1328...

    , the Fortunate 1328–1350, son of Charles of Valois
  • John II
    John II of France
    John II , called John the Good , was the King of France from 1350 until his death. He was the second sovereign of the House of Valois and is perhaps best remembered as the king who was vanquished at the Battle of Poitiers and taken as a captive to England.The son of Philip VI and Joan the Lame,...

    , the Good 1350–1364
  • Charles V
    Charles V of France
    Charles V , called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death in 1380 and a member of the House of Valois...

    , the Wise 1364–1380
  • Charles VI
    Charles VI of France
    Charles VI , called the Beloved and the Mad , was the King of France from 1380 to 1422, as a member of the House of Valois. His bouts with madness, which seem to have begun in 1392, led to quarrels among the French royal family, which were exploited by the neighbouring powers of England and Burgundy...

    , the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad 1380–1422
  • Charles VII
    Charles VII of France
    Charles VII , called the Victorious or the Well-Served , was King of France from 1422 to his death, though he was initially opposed by Henry VI of England, whose Regent, the Duke of Bedford, ruled much of France including the capital, Paris...

    , the Victorious or the Well-Served 1422–1461
  • Louis XI
    Louis XI of France
    Louis XI , called the Prudent , was the King of France from 1461 to 1483. He was the son of Charles VII of France and Mary of Anjou, a member of the House of Valois....

    , the Universal Spider 1461–1483
  • Charles VIII
    Charles VIII of France
    Charles VIII, called the Affable, , was King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498. Charles was a member of the House of Valois...

    , the Affable 1483–1498

Valois-Orléans

  • Louis XII
    Louis XII of France
    Louis proved to be a popular king. At the end of his reign the crown deficit was no greater than it had been when he succeeded Charles VIII in 1498, despite several expensive military campaigns in Italy. His fiscal reforms of 1504 and 1508 tightened and improved procedures for the collection of taxes...

    , the Father of His People 1498–1515, great-grandson of Charles V of France

Valois-Orléans-Angoulême

  • Francis I
    Francis I of France
    Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death. During his reign, huge cultural changes took place in France and he has been called France's original Renaissance monarch...

     – 1515–1547, great-great-grandson of Charles V of France
  • Henry II
    Henry II of France
    Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.-Early years:Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany .His father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by his sworn enemy,...

     – 1547–1559
  • Francis II
    Francis II of France
    Francis II was aged 15 when he succeeded to the throne of France after the accidental death of his father, King Henry II, in 1559. He reigned for 18 months before he died in December 1560...

     – 1559–1560
  • Charles IX
    Charles IX of France
    Charles IX was King of France, ruling from 1560 until his death. His reign was dominated by the Wars of Religion. He is best known as king at the time of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.-Childhood:...

     – 1560–1574
  • Henry III
    Henry III of France
    Henry III was King of France from 1574 to 1589. As Henry of Valois, he was the first elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with the dual titles of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1573 to 1575.-Childhood:Henry was born at the Royal Château de Fontainebleau,...

      – 1574–1589


The application of the Salic Law
Salic law
Salic law was a body of traditional law codified for governing the Salian Franks in the early Middle Ages during the reign of King Clovis I in the 6th century...

 meant that with the extinction of the Valois line on the male side, the Bourbon Dynasty
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty . Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma...

 followed as descendants of Louis IX
Louis IX of France
Louis IX , commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. He was also styled Louis II, Count of Artois from 1226 to 1237. Born at Poissy, near Paris, he was an eighth-generation descendant of Hugh Capet, and thus a member of the House of Capet, and the son of Louis VIII and...

.

Counts and Dukes of Anjou (House of Valois-Anjou)

  • Louis I, duke (1360–1383) (also king of Jerusalem and Naples as Louis I), second son of John II of France
  • Louis II (1377–1417), son of (also king of Naples as Louis II)
  • Louis III (1403–1434), son of (also king of Naples as Louis III)
  • René I
    René I of Naples
    René of Anjou , also known as René I of Naples and Good King René , was Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence , Count of Piedmont, Duke of Bar , Duke of Lorraine , King of Naples , titular King of Jerusalem...

     (1409–1480), brother of (also king of Jerusalem and Naples as René I)
  • Charles IV (1436–1481),

Dukes of Burgundy (House of Valois-Burgundy)

  • Philip II the Bold
    Philip the Bold
    Philip the Bold , also Philip II, Duke of Burgundy , was the fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and his wife, Bonne of Luxembourg. By his marriage to Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, he also became Count Philip II of Flanders, Count Philip IV of Artois and Count-Palatine Philip IV...

     (1363–1404), fourth son of John II of France
  • John II the Fearless (1404–1419)
  • Philip III the Good (1419–1467)
  • Charles I the Bold (1467–1477)
  • Mary I the Rich
    Mary of Burgundy
    Mary of Burgundy ruled the Burgundian territories in Low Countries and was suo jure Duchess of Burgundy from 1477 until her death...

