Secondary education
Overview
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education
Compulsory education
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all persons.-Antiquity to Medieval Era:Although Plato's The Republic is credited with having popularized the concept of compulsory education in Western intellectual thought, every parent in Judea since Moses's Covenant with...

 and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

. Secondary education is characterized by transition from primary education for minor
Minor (law)
In law, a minor is a person under a certain age — the age of majority — which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood; the age depends upon jurisdiction and application, but is typically 18...

s to tertiary
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

, "post-secondary", or "higher
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

" education (e.g., university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

, vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

) for adult
Adult
An adult is a human being or living organism that is of relatively mature age, typically associated with sexual maturity and the attainment of reproductive age....

s. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary school
Secondary school
Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place...

s
, high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

s
, gymnasia
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

, lyceum
Lyceum
The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.-History:...

s
, middle schools, sixth-form, colleges, vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

s
and preparatory school
University-preparatory school
A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school is a secondary school, usually private, designed to prepare students for a college or university education...

s
, and the exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems.
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary school
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

.
Encyclopedia
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education
Compulsory education
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all persons.-Antiquity to Medieval Era:Although Plato's The Republic is credited with having popularized the concept of compulsory education in Western intellectual thought, every parent in Judea since Moses's Covenant with...

 and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

. Secondary education is characterized by transition from primary education for minor
Minor (law)
In law, a minor is a person under a certain age — the age of majority — which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood; the age depends upon jurisdiction and application, but is typically 18...

s to tertiary
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

, "post-secondary", or "higher
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

" education (e.g., university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

, vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

) for adult
Adult
An adult is a human being or living organism that is of relatively mature age, typically associated with sexual maturity and the attainment of reproductive age....

s. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary school
Secondary school
Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place...

s
, high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

s
, gymnasia
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

, lyceum
Lyceum
The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.-History:...

s
, middle schools, sixth-form, colleges, vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

s
and preparatory school
University-preparatory school
A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school is a secondary school, usually private, designed to prepare students for a college or university education...

s
, and the exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems.

Secondary education in the EU

Secondary education is the stage of education following primary school
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

. Secondary education is generally the final stage of compulsory education
Compulsory education
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all persons.-Antiquity to Medieval Era:Although Plato's The Republic is credited with having popularized the concept of compulsory education in Western intellectual thought, every parent in Judea since Moses's Covenant with...

. However, secondary education in some countries includes a period of compulsory and a period of non-compulsory education. The next stage of education is usually college or university
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

. Secondary education is characterized by transition from primary education for minor
Minor (law)
In law, a minor is a person under a certain age — the age of majority — which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood; the age depends upon jurisdiction and application, but is typically 18...

s to tertiary
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

, "post-secondary", or "higher
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

" education (e.g., university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

, vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

) for adult
Adult
An adult is a human being or living organism that is of relatively mature age, typically associated with sexual maturity and the attainment of reproductive age....

s. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary schools, high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

s
, gymnasia
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

, lyceum
Lyceum
The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.-History:...

s
, middle schools, colleges, vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

s
and preparatory school
University-preparatory school
A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school is a secondary school, usually private, designed to prepare students for a college or university education...

s
, and the exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems.

Belgium

For more details see Education in Belgium - Secondary education

See below for general information (comparison with Cyprus, same framework)


1.1 General overview of education stages

The Belgian school has a three-tier education system, each stage being divided into various levels:
  • Basic education (F enseignement fondamental D basisonderwijs)
    • Nursery school (F enseignement maternel D kleuteronderwijs): for children aged 3 to 6 – is not compulsory
    • Primary school (F : enseignement primaire D lager onderwijs): for children aged 6 to 12 – is compulsory
  • Secondary education: there are three cycles (F degrés D graden)
  • Post secondary education: organised by universities or schools of higher education, but also by adult education institutions
    • 3-year further education (enseignement supérieur de type court) at bachelor level
    • 5-year further education (enseignement de type long) at master level (one or two more years for doctoral training)


1.2 Secondary Education


1.2.1 Branches of schooling ‘Networks’ (F réseaux D netten)

Two main branches of schooling were defined in “Le Pacte scolaire” (agreement signed in 1959 which allowed the parents to choose their children’s school):
The secular branch of schooling ruled by a public legal entity (le Pouvoir Organisateur) (it used to be the State, nowadays the Communities, the provinces and municipalities). This education is subsidised and supervised by the Communities.
The ‘Free’ denominational (mainly catholic) or non-denominational branch of schooling ruled by a private legal entity (PO). The curriculum depends on the free network authorities. However, the education is also subsidised and supervised by the Communities. The non-confessional branch is essentially to be found at post secondary level.
The private branch (a minority) is ruled by a private legal entity, namely the parents. The child receives education at home or at a private school. In both cases it is financed by the parents themselves.

1.2.2 Access

In the Belgian system most students are free to choose their school even if it is far from where they live. But a new system is being introduced to regulate the enrolment of children when they enter the first year at secondary level. This system takes various elements into account: the parents’ choice (nine possibilities), the proximity between the primary school and the secondary school…)

http://www.inscription.cfwb.be/index.php?id=299

1.2.3 Types

The first cycle gathers all the students. From the second cycle the students are faced with choices which might define their future careers.
  • General education (F enseignement secondaire general D algemeen secundair onderwijs): the students are faced with academic subjects.
  • Technical education (F enseignement secondaire technique D technisch secundair onderwijs), half of the subjects being academic and half non academic.
    • General-oriented technical education (F technique de transition), which lasts 4 to 5 years.
    • Vocational-oriented education, (F technique de qualification) which lasts 4 to 5 years.
  • Vocational training (F enseignement secondaire professionnel D beroepssecundair onderwijs) and artistic education (F enseignement secondaire artistique D kunstsecundair onderwijs) lasts 4 to 5 years and consists mainly of non academic subjects.


Apprenticeship : This is an alternative to the traditional system and consists mainly in workplace training. This type of education is provided by CEFAs (Centre d’Enseignement et de formation en Alternance).
  • Special education for children with special needs.


1.2.4 Curriculum

The Networks (branches of schooling) impose the curriculum but the Communities supervise the education given to check if it is respected. There is a list of core subjects which are compulsory, but the number may vary from one year to another or from one course of study to another.
  • General education: native language, maths, history, geography, religion or moral philosophy, the first foreign language (either English or Dutch for the French-speaking students/ English or French for the Dutch-speaking students).
  • Technical and vocational education: Native language, maths, social studies, religion or moral philosophy, (the first foreign language), but the number of periods a week is inferior.


In each type of education there are also statutory subjects (F options).

The general education core subjects/ statutory subject ratio is less important than the technical and vocational education ratio.
The general level students can choose literary, scientific or linguistic subjects or sports. So, according to the main subjects chosen, the number of periods a week varies. Usually two main subjects are associated: Latin/maths, social sciences/languages, science/PE …
In the technical and vocational education, the subjects chosen are more work-related: agronomy, industry, construction industry, catering, textile, services, economy, applied art, applied science, applied computer science, fine arts…

1.2.5 Timetables

Generally speaking, students go to school from Sept 1 to June 30, from Monday to Friday and most have the Wednesday afternoon off. The timetables vary from one school to another but the lessons usually start around 8:00 am. During the school day there are two or three breaks, one at 10:00 for about 15 minutes, one at noon for about one hour and finish around 4:00 pm and one in the afternoon in some schools. The amount of periods varies from 29 to 34 fifty-minute periods a week.

The official holidays are a one-week mid-term holiday in October/November, two weeks at Christmas, a one-week mid-term holiday in February/March, two weeks at Easter and the two-month summer holiday, plus four half days chosen by the school.

1.2.6 Certification of secondary education

Certifying exams take place every year, generally in December and June. They are prepared and marked by the students’ teachers, although some external exams also exist. However, they are not certifying exams for the time being. This may change in the future.
  • General education: the students completing this cycle get the CESS (Certificat d’Enseignement Secondaire Supérieur). This degree no longer allows the students to get a job. Anyway, most of them generally go on to study. This is the best preparation for those who want to go to university or to a school of higher education.

  • Transition Technical Education: the students completing this cycle also get the CESS. A seventh year is sometimes necessary to prepare the students who want to go on to study, depending on their choice.

  • Qualification technical Education: the students completing this cycle also receive the CESS. They also get a CQ (certificate de qualification), which entitles them to look for a job. But a seventh year is sometimes necessary to prepare the students who want to go on to study, depending on their choice.

  • Vocational or Artistic Education: the students completing this cycle (after the 6th or 7th year) get a CQ. A seventh year is compulsory for the students who want to go on to study and therefore get their CESS.


1.2.7 Parents’ role

According to their own education level, the parents can or cannot help their children. But as a matter of fact, the students have to learn autonomy during this period.
There exist parents’ associations, who also take part in councils called Conseils de participation. The parents’ role varies a lot from one school to another. In some schools it only consists in coming to parents’ meetings to discuss their children’s situation and/or to school open days (generally called Portes Ouvertes).

1.2.8 Presence of Clubs at school

Every school is free to organise its own chess, football, basketball…team and take part in championships, tournaments, etc. As for sports, an association called FRSEL (Fédération royale sportive de l’enseignement libre), for example, organises such events. These activities are purely optional and usually take place on Wednesday afternoons.
Teachers can also organise workshops themselves on a purely voluntary basis. What’s more students can have their own activities (not organised by the school).

1.2.9 Uniforms

In many schools the uniform was suppressed in the seventies. Some schools have decided to re-introduce it owing to the discrimination caused by differences in clothing.
In many schools, however, only a t-shirt with the school logo is required for PE lessons and specific clothes for technical and vocational subjects.
For oral examinations upper-level students are often required to wear a suit and tie for boys and a skirt and blouse for girls.

1.2.10 Costs

The secondary education is free although school stationery, swimming pool and trip expenses are generally payable by the parents.

1.2.11 Private lessons


Private lessons are more and more frequent, even if it is quite low compared with other European countries. In 2010 one family out of ten has to find help outside school. These private lessons mainly aim at helping students in difficulty. The subjects students have the most difficulty with are maths, French, Dutch, English and chemistry. These lessons are given either at the teacher’s home or at the student’s. They cost about €25 for an hour but there is no rule. University students also give private lessons for about €17 an hour.

1.3 Access to University or schools of higher education

The CESS is required in all cases. There are some exceptions. For example there is an entrance examination for the ones who want to study Engineering Sciences (Ingénieur Civil).

