Truce of Altmark
The six-year Truce of Altmark (or Treaty of Stary Targ) was signed on 25 September 1629 at the Altmark (Stary Targ
Stary Targ
Stary Targ is a village in Sztum County, Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Stary Targ. It lies approximately east of Sztum and south-east of the regional capital Gdańsk...

), near Danzig (Gdańsk) by Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a dualistic state of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch. It was the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th- and 17th‑century Europe with some and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century...

 during Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

, ending the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629)
Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629)
The Polish–Swedish War of 1626–1629 was the fourth stage in a series of conflicts between Sweden and Poland fought in the 17th century...


The conditions of the truce allowed Sweden to retain control of Livonia
Livonia is a historic region along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. It was once the land of the Finnic Livonians inhabiting the principal ancient Livonian County Metsepole with its center at Turaida...

 and the mouth of the Vistula
The Vistula is the longest and the most important river in Poland, at 1,047 km in length. The watershed area of the Vistula is , of which lies within Poland ....

 river. Sweden also evacuated most of the Duchy of Prussia, but kept the coastal cities. the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth got back other Swedish gains since the 1625 invasion. The greater part of Livonia north of the Western Dvina (Vidzeme
Vidzeme is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. Literally meaning "the Middle Land" it is situated in north-central Latvia north of the Daugava River...

) was ceded to Sweden, though Latgale
Latgale is one of the four historical and cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic. It is the easternmost region north of the Daugava River...

, the southeastern area, remained under Commonwealth rule. Sweden received the right to 2/3 of all the shipping tolls at ports of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, such as Danzig and Elbląg (Elbing)
Elbląg is a city in northern Poland with 127,892 inhabitants . It is the capital of Elbląg County and has been assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship since 1999. Before then it was the capital of Elbląg Voivodeship and a county seat in Gdańsk Voivodeship...

 and from the Duchy of Prussia ports for the next six years. These shipping tolls financed Sweden's involvement in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....


In 1635, the truce was extended via the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf. Sweden gave up the Prussian ports and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth ceded most of Livonia with Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

, keeping the Daugavpils
Daugavpils is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name. Daugavpils literally means "Daugava Castle". With a population of over 100,000, it is the second largest city in the country after the capital Riga, which is located some...

 area. The Truce of Altmark was signed shortly after Sweden was defeated by Commonwealth and Holy Roman Imperial
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 troops at Trzciana (Honigfelde)
Battle of Trzciana
The Battle of Trzciana, , which took place in June 1629 was one of many battles of the Polish-Swedish War...

 also known as Sztum
Sztum is a town in northern Poland, located in the Pomeranian Voivodeship. It is the capital of Sztum County, with some 10,141 inhabitants .-History:...

 (Stuhm), at which King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Gustav II Adolf has been widely known in English by his Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus Magnus and variously in historical writings also as Gustavus, or Gustavus the Great, or Gustav Adolph the Great,...

 narrowly escaped capture. Gustavus was wounded several times and at one point was saved by one of his men - Eric Soop.

Polish parliament (Sejm
General sejm
The general sejm was the parliament of Poland for four centuries from the late 15th until the late 18th century.-Genesis:The power of early sejms grew during the period of Poland's fragmentation , when the power of individual rulers waned and that of various councils and wiece grew...

) did not impose new taxes in order to pay the soldiers of the imperial army fighting under Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg
Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg
Johann or Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg was a Field Marshal of Holy Roman Empire and the Electorate of Saxony, diplomat, and politician.Arnim was born in Boitzenburger Land, Brandenburg...

 and due to low morale some of them mutineered or went over to the Swedish side. Several other countries intervened diplomatically and Sigismund III was eventually forced to enter the truce.

Scan and edition of the treaty

Further reading

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