South German gulden
The Gulden was the currency of the states of southern Germany
18th century history of Germany
The Holy Roman Empire in the 18th century entered a period of decline that would finally lead to its dissolution during the Napoleonic Wars.Since the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the Empire had been fragmented into numerous independent states ....

 between 1754 and 1873. These states included Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

, Baden
Baden is a historical state on the east bank of the Rhine in the southwest of Germany, now the western part of the Baden-Württemberg of Germany....

, Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

, Frankfurt
Free City of Frankfurt
For almost five centuries, the German city of Frankfurt am Main was a city-state within two major Germanic states:*The Holy Roman Empire as the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt...

 and Hohenzollern.
This specific Gulden was based on the Gulden
Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch gulden — from Old Dutch for 'golden'. The guilder originated as a gold coin but has been a common name for a silver or base metal coin for some centuries...

or florin
Florin derives from the city of Florence in Italy and frequently refers to the gold coin struck in 1252.This money format was plagiarized in other countries and the word florin is used, for example, in relation to the Dutch guilder and the coin first issued in 1344 by Edward III of England, then...

used in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 during the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th to the 16th century . The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern era ....

 and Early Modern period
Early modern period
In history, the early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the Middle Ages through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions...


Shortly after the introduction of the Conventionsthaler
The Conventionstaler was a standard silver coin of the Holy Roman Empire. It was introduced in 1754 and contained one tenth of a Cologne mark of silver ....

 in 1754, various southern German states introduced the Kreuzer Landmünze. The originally planned Kreuzer
The Kreuzer, in English usually kreutzer, was a silver coin and unit of currency existing in the southern German states prior to the unification of Germany, and in Austria.-Early history:...

 (also called the Conventionskreuzer), was to have been worth 1/120 of a Conventionsthaler (see Austro-Hungarian Gulden
Austro-Hungarian gulden
The Gulden or forint was the currency of the Austrian Empire and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire between 1754 and 1892 when it was replaced by the Krone/korona as part of the introduction of the gold standard. In Austria, the Gulden was initially divided into 60 Kreuzer, and in Hungary, the...

), whereas the Kreuzer Landmünze was worth 1/144 of a Conventionsthaler (5/6 of a Conventionskreuzer), allowing the states to adopt a more debased currency. For accounting purposes, there was a Gulden of 60 Kreuzer Landmünze which was worth 5/12 of a Conventionsthaler. This Gulden (equivalent to 1/24 of a Cologne mark
Cologne mark
The Cologne Mark was a unit of weight equivalent to 233.856 grams. It was introduced by the Danish King Hans in the late 15th century and was used as a standard for weighing metals...

 of silver) was used for accounting in southern German states and appeared on banknotes but was not issued as a coin.

In 1837, the southern states of Germany formed a currency union. They adopted as the unit of currency the Gulden of 60 Kreuzer, slightly debased to 1/24½ of a Cologne mark of silver. This allowed an exchange rate with the Prussian Thaler
Prussian thaler
The Thaler was the currency of Prussia until 1857. From 1750, it was distinct from north German Reichsthaler unit of account in that it contained 1/14 of a Cologne mark of silver, rather than 1/12, and was minted as a coin...

 of 1¾ Gulden to the Thaler. Coins were issued in denominations of half Gulden, one Gulden, one Thaler and Two thaler (also denominated as 3½ Gulden), together with smaller pieces.

In 1857, the Vereinsthaler
The Vereinsthaler was a standard silver coin used in most German states and the Austrian Empire in the years prior to German unification.- Introduction :...

 was introduced with a silver content fractionally smaller than the Prussian standard. This led to a change of design for the thaler coins of southern Germany, but no changes were made to the other denominations.

The southern German Gulden was withdrawn following German unification and decimalization. One Mark was equal to 35 Kreuzer.

For details of the issues of individual states, see Baden gulden
Baden gulden
The Gulden was a currency of Baden from 1754 until 1873. Until 1821, the Gulden was a unit of account, worth 5/12 of a Conventionsthaler, used to denominate banknotes but not issued as a coin. It was subdivided into 50 Conventionskreuzer or 60 Kreuzer landmünze.In 1821, the first Gulden coins were...

, Bavarian gulden
Bavarian gulden
The Gulden was the currency of Bavaria until 1873. Between 1754 and 1837 it was a unit of account, worth of a Conventionsthaler, used to denominate banknotes but not issued as a coin...

, Württemberg gulden
Württemberg gulden
The Gulden was the currency of Württemberg until 1873. Until 1824, the Gulden was a unit of account and was used to denominate banknotes but was not issued as a coin. It was worth 5/12 of a Conventionsthaler and was subdivided into 50 Conventionskreuzer or 60 Kreuzer Landmünze.The first Gulden...

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