Cyprus

1.1 General overview of education stages

Cyprus has a three-tier educational system, each stage being divided into specific levels:
  • Basic education
    • Nursery (Ages 3-5) Not obligatory
    • Pre-primary school (Ages 5-6) At the age of five, children normally attend the pre primary class, which prepares them to join Primary school
  • Primary school (Ages 6-12)Primary school has six grades.
  • Secondary education
    • Gymnasium (Ages 12-15) After primary school, students attend the lower secondary school (GYMNASIUM) which has three grades.
    • Eniaio Lykeio or Unified Lyceum (Ages 15-18)
  • Post secondary education Public Tertiary Institutions or Universities


1.2 Secondary Education


1.2.1 Branches of schooling ‘Networks’ (F réseaux D netten)


1.2.2 Access


1.2.3 Types
  • General Secondary Education offers a six-year educational programme for students aged between 12 and 18.
    • At the Gymnasium (Lower Secondary school), the main orientation is the general humanistic education. Education at Gymnasium is compulsory for the first three years, up to the age of 15.
    • At the Lykeio (Upper Secondary school), the educational system is more flexible and offers various specialisations depending on the inclination, skills and interests of the students. The Upper Secondary cycle of the Public Secondary General Education offers a three-year duration programme for students aged between 15and 18.

  • Secondary Technical and Vocational Education is offered in two streams, a Theoretical and a Practical one. Students who have successfully completed the 3rd grade at the Gymnasium, are eligible to study these programmes.


Evening classes come under Secondary Education and operate in the evening. Those who have reached their 18th year of age, or their 15th year of age and are evidently able to work, can register in evening classes.

1.2.4 Curriculum
  • Gymnasium

Modern Greek, Ancient Greek, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, History, Religious Studies, English, French, Career Education, Music and Art are taught at the Gymnasium and these subjects are common for all students.
  • Lykeio
    • In the first grade, (class A), all subjects are common core ones, which means that they are compulsory: These are , Modern Greek, Ancient Greek, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, French, Music, Art, Religious studies and Computer Science
    • In the second grade, (class B), students are required to attend 19 periods of common core subjects and of compulsory foreign languages. In addition, they must also select three or four stream subjects of four periods per week and either two or zero courses of special interest or enrichment of two periods per week.
    • In the third and final grade, (class C), students are required to attend 17 teaching periods of common core subjects and of compulsory foreign languages. They should also select four stream subjects of four periods per week and one subject of special interest or enrichment of two periods per week.


1.2.5 Timetables

Students go to school from Sept 10th to May 20th, from Monday to Friday.The lessons start at 7:30 and finish at 13:35.During the school day there are three breaks, one at 9:00 that lasts 15minutes, one at 10:45 that lasts 25 minutes and one at 12:40 that lasts 10 minutes.There are 35 forty-five minute periods a week.


School Holidays:
October 1st, October 28th, December 23rd – January 6th, January 30th, March 25th, April 1st, May 1st, Good Monday – Friday after Easter Week, Holy Spirit, Green Monday, Summer holidays: From June to September
1.2.6 Certification of secondary education
  • Unified Lyceum: An indicative certificate (for those who successfully complete grades A and B) or a School Leaving Certificate (APOLYTERION), for those who graduate, is awarded at the end of the school year to all successful students. The School Leaving Certificate is a qualification for employment in office work.
  • Secondary Technical and Vocational Education: Upon successful completion of the programme, students of TVE are awarded a School Leaving Certificate, (APOLYTERION), which is recognized as equivalent to a School Leaving Certificate of a public three-grade Upper -Secondary school.


1.2.7 Parents’ role


1.2.8 Presence of Clubs at school

The Unified Lyceum Programme «Action – Creativity – Social Contribution» («A. C. S. ») The program «A.C.S. » is organized by the school and is approved by the Ministry of Education and Culture. The program is compulsory for all students and their participation is a prerequisite to a successful completion of the curriculum for each grade and for obtaining a school leaving certificate. The activities that have been organized by schools so far, are now regularized, enriched and upgraded through this program.

1.2.9 Uniforms

School uniform is compulsory for all students in Cyprus.
The uniform comprises of grey trousers or jeans for boys and grey skirt or jeans for girls and white, black or grey t-shirt.
There is also a special uniform for PE classes.

1.2.10 Costs

The secondary education in Cyprus is free for all students. The books are also provided to students for free.

1.2.11 Private lessons

Private lessons in Cyprus are very common. Almost all students prepare for external exams, usually GCE A´ and O´ Levels through private tuition, to ensure access to foreign universities, especially in the UK. A lot of students, especially in Lyceum take private lessons at subjects they have difficulties.

1.3 Access to University or schools of higher education

Access to Public Tertiary Institutions in Cyprus and Greece can be achieved through the National Entrance exams, while the School Leaving Certificate can ensure access to private tertiary institutions

Cyprus

1.1 General overview of education stages

Cyprus has a three-tier educational system, each stage being divided into specific levels:
  • Basic education
    • Nursery (Ages 3–5) Not obligatory
    • Pre-primary school (Ages 5–6) At the age of five, children normally attend the pre primary class, which prepares them to join Primary school
  • Primary school (Ages 6–12)Primary school has six grades.
  • Secondary education
    • Gymnasium (Ages 12–15) After primary school, students attend the lower secondary school (GYMNASIUM) which has three grades.
    • Eniaio Lykeio or Unified Lyceum (Ages 15–18)
  • Post secondary education Public Tertiary Institutions or Universities


1.2 Secondary Education

1.2.1 Branches of schooling ‘Networks’ (F réseaux D netten)

1.2.2 Access

1.2.3 Types
  • General Secondary Education offers a six-year educational programme for students aged between 12 and 18.
    • At the Gymnasium (Lower Secondary school), the main orientation is the general humanistic education. Education at Gymnasium is compulsory for the first three years, up to the age of 15.
    • At the Lykeio (Upper Secondary school), the educational system is more flexible and offers various specialisations depending on the inclination, skills and interests of the students. The Upper Secondary cycle of the Public Secondary General Education offers a three-year duration programme for students aged between 15and 18.

  • Secondary Technical and Vocational Education is offered in two streams, a Theoretical and a Practical one. Students who have successfully completed the 3rd grade at the Gymnasium, are eligible to study these programmes.


Evening classes come under Secondary Education and operate in the evening. Those who have reached their 18th year of age, or their 15th year of age and are evidently able to work, can register in evening classes.

1.2.4 Curriculum
  • Gymnasium

Modern Greek, Ancient Greek, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, History, Religious Studies, English, French, Career Education, Music and Art are taught at the Gymnasium and these subjects are common for all students.
  • Lykeio
    • In the first grade, (class A), all subjects are common core ones, which means that they are compulsory: These are, Modern Greek, Ancient Greek, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, French, Music, Art, Religious studies and Computer Science
    • In the second grade, (class B), students are required to attend 19 periods of common core subjects and of compulsory foreign languages. In addition, they must also select three or four stream subjects of four periods per week and either two or zero courses of special interest or enrichment of two periods per week.
    • In the third and final grade, (class C), students are required to attend 17 teaching periods of common core subjects and of compulsory foreign languages. They should also select four stream subjects of four periods per week and one subject of special interest or enrichment of two periods per week.


1.2.5 Timetables

Students go to school from Sept 10th to May 20, from Monday to Friday.The lessons start at 7:30 and finish at 13:35.During the school day there are three breaks, one at 9:00 that lasts 15minutes, one at 10:45 that lasts 25 minutes and one at 12:40 that lasts 10 minutes.There are 35 forty-five minute periods a week.

School Holidays:
October 1, October 28, December 23 – January 6, January 30, March 25, April 1, May 1, Good Monday – Friday after Easter Week, Holy Spirit, Green Monday, Summer holidays: From June to September

1.2.6 Certification of secondary education
  • Unified Lyceum: An indicative certificate (for those who successfully complete grades A and B) or a School Leaving Certificate (APOLYTERION), for those who graduate, is awarded at the end of the school year to all successful students. The School Leaving Certificate is a qualification for employment in office work.
  • Secondary Technical and Vocational Education: Upon successful completion of the programme, students of TVE are awarded a School Leaving Certificate, (APOLYTERION), which is recognized as equivalent to a School Leaving Certificate of a public three-grade Upper -Secondary school.


1.2.7 Parents’ role

1.2.8 Presence of Clubs at school

The Unified Lyceum Programme «Action – Creativity – Social Contribution» («A. C. S. ») The program «A.C.S. » is organized by the school and is approved by the Ministry of Education and Culture. The program is compulsory for all students and their participation is a prerequisite to a successful completion of the curriculum for each grade and for obtaining a school leaving certificate. The activities that have been organized by schools so far, are now regularized, enriched and upgraded through this program.

1.2.9 Uniforms

School uniform is compulsory for all students in Cyprus.
The uniform comprises grey trousers or jeans for boys and grey skirt or jeans for girls and white, black or grey t-shirt.
There is also a special uniform for PE classes.

1.2.10 Costs

The secondary education in Cyprus is free for all students. The books are also provided to students for free.

1.2.11 Private lessons

Private lessons in Cyprus are very common. Almost all students prepare for external exams, usually GCE A´ and O´ Levels through private tuition, to ensure access to foreign universities, especially in the UK. A lot of students, especially in Lyceum take private lessons at subjects they have difficulties.

1.3 Access to University or schools of higher education

Access to Public Tertiary Institutions in Cyprus and Greece can be achieved through the National Entrance exams, while the School Leaving Certificate can ensure access to private tertiary institutions

Czech Republic

The Czech school system is, due to historic reasons, almost the same as the German school system. The school system is free and mandatory to age 16. After the Základní škola (Elementary School) in age of 16, students are directed to three different optional secondary education schools:
  • Střední odborné učiliště (SOU) - designed for students going into a trade (e.g., carpentry, masonry, auto-mechanic etc.) Education is 3 years long and entrance exam free, combined with practice(one week study in school/one week practice in factory, bakery,building site... etc.), finished with a certificate.

  • Střední odborná škola (SOŠ) - designed for students going into a profession (accountant, technician, kindergarten teacher..) and finishes with maturita as exit exam. The leaving exam consist of 2 compulsory and 2 optional subjects. Compulsory subjects are Czech language and World Literature and one other language. Optional ones depend on the type of school (mathematics, physics, accounting, etc.) The study is 4 years long and you need to pass an entrance exam (Czech Language and Mathematics or Physics, varies with the type of school)

  • Gymnasium - designed for students going to university/college and finishes with a maturita exam. Also with two mandatory subjects Czech language and World Literature and one other language. Optional subjects vary, usually between humanistic and science. The study is 4, 6 or 8 years long. In case of 6 (8) years one, the pupils finish elementary school two (four) years earlier and this two (four) years has harder studying programme on Gymnasium. There are also entry exams to all these programmes.


The maturita is required for study in University. The Abitur from Gymnasium is better for Humanistic pointed University and SOŠ Abitur is better for Technical pointed university.

Croatia

Secondary education is currently optional, although most political parties now advocate the stance that it should also become compulsory.

