from 1192 to 1867. In this period, the shoguns, or their shikken
regents (1203–1333), were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally appointed by the emperor. When Portuguese
explorers first came into contact with the Japanese (see Nanban period), they described Japanese conditions in analogy, likening the emperor, with great symbolic authority but little political power, to the Pope
, and the shogun to secular European rulers, e.g.
1192 Minamoto Yoritomo becomes Seii Tai Shōgun and the ''de facto'' ruler of Japan. (Traditional Japanese date: July 12, 1192)
1615 Siege of Osaka: Forces under the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu take Osaka Castle in Japan.
1867 The 15th and the last military Shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate resigns in Japan, returning his power to the Emperor of Japan and thence to the re-established civil government of Japan
1868 Japanese Boshin War: end of the Battle of Utsunomiya Castle, former Shogunate forces withdraw northward to Aizu by way of Nikkō.