R-045/R-046 Starshel is a type of electronic countermeasures
Electronic countermeasures
An electronic countermeasure is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared or lasers. It may be used both offensively and defensively to deny targeting information to an enemy...

 ammunition, fired by 122 mm or 152 mm artillery
Originally applied to any group of infantry primarily armed with projectile weapons, artillery has over time become limited in meaning to refer only to those engines of war that operate by projection of munitions far beyond the range of effect of personal weapons...

 guns, respectively. It is designed to completely disrupt enemy radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

 communications on the battlefield.

Design and deployment

The Starshel rounds were developed and deployed in the early 1980s and were operationally deployed in the mid-80s. By the mid-1990s the rounds were issued to every artillery unit in the Bulgarian army as special ammunitions. A full jamming kit consists of several rounds, covering a jamming range of 20 to 100 KHz (with 5 rounds) for the R-045 and from 1,5 to 120 kHz (with 8 rounds) for the R-046. The fins of the round are deployed in-flight. After contact with the ground, an automatic fuze fires the 1,5 meter-long antenna
Antenna (radio)
An antenna is an electrical device which converts electric currents into radio waves, and vice versa. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver...

 up, which is powered by a small lithium-ion battery for at least an hour. The effective jamming range is at least 700 m. Usually 1 or 2 Starshel kits are used to completely jam enemy front-line communications on a tactical scale.


  • R-045 range: 3,000 - 14,500 m
  • R-046 range: 4,000 - 16,500 m
  • R-046 weight: 34,56 kg
  • Storage durability in rough conditions: 3 years
  • Storage durability in normal conditions: 10 years

Compatible artillery

indicates equipment, which is currently in service with the Bulgarian military


  • 2S3 Akatsiya
    2S3 Akatsiya
    SO-152 is a Soviet 152.4 mm self-propelled artillery developed in 1968. It was a response to the American 155 mm M109. The development started in 1967 according to the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of USSR from July 4, 1967. In 1968 the SO-152 was completed and in 1971 entered...

  • 152 mm gun 2A36
    152 mm gun 2A36
    The 2A36 Giatsint-B is a Soviet/Russian towed 152 mm gun which entered service in 1976. The 2A36 is designed to suppress and destroy enemy manpower and equipment. It is also suitable for counter-battery fire. The gun can be used in various weather conditions and has been tested in temperatures...

  • 152 mm howitzer 2A65
    152 mm howitzer 2A65
    The 2A65 "Msta-B" is a Soviet towed 152 mm howitzer. The "B" in the designation is an abbreviation for Buksiruemyi, or towed. This weapon has been fielded in Russian forces since at least 1987 and is currently in service with Russian front and army level artillery units...

  • D-20
    152 mm towed gun-howitzer M1955 (D-20)
    The 152 mm gun-howitzer M1955, also known as the D-20, is a manually loaded, towed 152 mm artillery piece, manufactured in the Soviet Union during the 1950s. It was first observed by the west in 1955, where it was designated the M1955. Its GRAU index is 52-P-546...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.