Secondary schools in Croatia are subdivided into:
  • gymnasiums
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

     with four available educational tracks; prirodoslovno-matematička gimnazija (specializing in math,informatics and science), jezična gimnazija (with at least three foreign languages required), klasična gimnazija (with a curriculum centered around classics
    Classics
    Classics is the branch of the Humanities comprising the languages, literature, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and other culture of the ancient Mediterranean world ; especially Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome during Classical Antiquity Classics (sometimes encompassing Classical Studies or...

    , namely Latin
    Latin
    Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

     and Ancient Greek
    Ancient Greek
    Ancient Greek is the stage of the Greek language in the periods spanning the times c. 9th–6th centuries BC, , c. 5th–4th centuries BC , and the c. 3rd century BC – 6th century AD of ancient Greece and the ancient world; being predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek...

    ) and opća gimnazija (which covers a general education and is not as specific)
  • vocational school
    Vocational school
    A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

    s


Gymnasiums, schools of economics and schools of engineering take four years. There are also some vocational schools that last only three years.

Secondary schools supply students with primary subjects needed for the necessary work environment in Croatia. People who completed secondary school are classified as "medium expertise" (srednja stručna sprema or SSS).

There are currently around 90 gymnasiums and some 300 vocational schools in Croatia. The public secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of regional government, the counties.

Denmark

In Denmark it is mandatory to receive education answering to the basic school syllabus until the 10th year of school education. Since 2009 has it been compulsory also to attend pre-school. Furthermore can pupils choose a 11th year of school. After the basic school the majority of pupils between ages 15–19 usually choose to go through the 3-year "Gymnasium
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

", which is University-preparatory. If not attending Gymnasium, the most common alternative is attending vocational training. There are over 100 different vocational courses in Denmark.

Finland

The Finnish education system is a comparatively egalitarian
Egalitarianism
Egalitarianism is a trend of thought that favors equality of some sort among moral agents, whether persons or animals. Emphasis is placed upon the fact that equality contains the idea of equity of quality...

 Nordic system. This means for example no tuition
Tuition
Tuition payments, known primarily as tuition in American English and as tuition fees in British English, Canadian English, Australian English, New Zealand English and Indian English, refers to a fee charged for educational instruction during higher education.Tuition payments are charged by...

 fees for full-time students and free meals are served to pupils. There are private schools but they are made unattractive by legislation.

The second level education is not compulsory, but an overwhelming majority attends. There is a choice between upper secondary school (lukio, gymnasium
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

) and vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

 (ammatillinen oppilaitos, yrkesinstitut). Graduates of both upper secondary school and vocational school can apply to study in further education (University and Polytechnics).

Upper secondary school, unlike vocational school, concludes with a nationally graded matriculation examination
Abitur
Abitur is a designation used in Germany, Finland and Estonia for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling, see also for Germany Abitur after twelve years.The Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife, often referred to as...

 (ylioppilastutkinto, studentexamen). Passing the test is a de facto prerequisite for further education. The system is designed so that approximately the lowest scoring 5% fails and also 5% get the best grade. The exam allows for a limited degree of specialization in either natural sciences or social sciences. The graduation is an important and formal family event, like christening
Infant baptism
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children. In theological discussions, the practice is sometimes referred to as paedobaptism or pedobaptism from the Greek pais meaning "child." The practice is sometimes contrasted with what is called "believer's baptism", or...

, wedding
Wedding
A wedding is the ceremony in which two people are united in marriage or a similar institution. Wedding traditions and customs vary greatly between cultures, ethnic groups, religions, countries, and social classes...

, and funeral
Funeral
A funeral is a ceremony for celebrating, sanctifying, or remembering the life of a person who has died. Funerary customs comprise the complex of beliefs and practices used by a culture to remember the dead, from interment itself, to various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in their honor...

.

In the OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an international economic organisation of 34 countries founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade...

's international assessment of student performance, PISA
Programme for International Student Assessment
The Programme for International Student Assessment is a worldwide evaluation in OECD member countries of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance, performed first in 2000 and repeated every three years...

, Finland has consistently been among the highest scorers worldwide; in 2003, Finnish 15-year-olds came first in reading literacy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

, science
Science
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

, and mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

; and second in problem solving
Problem solving
Problem solving is a mental process and is part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding and problem shaping. Consideredthe most complex of all intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of...

, worldwide. The World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
The World Economic Forum is a Swiss non-profit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, best known for its annual meeting in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland....

 ranks Finland's tertiary education #1 in the world.

Germany

The German school system is free and compulsory through to the age of 18. After the Grundschule (primary/elementary school lasting four to six years), teachers recommend each pupil for one of three different types of secondary education. Parents have the final say about which school their child will attend.
  • Hauptschule
    Hauptschule
    A Hauptschule is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education according to the International Standard Classification of Education...

     - designed for students going into trades such as construction; complete after 9th or 10th grade (ages 14 to 16). During apprenticeships, pupils then attend Berufsschule, a dual-education vocational high school. The Hauptschule has been subject to sigdren of immigrants with schoolmates whose German is also poor, leading to a cycle of poverty.
  • Realschule
    Realschule
    The Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. It has also existed in Croatia , Denmark , Sweden , Hungary and in the Russian Empire .-History:The Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and...

     - designed for students who want to apprentice for white-collar jobs not requiring university studies, such as banking; complete after 10th grade (age 15 to 16). Those who change their minds and decide to attend university can proceed after testing to:
  • Gymnasium
    Gymnasium
    Gymnasium may refer to:*Gymnasium , educational and sporting institution*Gymnasium , type of secondary school that prepares students for higher education**Gymnasium **Gymnasium...

     - academic preparatory school for pupils planning to attend universities or polytechnics. Some offer a classical education (Latin, Greek), while others concentrate on economics and the like. The curriculum leading to the Abitur
    Abitur
    Abitur is a designation used in Germany, Finland and Estonia for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling, see also for Germany Abitur after twelve years.The Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife, often referred to as...

     degree were recently reduced from 13th grade to 12th grade (ages 17 to 18 - "G8," eight years of Gymnasium).

The Gesamtschule, a mixed ability school, puts all pupils in a single building, combining the three main types; these are still quite rare.

Students with special needs are assigned to Förderschule.

Italy

Secondary school (Scuola secondaria) starts at age 11, after 5 years of Primary school, and lasts 8 years.

Secondary school is divided in 3 + 5 years, according to the following scheme:
  • Scuola secondaria di I grado (first grade secondary school, previously scuola media, middle school, by which it is still called): it is mandatory and lasts 3 years and is the first stage in which different specialized professors teach different subjects. It has a common programme for all pupils, and covers all the classical subjects (Italian language and literature, History, Geography, Mathematics, Natural sciences, English language, a second Foreign Language - usually French, German or Spanish, Technology, Arts, Music, and Physical Education).

It ends with a final exam, which awards a diploma, which includes:
    • 4 written tests prepared by each examining board: Italian, Mathematics, and the two foreign languages
    • an experimental nationally assessed test for tracking progresses in reading comprehension, language knowledge, reasoning skills and basic mathematical skills
    • an overall oral examination on all subjects.

The final grade is a number from 6 to 10 (the best).
  • Scuola secondaria di II grado (second grade secondary school): it lasts 5 years and many different paths exist, which can freely be chosen by the pupil and his/her family; the first 2 years are madatory, the other 3 are not.
    • Liceo: it is the general purpose kind of school, traditionally chosen by those wanting to pursue higher education (university or arts academy). Depending on the area of interest of the pupils, different subkinds exist whose programmes are mostly decided at national level, but all offer at least basic teachings in Italian language and Literature, History, Geography, Philosophy, Mathematics, Physics, Biology, Chemistry, a foreign language (usually English, but also French, German or Spanish), History of Arts and Physical Education:
      • Liceo Classico which focuses on Literature and Classical Studies (Latin and ancient Greek)
      • Liceo Scientifico which focuses on Mathematics and Sciences
      • Liceo Linguistico which focuses on Modern languages
      • Liceo delle Scienze Umane which focuses either on Psichology and Sociology or Law and Economics
      • Liceo Artistico which focuses on different arts (graphical, sculpture, etc...)
      • Liceo Musicale e Coreutico which focuses on music or dance
    • Istituto Tecnico: it is a technical school originally reserved for those who sought a highly qualified work, but today more and more used as a different route to access university. Different paths exist whose programmes are mostly decided at national level, but a general basic education is provided to every pupil, similarly to the liceo, but less focused on the Humanities (no philosophy or arts, but more mathematics than in the non-scientifical liceo); the main ones are:
      • Economico which focuses on how to run all aspects of running the economical and managing part of a business
      • Meccanico which focuses on the processes of design and production of machinery and vehicles
      • Elettronico which focuses on the process of production of electrical and electronical devices
      • Informatico which focuses on managing computers and communication devices
      • Chimico focusing on chemical processes for the industry
      • Agrario focusing on agronomy and farming
      • Costruzioni focusing on the processes linked to the civil engineering and building industry
    • Istituto Professionale: it is a manly vocational school which offers a very specialized formation on a specific field for those looking into entering work; it is generally organized at local level according to the local economy and industry and based on broad national guidelines; it offers periods of stage in the local firms as a part of their courses. A general basic education is given to all pupils.


All kind of secondary schools end with an examination (Esame di Stato, state exam, but usually still called with the traditional name Esame di Maturità, Maturity exam) whose score is on a 100 point scale:
  • up to 25 points for the general marks obtained through the last 3 years (students barely passing each year are awarded 10 points total)
  • up to 45 points (15 each) on three (or four for some special cases) different written tests (each test judged sufficient is awarded at least 10 points):
    • Italian Language and Literature, decided at national level and the same for all examinees: either a text comprehension and critique, or the writing of an essay
    • a subject dependent on the kind of school followed, decided at national level for each different path
    • a third test prepared by each examining board based on the programmes of all the subjects of the last year of study
  • up to 30 points on an overall oral exam regarding all the subjects of the last year (an oral exam judged sufficient is awarded at least 20 points)
  • up to 5 points (to a maximum of 100) in cases the examining board judges appropriate to meriting students.


The exam is passed with a score of 60 or more, and any secondary school diploma is valid for access to any university course.

Netherlands

In The Netherlands, high school is called middelbare school (literally: "middle-level school") and starts right after the 6th grade of primary school (group 8). The pupils who attend high school are around the age of 12. Because education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 4 and 16 (and partially compulsory between the ages of 16 and 18), all pupils must attend high school.

The high schools are part of the voortgezet onderwijs (literally: "continued education"). The voortgezet onderwijs consists of 3 main streams: vmbo
Voorbereidend middelbaar beroepsonderwijs
The vmbo education is a school track in the Netherlands. It lasts four years, from the age of twelve to sixteen. It combines vocational training with theoretical education in languages, mathematics, history, arts and sciences...

, which has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels; havo
Hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs
The havo or hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs is a stream in the secondary educational system of the Netherlands. It has five grades and is generally attended from age twelve to seventeen...