     (1477–1482)

Dukes of Brabant (House of Valois-Burgundy-Brabant)

  • Anthony I
    Anthony, Duke of Brabant
    Anthony, Duke of Brabant, also known as Antoine de Brabant, Antoine de Bourgogne and Anthony of Burgundy , was Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg. Anthony was the son of Philip II, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret III of Flanders, and brother of John the Fearless...

     (1406–1415), second son of Philip the Bold of Burgundy
  • John IV
    John IV, Duke of Brabant
    John IV, Duke of Brabant was the son of Antoine of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg.John IV was the second Brabantian ruler of the House of Valois....

     (1415–1427)
  • Philip I (1427–1430)

Counts of Nevers (House of Valois-Burgundy-Nevers)

  • Philip II
    Philip II, Count of Nevers
    Phillip II, Count of Nevers was the youngest son of Philip the Bold and Margaret III of Flanders....

     (1404–1415), third son of Philip the Bold of Burgundy
  • Charles I
    Charles I, Count of Nevers
    Charles I, Count of Nevers , Count of Nevers and Rethel, was the son of Philip II, Count of Nevers and Bonne of Artois....

     (1415–1464)
  • John II
    John II, Count of Nevers
    John II, Count of Nevers He was the son of Philip II, Count of Nevers by his wife Bonne of Artois, daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu. From 1442 to 1465 he was Count of Etampes. John's elder brother was also his predecessor in his titles, Charles I, Count of Nevers...

     (1464–1491)

Counts and Dukes of Alençon (House of Valois-Alençon)

  • Charles II
    Charles II of Alençon
    Charles II of Alençon, called the Magnanimous was the second son of Charles of Valois and his first wife Margaret, and brother of Philip VI, King of France...

    , count (1325–1346), second son of Charles of Valois
  • Charles III
    Charles III of Alençon
    Charles III of Alençon was the eldest son of Charles II of Alençon and Maria de la Cerda.He succeeded his father as Count of Alençon in 1346, but resigned the county to his brother Peter II of Alençon in 1361 to take up an ecclesiastical career.On 13 July 1365, he was made Archbishop of Lyon...

    , count (1346–1361)
  • Peter II
    Peter II of Alençon
    Peter II of Alençon, called the Noble , was the son of Charles II of Alençon and Maria de la Cerda. He was Count of Alençon 1361–1404 and Count of Perche 1377–1404....

    , count (1361–1391)
  • John I
    John I of Alençon
    John I of Alençon, called the Sage , was the son of Peter II of Alençon and Marie de Chamaillard. In 1404, he succeeded his father as Count of Alençon and Perche. He was made Duke of Alençon in 1414.He commanded the second division of the French army at the Battle of Agincourt...

    , count (1391–1414)
  • John I
    John I of Alençon
    John I of Alençon, called the Sage , was the son of Peter II of Alençon and Marie de Chamaillard. In 1404, he succeeded his father as Count of Alençon and Perche. He was made Duke of Alençon in 1414.He commanded the second division of the French army at the Battle of Agincourt...

    , duke (1414–1415)
  • John II
    John II of Alençon
    John II of Alençon was the son of John I of Alençon and Marie of Brittany. He succeeded his father as Duke of Alençon and Count of Perche as a minor in 1415, after the latter's death at the Battle of Agincourt.He saw action as a young man at the Battle of Verneuil on 17 August 1424, and was...

    , duke (1415–1424 and 1449–1474)
  • René I
    René of Alençon
    René of Alençon , was the son of John II of Alençon and Marie of Armagnac.-Restoration of title:...

    , duke (1478–1492)
  • Charles IV
    Charles IV of Alençon
    Charles IV of Alençon was the son of René of Alençon and the Blessed Margaret of Vaudémont.He succeeded his father in 1492 as Duke of Alençon and Count of Perche, and was also Count of Armagnac, Fézensac, Viscount of Rodez, Count of Fezensaguet, l'Isle-Jourdain, and Perdiac.In 1509 he married...

    , duke (1492–1525)

Illegitimate family branches

  • House of Valois-Dunois, counts of Longueville (see Jean de Dunois
    Jean de Dunois
    John of Orléans, Count of Dunois was the illegitimate son of Louis d'Orléans by Mariette d'Enghien.The term "Bastard of Orléans" John of Orléans, Count of Dunois (French born "Jean Levieux Valois des Orléans" better known as Jean d'Orléans, comte de Dunois, also known as John of Orléans and...

    )
  • House of Valois-Saint-Remy, counts of Saint-Rémy (see Jeanne of Valois-Saint-Rémy)

See also

  • Ancien Régime in France
    Ancien Régime in France
    The Ancien Régime refers primarily to the aristocratic, social and political system established in France from the 15th century to the 18th century under the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties...

  • Early Modern France
    Early Modern France
    Kingdom of France is the early modern period of French history from the end of the 15th century to the end of the 18th century...

  • Kings of France family tree
  • List of French monarchs
  • Valois Tapestries
    Valois Tapestries
    The Valois Tapestries are a series of eight tapestries depicting festivities or "magnificences" at the Court of France in the second half of the 16th century. The tapestries were worked in the Spanish Netherlands, probably in Brussels or Antwerp, shortly after 1580.Scholars have not firmly...


External links


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