, which has 5 grades, and vwo
Voorbereidend Wetenschappelijk Onderwijs
Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs or pre-university secondary education is the highest variant in the secondary educational system of the Netherlands. After leaving elementary school students are enrolled in different types of secondary schools, according to their academic ability...

, which has 6 grades. The choice for a particular stream is made based on the scores of an aptitude test (most commonly the CITO test), the advice of the grade 6 teacher, and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers. It is possible to switch between streams. After completing a particular stream, a pupil can continue in the penultimate year of the next stream, from vmbo to havo, and from havo to vwo.

Successfully completing a particular stream grants access to different levels of tertiary education
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

. After vmbo, a pupil can continue training at the mbo ("middle-level applied education"). A havo diploma allows for admission to the hbo ("higher professional education"), which are universities of professional education
Vocational university
A vocational university is an institution of higher education and sometimes research, which provides both tertiary and sometimes quaternary education and grants academic degrees at all levels in a variety of subjects...

. Only with vwo can a pupil enter into a research university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

.

Portugal

In Portuguese, the word for high school used to be liceu, it was now recently replaced for Escola Secundária (secondary school
Secondary school
Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place...

 which includes 7th to 9th grade) and covers grades 10th to 12th. After completing High School students may choose to go to Universidade (University
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

) or Instituto Politécnico (Polytechnic Institute).
Also, students may choose to pursue an artistic career, in such case they may audition to the National Conservatory or one of Portugal's Art Schools.
The Portuguese government is currently considering the extension of the Compulsory Education to the 12th grade, instead of the 9th.
In High School, student can only move on to the next grade if they pass with a satisfactory CGPA (cumulative grade point average).

Republic of Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

 secondary school starts at the age of 12, and lasts three or optionally five or six years. The main types of secondary school
Secondary school
Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place...

 are: community school
Community school
The term "community school" refers to types of publicly funded school in England, Wales, the Republic of Ireland, the United States, Australia, Canada and New Zealand to a school that serves as both an educational institution and a centre of community life. A community school is both a place and a...

s, comprehensive school
Comprehensive school
A comprehensive school is a state school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude. This is in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of a selection criteria. The term is commonly used in relation to the United...

s, colleges (though this term is more usually applied to third-level institutions like universities), vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

s, voluntary secondary school
Voluntary secondary school
A voluntary secondary school in Ireland is a type of secondary education school that is privately owned and managed, often by church authorities, especially in the case of the Roman Catholic religion...

s and meánscoileanna
Gaelscoil
A gaelscoil is an Irish-medium primary school in Ireland, of a sort found outside the traditionally Irish-speaking regions, especially in urban areas....

 (secondary schools that teach all subjects through Irish
Irish language
Irish , also known as Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is now spoken as a first language by a minority of Irish people, as well as being a second language of a larger proportion of...

). After three years (age 14-16), every student takes a compulsory state exam known as the Junior Certificate
Junior Certificate
The Junior Certificate is an educational qualification awarded in Ireland by the Department of Education to students who have successfully completed the junior cycle of secondary education, and achieved a minimum standard in their Junior Cert. examinations...

. Typically a student will sit exams in 9 to 11 subjects; English (L1), Irish (L2), a Foreign Language (L3) and Mathematics are compulsory.

After completing the Junior Certificate
Junior Certificate
The Junior Certificate is an educational qualification awarded in Ireland by the Department of Education to students who have successfully completed the junior cycle of secondary education, and achieved a minimum standard in their Junior Cert. examinations...

, a student may continue for two years to take a second state exam, the Leaving Certificate
Leaving Certificate
The Leaving Certificate Examinations , commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert is the final examination in the Irish secondary school system. It takes a minimum of two years preparation, but an optional Transition Year means that for those students it takes place three years after the Junior...

, around age 17-18. Students typically take 6-8 subjects. Except in exceptional circumstances, subjects taken must include Irish (L1), English (L2), a foreign language (L3) and Mathematics. Leaving Certificate results directly determine admission to university via a ranking system managed by the CAO
Central Applications Office
The Central Applications Office is the organisation responsible for overseeing most undergraduate applications in the Republic of Ireland....

. More than 80% of students who complete the Junior Certificate
Junior Certificate
The Junior Certificate is an educational qualification awarded in Ireland by the Department of Education to students who have successfully completed the junior cycle of secondary education, and achieved a minimum standard in their Junior Cert. examinations...

 continue to the Leaving Certificate
Leaving Certificate
The Leaving Certificate Examinations , commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert is the final examination in the Irish secondary school system. It takes a minimum of two years preparation, but an optional Transition Year means that for those students it takes place three years after the Junior...

.

There is an optional year in many secondary schools in Ireland known as Transition Year
Transition Year
Transition Year is an optional one-year school programme that can be taken in the year after the Junior Certificate in Ireland and is intended to make the senior cycle a three year programme encompassing both Transition Year and Leaving Certificate...

, which some students choose to take after completing the Junior Certificate
Junior Certificate
The Junior Certificate is an educational qualification awarded in Ireland by the Department of Education to students who have successfully completed the junior cycle of secondary education, and achieved a minimum standard in their Junior Cert. examinations...

, and before starting the Leaving Certificate
Leaving Certificate
The Leaving Certificate Examinations , commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert is the final examination in the Irish secondary school system. It takes a minimum of two years preparation, but an optional Transition Year means that for those students it takes place three years after the Junior...

. Focusing on broadening horizons, the year is often structured around student projects such as producing a magazine, charity work, running a small business, etc. Regular classes may be mixed with classes on music, drama, public speaking, etc. Transition Year
Transition Year
Transition Year is an optional one-year school programme that can be taken in the year after the Junior Certificate in Ireland and is intended to make the senior cycle a three year programme encompassing both Transition Year and Leaving Certificate...

 is not formally examined but student progress is monitored by teachers on a continuous basis. Programs vary from school to school. This year also focuses on giving the children an insight into the working world through work experience placements.

In addition to the main school system, Ireland has a parallel system of vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

s, which place less focus on academic subjects and more on vocational and technical skills - around 25% of students attend these. Many vocational schools also offer night classes to adults. There is also a prominent movement known as Gaelscoil
Gaelscoil
A gaelscoil is an Irish-medium primary school in Ireland, of a sort found outside the traditionally Irish-speaking regions, especially in urban areas....

eanna where every subject is taught through the Irish Language
Irish language
Irish , also known as Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is now spoken as a first language by a minority of Irish people, as well as being a second language of a larger proportion of...

, and these are growing fast in number.

Slovenia

In Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

, a variety of high-school institutions for secondary education exists one can choose in accordance with his or her interests, abilities and beliefs. The majority of them are public and government-funded, although there are some diocesan upper secondary schools and a Waldorf upper secondary school, which are private and require tuition to be paid.

Upper secondary schools
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

(Sln. gimnazije) are the most elite and the most difficult high-school programmes, intended for the best students that wish to pursue university education in the future. They are further divided into general upper secondary schools, classical upper secondary schools, technical upper secondary schools, upper secondary schools for arts, and upper secondary schools for business. They all last for four years and conclude with a compulsory leaving examination (Sln. matura) that is a prerequsite for studying at universities. Their curricula include a wide range of subjects that should deliver a broad general knowledge.

Technical high schools last for four years and cover a wide range of disciplines. They end with a vocational leaving examination and allow pupils to study at vocational or professional colleges.

Vocational high schools come in two varieties: the dual and in school-based programme. For the former, the apprenticeship is provided by employers, while the practical training for the latter is offered in school. Both of them complete with a final examination. Students may continue their education in the two-year vocational-technical programme (colloquially known as 3+2 programme), which prepares them for vocational leaving exam if they want to pursue higher education.

The leaving exam course is a one-year programme, intended for vocational leaving exam graduates. After completing leaving exam course, they take the leaving examination, which makes the eligible for university education.

The Vocational course is a one-year programme provided to upper secondary school students who, for various reasons, do not want to continue their education. It concludes with a final examinations, qualifying the applicants for a selected occupation.

Spain

Main article: Education in Spain
Education in Spain
The current system of education in Spain is known as LOE after the Ley Orgánica de Educación, or Fundamental Law of Education. Education in Spain is compulsory, and free from 6 to 16 years of age, supported by the Government in each Region....



Secondary education in Spain is called
Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (Compulsory Secondary Education), usually known as E.S.O., and lasts for 4 years (12 to 16). As its name indicates, every Spanish citizen must, by law, attend secondary education when they arrive at the defined age. The State is also committed to guaranteeing every student the possibility of attending it, and also at a state run school (hence no tuition fees) if so demanded.

United Kingdom

Main articles: Education in the United Kingdom
Education in the United Kingdom
Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England, and the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are...


In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 secondary schools offer secondary education covering the later years of schooling. State secondary schools in England and Wales are classed as either (selective) grammar schools, (non-selective) comprehensive schools, city technology colleges
City Technology College
In England, a City Technology College is a state-funded all-ability secondary school that charges no fees but is independent of local authority control, being overseen directly by the Department for Education....

 or academies. Within Scotland, there are only two types of state-run schools, Roman Catholic or non-denominational. Most secondary schools in England and Wales are comprehensive schools. Grammar schools have been retained in some counties in England. Academies (previously known as city academies) are a new type of school introduced in 2000 by the New Labour government of Tony Blair. Independent secondary schools
Independent school (UK)
An independent school is a school that is not financed through the taxation system by local or national government and is instead funded by private sources, predominantly in the form of tuition charges, gifts and long-term charitable endowments, and so is not subject to the conditions imposed by...

 generally take pupils at 13.

The table below lists the equivalent secondary school year systems used in the United Kingdom:
Scotland England, Wales Northern Ireland Equivalent Ages
Primary 7 Year 7 (First Form) Year 8 (First Form) 11-12
First Year (Secondary 1) Year 8 (Second Form) Year 9 (Second Form) 12-13
Second Year (Secondary 2) Year 9 (Third Form) Year 10 (Third Form) 13-14
Third Year (Secondary 3) Year 10 (Fourth Form) Year 11 (Fourth Form) 14-15
Fourth Year (Secondary 4) Year 11 (Fifth Form) Year 12 (Fifth Form) 15-16
Fifth Year (Secondary 5) Year 12
Lower Sixth AS
First Year College
Year 13 [Post 16] Lower Sixth 16-17
Sixth Year (Secondary 6) Year 13
Upper Sixth A2
Second Year College
Year 14 [Post 16] Upper Sixth 17-18


Private schools in England and Wales generally still refer to years 7-11 as 1st-5th Form, or alternatively privates schools refer to Year 7 as IIIrds (Thirds), Y8 as LIV (Lower Four), Y9 as UIV (Upper Four), Y10 as LV (Lower Fifth), Y11 as UV (Upper Fifth) and then Sixth-Form.

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

Education in England
Education in England
Education in England is overseen by the Department for Education and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools at a regional level....

, Wales
Education in Wales
Education in Wales differs in certain respects from education elsewhere in the United Kingdom. For example, a significant number of students all over Wales are educated either wholly or largely through the medium of Welsh: in 2008/09, 22 per cent of classes in maintained primary schools used Welsh...

, Northern Ireland
Education in Northern Ireland
Education in Northern Ireland differs slightly from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom, though it is more similar to that used in England and Wales than it is to Scotland. A child's age on 1 July determines the point of entry into the relevant stage of education unlike England and Wales...



In England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, Wales
Wales
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

 and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

, students usually transfer from primary school straight to secondary school at age 11. In a few parts of the UK there are middle school
Middle school
Middle School and Junior High School are levels of schooling between elementary and high schools. Most school systems use one term or the other, not both. The terms are not interchangeable...

s for ages 9 to 13 (similar to American middle schools), and upper school
Upper school
Upper Schools tend to be schools within secondary education. Outside England, the term normally refers to a section of a larger school. There is some variation in the use of the term in England.-State Maintained Schools:...

s for ages 13–18. A handful of 8-12 middle schools, an 12-16 or 18 secondary schools still exist. These schools were first introduced in September 1968, and the number rose dramatically during the 1970s, but the number of such schools has declined since the mid 1980s.

It is uncommon, but sometimes secondary schools (particularly in South West Wales) can also be split into 'Upper' (ages 13–16) and 'Lower' secondary schools (ages 11–13).

Education is compulsory up until the end of year 11 (the last Friday in June in the academic year a person turns 16), and schooling can continue for a further two years after that. Traditionally the five years of compulsory secondary schooling from ages 11 to 16 were known as "first year" through to "fifth year," (and still are in the private sector) but from September 1990 these years were renumbered Year 7 through to Year 11 (Year 8 to Year 12 in Northern Ireland) with the coming of the National Curriculum.

After Year 11 a student can opt to remain at school, transfer to a college
College
A college is an educational institution or a constituent part of an educational institution. Usage varies in English-speaking nations...

, or to leave education and seek work or to start an apprenticeship
Apprenticeship
Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. Apprentices or protégés build their careers from apprenticeships...

. Those who stay at school enter Years 12 and 13 (Years 13 and 14 in Northern Ireland). These years are traditionally known as the Sixth Form
Sixth form
In the education systems of England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, and of Commonwealth West Indian countries such as Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Belize, Jamaica and Malta, the sixth form is the final two years of secondary education, where students, usually sixteen to eighteen years of age,...

 ("Lower Sixth" and "Upper Sixth"), and require students to specialise in three to five subjects for their A Levels. In ever-increasing numbers since the 1990s some students also undertake more vocational courses at college such as a BTEC
Business And Technology Education Council (BTEC)
The Business and Technology Education Council is the British body which awards vocational qualifications. Such qualifications are commonly referred to as "BTECs"....

 or other such qualification.

This is an unusually specialised curriculum for this age group by international standards, and recently some moves have been made to increase the number of subjects studied. After attaining the relevant A Level qualifications the student can enter university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

.

Scotland

In Scotland, students transfer from primary to secondary education at either 11 or 12 years old. Pupils usually attend the same secondary school as their peers, as all secondaries have 'intake primaries'. Pupils either attend a Roman Catholic, or non-denominational school according to their or more commonly their parents' beliefs. Pupils in Scotland attend the same secondary school throughout their education; there are no sixth-form colleges in Scotland.

The first and second years of secondary school (abbreviated to S1 and S2) is a continuation of the 5-14 curriculum started in primary school. After which students choose which subjects they wish to study with certain compulsory subjects such as English and Mathematics for S3 and S4. These are called Standard Grades, but some schools use Intermediates which take two years to complete with an exam at the end of S4. After Standard Grades/Intermediates, some students leave to gain employment or attend further education colleges, however nowadays most students study for Highers, of which five are usually studied. These take a year to complete. After which some students decide to apply for university or stay on for 6th year, where other Highers are gained, or Advanced Highers are studied. Due to the nature of schooling in Scotland, undergraduate honours degree programmes are four years long as matriculation is normally at the completion of highers in S5 (age 16-17), which compares with three years for the rest of the UK. As well as instruction through the English language education Gaelic medium education is also available throughout Scotland.

Australia

School is compulsory in Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 between the ages of five/six-fifteen/sixteen or seventeen, depending on the state, with, in recent years, over three-quarters of people staying on until their thirteenth year in school. Government schools educate about two-thirds of Australian students, with the other third in independent schools, a proportion which is rising in many parts of Australia. Government schools are free although most schools charge what are known as "voluntary" contributions, while independent schools, both religious and secular, charge fees. Regardless of what whether a school is government or independent, it is required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks. Most school students, be they in government or independent school, usually wear uniforms, although there are varying expectations and a few school exceptions.

Each State and Territories has its own format of Year 12 Matriculation:
  • Australian Capital Territory: ACT Year 12 Certificate
  • South Australia: South Australian Matriculation / South Australian Certificate of Education
    South Australian Certificate of Education
    The South Australian Certificate of Education is awarded to students who have successfully completed their senior secondary schooling in the state of South Australia....

     (SAM/SACE)
  • Northern Territory: Senior Secondary Studies Certificate / Northern Territory Certificate of Education
    Northern Territory Certificate of Education
    The Northern Territory Certificate of Education is the credential awarded to High School students who successfully complete senior high school level studies in the Northern Territory, Australia.-The NTCE structure:...

     (NTCE)
  • Queensland: Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE)
  • New South Wales: Higher School Certificate (HSC)
  • Tasmania: Tasmanian Certificate of Education
    Tasmanian Certificate of Education
    The Tasmanian Certificate of Education, or TCE, is the main credential awarded to secondary school students who successfully complete senior high school level studies in Tasmania, Australia...

     (TCE)
  • Victoria: Victorian Certificate of Education
    Victorian Certificate of Education
    The Victorian Certificate of Education or VCE is the credential awarded to secondary school students who successfully complete high school level studies in the state of Victoria, Australia. Study for the VCE is usually completed over two years, but it can be spread over a longer period in some cases...

     (VCE) or Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning
    Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning
    The Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning is a 'hands-on' option for students in Years 11 and 12 in Victoria, Australia.The VCAL gives students practical work-related experience, as well as literacy and numeracy skills and the opportunity to build personal skills that are important for life...

     (VCAL)
  • Western Australia: Western Australian Certificate of Education
    Western Australian Certificate of Education
    The Western Australian Certificate of Education is the credential given to students who have completed Year 11 and Year 12 of their secondary schooling in the state of Western Australia, Australia, and is intended to become the Western Australian certificate within the Australian Certificate of...

      (WACE)

Brazil

In Brazil, high school is officially called Ensino Médio (formerly Segundo Grau) and is also informally known as colegial. It is the last phase to basic education. Brazilian high school lasts 3 years, attempting to deepen what students have learned in the Ensino Fundamental. Brazilian high school students are referenced by their year – 1st, 2nd and 3rd years.

Unlike other countries, Brazilian students don't have a final test to conclude studies. Their approval depends only on their final grade on each subject. Each university elaborates its own test to select new students – this test, the
vestibular
Vestibular
The Vestibular is a competitive examination and is the primary and widespread system used by Brazilian universities to select their students. The Vestibular usually takes place from November to January, right before the start of school year in February or March, although certain universities hold...

, generally happens once a year. Enem
Enem (exam)
ENEM is a non-mandatory Brazilian national exam, which evaluates high school education in Brazil. The test is utilized as a stardard university entrance qualification test...

, a non-mandatory national exam, evaluates high school students in Brazil and is used to rank both private and public schools.

The best scores in vestibular and in Enem and the best universities are concentrated on the Southern region of the country, mainly in the states of São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

, Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

, Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais is one of the 26 states of Brazil, of which it is the second most populous, the third richest, and the fourth largest in area. Minas Gerais is the Brazilian state with the largest number of Presidents of Brazil, the current one, Dilma Rousseff, being one of them. The capital is the...

, Espírito Santo
Espírito Santo
Espírito Santo is one of the states of southeastern Brazil, often referred to by the abbreviation "ES". Its capital is Vitória and the largest city is Vila Velha. The name of the state means literally "holy spirit" after the Holy Ghost of Christianity...

, Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

, Santa Catarina
Santa Catarina (state)
Santa Catarina is a state in southern Brazil with one of the highest standards of living in Latin America. Its capital is Florianópolis, which mostly lies on the Santa Catarina Island. Neighbouring states are Rio Grande do Sul to the south and Paraná to the north. It is bounded on the east by...

 and Paraná
Paraná (state)
Paraná is one of the states of Brazil, located in the South of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the Misiones Province of Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and the republic of Paraguay,...

, and in the Federal District
Brazilian Federal District
The Federal District is set apart for Brasília, the capital of Brazil. Located in a region called Planalto Central, or Central Plateau, the Federal District is divided in 29 administrative regions. Brasilia - place where the three branches of the Federal Government are located - is the main...

. The lack of funds and historical and social problems contribute to poor attendance from the students, especially those in public schools. Nevertheless, some are national models, such as the Colégio Pedro II, named after the 19th century emperor
Pedro II of Brazil
Dom Pedro II , nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the seventh child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of...

.

Private establishments, on the other hand, may be recognized as academically excellent or merely as investments in social networking. Schedules vary from school to school. The subjects taught, however, are conceived by the Ministério da Educação (Ministry of Education) which emphasises the hard sciences.

The educational year begins in February and finishes in December; institutions are permitted to define their own actual start and end dates. They must, however, provide at least 200 days of classes per year.

Universities are also divided into public and private. At this level, public ones are considered excellent and their vestibular
Vestibular
The Vestibular is a competitive examination and is the primary and widespread system used by Brazilian universities to select their students. The Vestibular usually takes place from November to January, right before the start of school year in February or March, although certain universities hold...

 exam is highly competitive (the exam for med school in UNICAMP may hit 300 candidates per place). For better preparation, therefore, many students take a curso pré-vestibular (university preparation course), which is offered by large private high schools.

Hong Kong

secondary school (中學, Cantonese
Cantonese
Cantonese is a dialect spoken primarily in south China.Cantonese may also refer to:* Yue Chinese, the Chinese language that includes Cantonese* Cantonese cuisine, the cuisine of Guangdong province...

:
jung1 hok6), college (書院)

Secondary education in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 is largely based on the British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 education system. Secondary school starts in the seventh year, or Form One, of formal education, after Primary Six. Students normally spend five years in secondary schools, of which the first three years (Forms One to Three) are compulsory like primary education
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

. Forms Four and Five students prepare for the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE
Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination
The Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination was a standardized examination between 1974 and 2011 after most local students’ five-year secondary education, conducted by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority . The examination will be discontinued in 2012...

), which takes place after Form Five. Students obtaining a satisfactory grade will be promoted to Form Six. They then prepare for the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination (HKALE
Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination
The Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination , or more commonly known as the A-level, conducted by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority , is normally taken by senior students at the end of their matriculation in Hong Kong. In 2010, 39,772 candidates entered for the examination...

) (colloquially the A-levels
Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination
The Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination , or more commonly known as the A-level, conducted by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority , is normally taken by senior students at the end of their matriculation in Hong Kong. In 2010, 39,772 candidates entered for the examination...

), which is to be taken after Form Seven. The HKALE and HKCEE results will be considered by universities for admission. Some secondary schools in Hong Kong are called 'colleges'. In some schools, Form Six and Form Seven are also called Lower Six and Upper Six respectively.

The HKCEE is equivalent to the British GCSE and HKALE is equivalent to the British A-level.

As of October 2004, there has been heated discussion on proposed changes in the education system, which includes (amongst others) reduction of the duration of secondary education from seven years to six years, and merging the two exams HKCEE and HKALE into one exam, Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education
Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education
The Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education will be the only public exam in the new 3-3-4 education system to be introduced in Hong Kong secondary schools; it will be a replacement of the existing Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination and Hong Kong Advanced Level Examination and be the...

 (HKDSE). The proposed changes will take effect in 2009.

The secondary education system of Hong Kong, just as other East Asian countries, is examination-oriented. This does the strong but controversial post-school tutorial education industry
Cram schools in Hong Kong
Cram schools in Hong Kong are referred to as Tutorial schools . According to the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong, a third of secondary school students went for private tutoring in the 2004-05 school year, spending a total of HK$18.9 million per month...

a favor.

India

In India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Before The Indian Constitutional Amendment in 2002, Article 45 (Articles 36 - 51 are on Directive-Principles of State Policy) of the Constitution was-
“Art.45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children.—The State shall endeavour to provide,within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.”
But that Constitutional obligation was time and again deferred - first to 1970 and then to 1980,1990
and 2000. The 10th Five-Year Plan visualizes that India will achieve the Universal Elementary
Education by 2007. However, the Union Human Resource Development Minister announced in
2001 that India will achieve this target only by 2010.
(Ninety-third Amendment) Bill, 2002, renumbered as the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act,
2002, which was passed on 12 Dec 2002 stated:
An Act further to amend the Constitution of India. .
BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-third Year of the Republic of India as follows:-
1. Short title and commencement.
(1) This Act may be called the Constitution (Eighty-sixth
Amendment) Act, 2002.
(2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the
Official Gazette, appoint.
2. Insertion of new article 21A.- After article 21 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely
Right to education.-
"Art.21A. The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to
fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.".
3. Substitution of new article for article 45.- For article 45 of the Constitution, the following article
shall be substituted, namely:-
Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.
"Art.45. The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until
they complete the age of six years.".
4. Amendment of article 51A.

Iraq

  • Secondary Education in Iraq comprises TWO stages, each ending in Baccalaureate Examination
    • Intermediate
      Intermediate
      Intermediate means "occurring between two extremes, or in the middle of a range". It comes from the Latin word 'intermedia' which literally means 'among the middle' and may refer to:...

      three years
    • Preparatory three years.
  • No student is admitted to college in Iraq before passing the Baccalaureate Examination held by this Ministry for Preparatory School
    Preparatory school (UK)
    In English language usage in the former British Empire, the present-day Commonwealth, a preparatory school is an independent school preparing children up to the age of eleven or thirteen for entry into fee-paying, secondary independent schools, some of which are known as public schools...

    s.
  • The maximum obtainable mark is 100, the minimum passing mark is 50.

Malaysia

The national secondary education in Malaysia, modelled after the (historical) English system, consists of 5 school years referred to as "forms" (tingkatan in Malay). Students begin attending secondary schools in the year they turn 13, after sitting for the UPSR (Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah
Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah
Primary School Evaluation Test, also known as Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah , is a national examination taken by all students in Malaysia at the end of their sixth year in primary school before they leave for secondary school...

 or Primary School Assessment Examination) at the end of primary school. Students failing the academic requirement in UPSR are required to read an additional year called the Remove (
Peralihan) year before they are allowed to proceed to Form 1. Automatic promotion up to Form 5 has been in place since 1996. Some secondary schools offer an additional two years known as sixth form, divided into lower sixth and upper sixth.
Forms 1 to 3 are known as Lower Secondary (
Menengah Rendah), while Forms 4 and 5 are known as Upper Secondary (Menengah Tinggi). Streaming
Tracking (education)
Tracking is separating pupils by academic ability into groups for all subjects or certain classes and curriculum within a school. It may be referred as streaming or phasing in certain schools. In a tracking system, the entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the...

 into Art, Science or Commerce streams is done at the beginning of the Upper Secondary stage. Students sit for a standardised test at the end of both stages; Penilaian Menengah Rendah
Penilaian Menengah Rendah
Penilaian Menengah Rendah is a Malaysian public examination taken by all Form Three students in both government and private schools throughout the country. It was formerly known as Sijil Rendah Pelajaran...

 (PMR) for Lower Secondary, and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia
Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia
The Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia , or the Malaysian Certificate of Education, is a national examination taken by all fifth-year secondary school students in Malaysia...

 (SPM, equivalent to the O-Level examination) for Upper Secondary. At the end of the sixth form, students sit for the Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia or the Malaysian Higher School Certificate (equivalent to the A levels). The language of instruction in national secondary schools is Malay except for language, science and mathematics subjects. Science and mathematics subjects are taught in English since 2003, but Malay will be reintroduced in stages from 2012.

Mexico

Lower-secondary education (3 years) is considered part of basic education in Mexico and is compulsory. For entry, students are required to have successfully completed six years of primary education. The next stage (3 years), Upper-Secondary Education or Preparation School ("Preparatoria") is non-compulsory and has three pathways: General upper-secondary, Technical professional education, and Technological upper-secondary, as it has been called "Bachillerato" it has been frequently confused with the U.S.A. "Bachelors Level" which is called "Licenciatura o Ingeniería" in Latin American countries (well not all, as in Venezuela, the U.S.A. Bachelor´s Level is refereed as "Doctor".

New Zealand

In New Zealand students attend secondary school from the ages from about 13 to 18. Formerly known as Forms 3 to 7, these grades are now known as Years 9 to 13. Schooling is compulsory until the student's 15th (with permission) or 16th birthday. In some areas of the country, secondary school is colloquially known as "college". NCEA
National Certificate of Educational Achievement
The National Certificate of Educational Achievement is, since 2004, the official secondary school qualification in New Zealand.It has three levels, corresponding to the levels within the National Qualifications Framework, and these are generally studied in each of the three final years of...

 is the Government-supported school qualification. New Zealand also has intermediate schools, but these cover the last two years of primary education (years 7 and 8) and are not secondary schools.

Pakistan

Secondary education in Pakistan begins from grade 9 and lasts for four years. Upon completion of grade 10, students are expected to take a standardised test administered by a regional Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (or BISE). Upon successful completion of this examination, they are awarded a Secondary School Certificate
Secondary School Certificate
The Secondary School Certificate, also known as SSC, is a public examination taken by students in Bangladesh, Pakistan and in the states of Tamilnadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Goa in India after successfully completing at least ten years of schooling. It is followed...

 (or SSC). This locally termed as 'matriculation certificate' or 'matric' for short. Students then enter a college and complete grades 11 and 12. Upon completion of grade 12, they again take a standardised test which is also administered by the regional boards. Upon successful completion of this test, students are awarded the Higher Secondary (School) Certificate
Higher Secondary (School) Certificate
The Higher Secondary Certificate, also known as HSC, is a public examination taken by students in Bangladesh, Pakistan and in the states of Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Maharashtra and Goa in India after successfully completing at least twelve years of schooling, that is two years...

 (or HSC). This level of education is also called the F.Sc./F.A. or 'intermediate'. There are many streams students can choose for their 11 and 12 grades, such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities (or social sciences) and commerce. Some technical streams have recently been introduced for grades 11 and 12.

Alternative qualifications in Pakistan are also available but not maintained by the BISE but by other examination board
Examination board
An examination board is an organisation that sets examinations and is responsible for marking them and distributing results. Examination boards have the power to award qualifications, such as SAT scores, to students...

s. Most common alternative is the General Certificate of Education
General Certificate of Education
The General Certificate of Education or GCE is an academic qualification that examination boards in the United Kingdom and a few of the Commonwealth countries, notably Sri Lanka, confer to students. The GCE traditionally comprised two levels: the Ordinary Level and the Advanced Level...

 (or GCE), where SSC and HSC are replaced by Ordinary Level
Ordinary Level
The O-level is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education . It was introduced as part of British educational reform in the 1950s alongside the more in-depth and academically rigorous Advanced Level in England, Wales and Northern Ireland A-level...

 (or O Level) and Advanced Level
Advanced Level
The Advanced Level General Certificate of Education, commonly referred to as an A-level, is a qualification offered by education institutions in England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Cameroon, and the Cayman Islands...

 (or A Level) respectively. Other qualifications include IGCSE which replaces SSC. GCE O Level, IGCSE and GCE AS/A Level are managed by British examination boards of CIE of the Cambridge Assessment and Edexcel
Edexcel
Edexcel, a UK company, is one of England, Wales and Northern Ireland's five main examination boards, and is wholly owned by the private-sector Pearson PLC, a UK-based media and publishing conglomerate. Its name is a portmanteau word derived from the words "educational" and "excellence"...

 of the Pearson PLC
Pearson PLC
Pearson plc is a global media and education company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is both the largest education company and the largest book publisher in the world, with consumer imprints including Penguin, Dorling Kindersley and Ladybird...

. Advanced Placement (or AP) is an alternative option but much less common than GCE or IGCSE. This replaces the secondary school education as 'High School Education' instead. AP exams are monitored by a North American examination board, College Board
College Board
The College Board is a membership association in the United States that was formed in 1900 as the College Entrance Examination Board . It is composed of more than 5,900 schools, colleges, universities and other educational organizations. It sells standardized tests used by academically oriented...

 and can only be given under supervision of centers which are registered with the College Board, unlike GCE O/AS/A Level and IGCSE which can also be given privately.

Paraguay

In Paraguay, the secondary education is called Educación Media. After nine year of Educación Escolar Básica (Primary School), the student can choose to go to either a Bachillerato Técnico (Vocational School) or a Bachillerato Científico (High School), both are part of the Educación Media' system. This two forms of secondary education last three years, and are usually located in the same campus
Campus
A campus is traditionally the land on which a college or university and related institutional buildings are situated. Usually a campus includes libraries, lecture halls, residence halls and park-like settings...

 called Colegio.
The Bachillerato Técnico combine general education with some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and career orientation. Some of the fields are mechanical, electricity, commerce, construction, business administration, etc.

After completing secondary education, one can enter to the universities. It is also possible for a student to choose both Técnico and Científico schooling.

Republic of Macedonia

High school in Republic of Macedonia is called "средно училиште" or "middle school", and the structure is left from the socialists period. Reforms are conducting at the moment, so the education would be appropriate with the most of the leading world countries.That means that there are still many forms. In general there is high school for preparing for every faculty on the university. There are: electro technical high school, mechanical high school, economics high school, pharmaceutical, medical,...and natural sciences and linguistics gymnasium. The high school is attended between the years of 14 and 18.

Russia

There were around 60,000 general education schools in 2007–2008 school year; this number includes ca. 5,000 advanced learning schools specializing in foreign languages, mathematics etc., 2,300 advanced general-purpose schools and 1,800 schools for all categories of disabled children; it does not include vocational technical school
Vocational technical school
Vocational Technical School – "Professionalno-tehnicheskoye uchilishche" are vocational education facilities established in the former Soviet Union to train qualified industrial workers and servicemen...

 and technicum
Technicum
Technicum was a Soviet institute of vocational education. A mass-education facility of "special middle education" category 1 step higher than PTU, but aimed to train low-level industrial managers or specializing in occupations that require skills more advanced than purely manual...

s. Private schools accounted for 0.3% of elementary school enrolment in 2005 and 0.5% in 2005.

According to a 2005 UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 report, 96% of the adult population has completed lower secondary schooling and most of them also have an upper secondary education.

Singapore

Children attend Primary school for the first 6 levels, then secondary schools for the next 4/5 levels, which is followed by either junior college for 2 year courses or centralised institutes for 3-year courses.

Based on results of the Primary School Leaving Examination
Primary School Leaving Examination
The Primary School Leaving Examination is a national examination taken by all students in Singapore near the end of primary six in primary school, which is also their last year in Primary school before they leave for secondary school. It is administered by the Ministry of Education...

 (PSLE), Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

's students undergo secondary education in either the Special(Abolished in 2008), Express, Normal streams or the Integrated Programme (implemented in 2004). Both the Special and Express are 4-year courses leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge
Cambridge
The city of Cambridge is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England. It lies in East Anglia about north of London. Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen – a play on Silicon Valley and the fens surrounding the...

 General Certificate of Education
General Certificate of Education
The General Certificate of Education or GCE is an academic qualification that examination boards in the United Kingdom and a few of the Commonwealth countries, notably Sri Lanka, confer to students. The GCE traditionally comprised two levels: the Ordinary Level and the Advanced Level...

 (GCE) 'Ordinary' - 'O' level examination. The difference between Special and Express is that the former takes higher Mother Tongue, which can be used as a first language in exams instead of the subject "mother tongue" that Express students take. However if some Express students can cope with higher Mother Tongue, they are allowed to used it as a first language in exams too.

The Normal stream is a four-year course leading up to a Singapore-Cambridge GCE "Normal" - "N" level examination, with the possibility of a 5th year followed by a Singapore-Cambridge GCE "Ordinary" - "O" level examination. It is split into "Normal (Academic)" and "Normal (Technical)" where in the latter students take subjects that are technical in nature, such as Design and Technology.

The Integrated Programme (IP) is a 6 year programme offered to the top 10 percent of the cohort to pass through the O level exams, and go straight to the affiliated JC.

After the second year of a secondary school course, students are typically streamed into a wide range of course combinations, making the total number of subject they have to sit for in "O" level six to ten subjects. This includes science (Physics, Biology and Chemistry), humanities (Elective Geography/History, Pure Geography/History, Social Studies, Literature, etc.) and additional mathematics subject at a higher level, or "combined" subject modules.

Some schools have done away with the O level examination, and pupils only sit for the A level examination or the International Baccalaureate at the end of their sixth year (known as Year 6 or Junior College 2).

Co-curricular activities
Co-curricular activity
Co-curricular activities , previously known as Extracurricular Activities are non-academic activities that all Singaporean students must participate in...

 have become compulsory at the Secondary level, where all pupils must participate in at least one core CCA, and participation is graded together with other things like Leadership throughout the four years of Secondary education, in a scoring system. Competitions are organised so that students can have an objective towards to work, and in the case of musical groups, showcase talents.

United States

As part of education
Education in the United States
Education in the United States is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory.Public education is universally available...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, secondary education comprises grades 6, 7, 8, and 9 through 12. This depends on the school district and how it is comprised. Grades 9 through 12 is the most common grade structure for high school.

Vietnam

High school in Vietnam is called Trung hoc pho thong, which mean "Popular Middle School", for children from grade ten to grade twelve (age of 16 to 18). In high school, students have 12 subjects to learn, and all the 12 subjects are compulsory. For each main subject (Literature, Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, Geography and Foreign language), there are two levels of study: Basic and Advanced. Subjects in advanced level will receive more time and intensiveness than the basic ones do. Students are divided into five groups:
  • Basic group: All subjects are in basic level.
  • Group A: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry are in advanced level.
  • Group B: Mathematics, Chemistry and Biology are in advanced level.
  • Group C: Literature, History and Geography are in advanced level.
  • Group D: Mathematics, Literature and Foreign language are in advanced level.

Students will graduate from high school if they have passed Graduation Tests of 6 subjects. If not, they must wait for the next year's tests. Students must graduate from high school to attend a university or college.

Names for secondary education by country

  • Argentina
    Education in Argentina
    Education in Argentina is a responsibility shared by the national government, the provinces and federal district and private institutions, though basic guidelines have historically been set by the Ministry of Education...

    : Secundaria or Polimodal, Escuela secundaria
  • Australia
    Education in Australia
    Education in Australia is primarily the responsibility of the states and territories. Each state or territory government provides funding and regulates the public and private schools within its governing area. The federal government helps fund the public universities, but is not involved in setting...

    : Senior school, Secondary college
  • Austria
    Education in Austria
    The Republic of Austria has a free and public school system, and nine years of education are mandatory. Schools offer a series of vocational-technical and university preparatory tracks involving one to four additional years of education beyond the minimum mandatory level. The legal basis for...

    : Gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

     (Ober- & Unterstufe), Hauptschule
    Hauptschule
    A Hauptschule is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education according to the International Standard Classification of Education...

    , "Höhere Bundeslehranstalt (HBLA), Höhere Technische Lehranstalt
    Höhere Technische Lehranstalt
    Höhere Technische Lehranstalten , also called Höhere Technische Bundeslehranstalten or Höhere Technische Bundeslehr- und Versuchsanstalten are technology and crafts orientated higher colleges in Austria...

     (HTL)
  • Azərbaycan
    Education in Azerbaijan
    Education system in Azerbaijan is regulated by the Ministry of Education of Azerbaijan.In the pre-Soviet period, Azerbaijani education included intensive Islamic religious training that commenced in early childhood. Beginning at roughly age five and sometimes continuing until age twenty, children...

    : Orta Məktəb
  • Bahamas, The
    Education in the Bahamas
    Education in the Bahamas is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16. As of 2003, the school attendance rate was 92% and the literacy rate was 95.5%. The government fully operates 158 of the 210 primary and secondary schools in The Bahamas. The other 52 schools are privately operated...

    : Junior High (grades 7-9), Senior High (grades 10-12)
  • Belgium
    Education in Belgium
    Education in Belgium is regulated and for the larger part financed by one of the three communities: Flemish, French and German-speaking. The national legislator only kept a very few, minimal competences for education as the age for mandatory schooling, and, indirectly, the financing of the...

    : middelbare school, secundair onderwijs, humaniora, école secondaire, humanités
  • Bolivia
    Education in Bolivia
    Education in Bolivia, as in many other areas of Bolivian life, has a divide between Bolivia's rural and urban areas. Rural illiteracy levels remain high, even as the rest ofthe country becomes increasingly literate...

    : Educación Primaria Superior (grades 6-8) and Educación Secundaria, (grades 9-12)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    )
  • Brazil
    Education in Brazil
    Education in Brazil is regulated by the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Education, which defines the guiding principles for the organization of education programs...

    : Ensino Médio (officially), Colegial (informally), Segundo Grau (formerly);
  • Bulgaria
    Education in Bulgaria
    Education in Bulgaria is overseen by the Ministry of Education and Science. Full-time education is mandatory for all children aged between 7 and 16. 6-year old children can be enrolled at school at their parents' discretion. Education at state-owned schools is free of charge, except for the higher...

    : Гимназия (gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    ), Лицей (Lyceum
    Lyceum
    The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.-History:...

    )
  • Chile
    Education in Chile
    Education in Chile is divided in preschool, primary school, secondary school, and technical or higher education .- Levels of education :The levels of education in Chile are:...

    : Enseñanza Media.
  • Colombia
    Education in Colombia
    Education in Colombia includes nursery school, elementary school, high school, technical instruction and university education. A typical colombian studies 11 years and attempts to complete the secondary level of education.- History :...

    : Bachillerato, Segunda Enseñanza(literally Second Learning)
  • People's Republic of China (China)
    Education in the People's Republic of China
    Education in the People's Republic of China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education. All citizens must attend school for at least nine years. The government provides primary education for six years, starting at age six or seven, followed by six years of secondary...

    : zhong xue (中学; literally, middle school), consisting of chu zhong (初中; literally beginning middle) from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong (高中; literally high middle) from grades 10 to 12
  • Republic of China
    Education in the Republic of China
    The educational system in Taiwan is the responsibility of the Ministry of Education of Republic of China . The system in the ROC produces pupils with some of the highest test scores in the world, especially in mathematics and science. It has been criticised for placing excessive pressure on...

     (Taiwan
    Taiwan
    Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

    ): Junior High School(國民中學), Senior High School(高級中學), Vocational High School(高級職業中學), Military School(軍校), and Complete High School(完全中學).
  • Canada
    Education in Canada
    Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by...

    : high school
    High school
    High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

    , secondary school, école secondaire, lycée, collegiate institute
    Collegiate institute
    A collegiate institute is a term that can refer to a school either of secondary education or of higher education. It has a complex definition that varies regionally, and has been largely unused outside of Canada since the early 20th century.-Canada:...

  • Croatia
    Education in Croatia
    Education in Croatia is defined as a constitutional right: the Constitution of Croatia section 65 defines primary education as mandatory and free, while secondary and higher education as equally available to all...

    : srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    )
  • Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο(gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    ), Ενιαίο Λύκειο (Lyceum
    Lyceum
    The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.-History:...

    )
  • Czech Republic: střední škola (literally middle school), gymnázium (gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    ), střední odborné učiliště
  • Denmark
    Education in Denmark
    Education in Denmark is compulsory for children below 15 or 16. The school years up to the age of fifteen/sixteen are known as Folkeskole . About 82% of young people take further education in addition to this. Government-funded education is usually free of charge and open to all...

    : gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

  • Estonia
    Education in Estonia
    The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13–14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded. The first primer in the Estonian language was published in 1575. The oldest university is the University of Tartu which was established by the Swedish king...

    : Gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    , Lyceum
    Lyceum
    The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.-History:...

  • Finland
    Education in Finland
    The Finnish education system is an egalitarian Nordic system, with no tuition fees and with free meals served to full-time students. The present Finnish education system consists of well-funded and carefully thought out daycare programs and a one-year "pre-school" ; a nine-year compulsory basic...

    : lukio (Finn.
    Finnish language
    Finnish is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland Primarily for use by restaurant menus and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a...

    ) gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    (Swed.)
  • France
    Secondary education in France
    In France, secondary education is in two stages:* collèges cater for the first four years of secondary education from the ages of 11 to 14...

    : collège (junior), lycée (senior)
  • Germany
    Education in Germany
    The responsibility for the German education system lies primarily with the states while the federal government plays only a minor role. Optional Kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years of age, after which school attendance is compulsory, in most cases for...

    : Gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    , Gesamtschule, Realschule
    Realschule
    The Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. It has also existed in Croatia , Denmark , Sweden , Hungary and in the Russian Empire .-History:The Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and...

    , Hauptschule
    Hauptschule
    A Hauptschule is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education according to the International Standard Classification of Education...

    , Fachoberschule
  • Greece
    Education in Greece
    The Greek educational system is mainly divided into three levels, namely primary, secondary and tertiary, with an additional post-secondary level providing vocational training. Primary education is divided into kindergarten lasting one or two years, and primary school spanning six years...

    : Γυμνάσιο (3 years)(gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    ), Γενικό Λύκειο (3 years) (~1996,2006~present), Ενιαίο Λύκειο (3 years), (1997~2006) (Lyceum
    Lyceum
    The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies between countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.-History:...

    )
  • Hong Kong
    Education in Hong Kong
    Education in Hong Kong has a similar system to that of the United Kingdom, in particular the English education system of Hong Kong was modernised by the British in 1861. The system is often described as extremely competitive by global standards....

    : Secondary school(中學)
  • Hungary
    Education in Hungary
    -The social environment of education:The decline of Hungary's population that started in 1981 has also continued in recent years. According to the 2001 census, the population of Hungary was 10,198,000, about half a million less than the figure of twenty years earlier. By 2005 the population dropped...

    : gimnázium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    (grammar school), középiskola (comprehensive school, lit. "middle-school"), szakközépiskola (vocational secondary school, lit. "specified middle-school")
  • Iceland
    Iceland
    Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

    : Menntaskóli, Framhaldskóli.
  • India
    Education in India
    Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. Child education is compulsory. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the world...

    : secondary school
  • Indonesia
    Education in Indonesia
    Education in Indonesia is the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education of Indonesia and the Ministry of Religious Affairs of Indonesia...

    : Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) (lit. "Upper Middle School"), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) (lit. "First Middle School"), Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) (vocational school, lit. "Middle Vocational School"),
  • Italy
    Education in Italy
    Education in Italy is compulsory from 6 to 15/16 years of age, and is divided into five stages: kindergarten , primary school , lower secondary school , upper secondary school and university...

    : scuola secondaria di primo grado (3 years) + scuola secondaria di secondo grado (5 years): Liceo and Istituto Tecnico.
  • Japan
    Secondary education in Japan
    Secondary education in Japan is split into middle schools which cover the seventh through ninth grades, and high schools which mostly cover grades ten through twelve...

    : chūgakkō (中学校; literally middle school), kōtōgakkō (高等学校; literally high school
    High school
    High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

    ), chūtōkyōikugakkō (中等教育学校; Secondary School) - In the pre-Meiji
    Meiji period
    The , also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan.- Meiji Restoration and the emperor :...

     educational system, the equivalent was called "chūsei"
  • Liechtenstein: gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

  • Lithuania
    Education in Lithuania
    Education in Lithuania is free of charge and compulsory from the age of 6 or 7 to 16 years, as stated in the national Law on Education. In 1996, the gross primary enrollment rate was 98 percent. Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Lithuania as of 2001...

    : vidurinė mokykla (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    )
  • Malaysia
    Education in Malaysia
    Education in Malaysia is overseen by two government ministries. The Ministry of Education handles matters pertaining to pre-school, primary school, secondary school and post-secondary school. Matters regarding tertiary education are dealt with by the Ministry of Higher Education...

    : secondary school or sekolah menengah, sometimes high school
    High school
    High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

    is used
  • Malta
    Education in Malta
    Education in Malta is compulsory through age sixteen and is offered through three different providers: the state, the church and the private sector. The state is responsible for promoting education and instruction and ensuring universal access to education for all Maltese citizens the existence of...

    : skola sekondarja or secondary school
  • Mexico
    Education in Mexico
    Education in Mexico is regulated by the Secretariat of Public Education . Education standards are set by this Ministry at all levels except in "autonomous" universities chartered by the government...

    : Educación secundaria y preparatoria
  • Netherlands
    Education in the Netherlands
    Education in the Netherlands is characterized by division: education is orientated toward the needs and background of the pupil. Education is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are divided in streams for different educational levels...

    : middelbare school or voortgezet onderwijs
  • New Zealand
    Education in New Zealand
    Education in New Zealand follows the three-tier model which includes primary schools, followed by secondary schools and tertiary education at universities and/or polytechs....

    : high school, college or secondary school
  • Norway
    Education in Norway
    Education in Norway is mandatory for all children aged 6–16. The school year in Norway runs from mid August to late June the following year. The Christmas holiday from mid December to early January historically divides the Norwegian school year into two terms...

    : Videregående skole
  • Paraguay
    Education in Paraguay
    Historically, Paraguay has not valued education highly. During Alfredo Stroessner Mattiauda’s presidency , education initiatives took a backseat to economic concerns and the task of controlling political adversaries, and teacher salaries fell to extremely low levels. The constitution of 1992...

    : Educación Media
  • Peru
    Education in Peru
    Education in Peru is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, which is in charge of formulating, implementing and supervising the national educational policy. According to the Constitution, education is compulsory and free in public schools for the initial, primary and secondary levels...

    : Educación Secundaria or Escuela Secundaria
  • Philippines: High School or Mataas na Paaralan
  • Poland
    Education in Poland
    Since changes made in 2009 Education in Poland starts at the age of five or six for the 0 class and six or seven years in the 1st class of primary school . It is compulsory that children do one year of formal education before entering 1st class at no later than 7 years of age...

    : gimnazjum (grades 7-9), liceum (grades 10-12)
  • Portugal
    Education in Portugal
    Education in Portugal is regulated by the State through two ministries - the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education. There are a system of public education and also many private schools at all levels of education...

    : 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (5th and 6th grades), 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (7th to 9th grades), and Ensino Secundário, Liceu (10th to 12th grades)
  • Romania
    Education in Romania
    According to the Law on Education adopted in 1995, the Romanian Educational System is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Research . Each level has its own form of organization and is subject to different legislation. Kindergarten is optional between 3 and 6 years old...

    : gimnaziu (grades 5-8), liceu (grades 9-12)
  • Russia
    Education in Russia
    Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the federal Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. In 2004 state spending for education amounted to 3.6% of...

    : средняя школа (literally middle school)
  • Serbia
    Education in Serbia
    Education in Serbia is divided in preschool, primary school, secondary school, and higher education . It is regulated by the Ministry of Education.-Current system of education:...

    : gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    (4 years), professional
    Professional
    A professional is a person who is paid to undertake a specialised set of tasks and to complete them for a fee. The traditional professions were doctors, lawyers, clergymen, and commissioned military officers. Today, the term is applied to estate agents, surveyors , environmental scientists,...

     schools (4 years), vocational school
    Vocational school
    A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

    s (3 years)
  • South Korea
    Education in South Korea
    Education in South Korea is viewed as being crucial for success and competition is consequently very heated and fierce. A centralized administration oversees the process for the education of children from kindergarten to the third and final year of high school. Mathematics, science, Korean, social...

    : jung hakkyo (중학교; literally middle school), and godeung hakkyo (고등학교; literally high-rank school)
  • Spain
    Education in Spain
    The current system of education in Spain is known as LOE after the Ley Orgánica de Educación, or Fundamental Law of Education. Education in Spain is compulsory, and free from 6 to 16 years of age, supported by the Government in each Region....

    : Educación secundaria, composed of two cycles: E.S.O. (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, compulsory secondary education, 4 years, 7th to 10th grade) and Bachillerato (non-compulsory secondary education, 2 years, 11th and 12th grade); formerly, primary education comprised up to the 8th grade and the secondary education was composed of two non-compulsory cycles: B.U.P. (Bachillerato Unificado Polivalente, 3 years, 9th to 11th grade) and C.O.U. (Curso de Orientación Universitaria, 1 year, 12th grade)
  • Sweden
    Education in Sweden
    Education in Sweden is mandatory for all children from year 1 to year 9 - generally from the year of the child’s seventh birthday to the year of the child’s 16th...

    : gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

  • Switzerland
    Education in Switzerland
    The education system in Switzerland is very diverse, because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system mainly to the cantons...

    : gymnasium
    Gymnasium (school)
    A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

    , secondary school
    Secondary school
    Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place...

    , collège
    or lycée
  • Turkiye
    Education in Turkey
    Education in Turkey is governed by a national system which was established in accordance with the Atatürk Reforms after the Turkish War of Independence...

    : Lise
  • United Kingdom: Secondary School
    Secondary school
    Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place...

    (May be referred to as High School
    High school
    High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

    )
  • Ukraine
    Education in Ukraine
    There is nearly 100% literacy in Ukraine.11 years of schooling are mandatory. As a rule, schooling begins at the age of 6..According to Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Volodymyr Lytvyn the amount of budget financing for the sphere of education reached about 6% of Ukraine's GDP in November...

    : середня освіта (transliteration: serednya osvita)
  • United States
    Secondary education in the United States
    In most jurisdictions, secondary education in the United States refers to the last six or seven years of statutory formal education. Secondary education is generally split between junior high school or middle school, usually beginning with sixth or seventh grade , and high school, beginning with...

    : high school
    High school
    High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

    (usually grades 9–12 but sometimes 10–12, it is also called senior high school) is always considered secondary education; junior high school or middle school
    Middle school
    Middle School and Junior High School are levels of schooling between elementary and high schools. Most school systems use one term or the other, not both. The terms are not interchangeable...

    (6–8, 7–8, 6–9, 7–9, or other variations) are sometimes considered secondary education.
  • Uruguay
    Education in Uruguay
    Education in Uruguay is compulsory for a total of nine years, beginning at the primary level, and is free from the pre-primary through the university level. In 1996, the gross primary enrollment rate was 111.7 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 92.9 percent...

    : Liceo (3 years of compulsory education - Ciclo Básico -, and 3 years of specialitation into: humanitites-(law or economics), sciences-(engineering or architecture) or biology-(medicine or agronomy) - Bachillerato diversificado-).

See also


External links

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